LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Abu Guba, MN
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
This thesis investigates the phonological adaptation of English loanwords in Ammani Arabic (AA) in order to enhance our understanding of phonological theory and of AA phonology. The thesis also serves as documentation of the dialect in a state of flux. In contrast to previous studies, this study accounts for the phonological adaptation of loanwords not only at the segmental level, but also at the suprasegmental/prosodic level, adopting moraic theory within an OT framework. To achieve this, a corpus of 407 established English loanwords are analysed as they are pronounced by 12 AA monolingual native speakers.\ud The study reveals that the adaptation process is mainly phonological, albeit informed by phonetics and other linguistic factors. AA native phonology accounts for the numerous modifications that English loanwords undergo. It is shown that the adaptation process is geared towards unmarkedness in that faithfulness to the source input is violated in order to render the output unmarked. Unmarked structures in the adaptation process may arise even though their marked counterparts are equally attested in AA native phonology, giving rise to the Emergence of the Unmarked.\ud With respect to segmental adaptation, results show that AA maps source segments onto their phonologically closest AA phonemes. However, source allophonic features that are contrastive in AA are faithfully mapped onto their AA phonemic counterparts. For syllabic adaptation, loanwords undergo a number of phonological processes, e.g. epenthesis and gemination, to accommodate ill-formed source syllables into AA phonotactic structure. The study shows that English source stress is mostly neglected in the adaptation process with stress assigned to the adapted phonological string according to AA stress constraints.\ud The introduction of English loanwords has given rise to new data that invoked hidden phonological constraints that would have remained latent in AA phonology. This study has resulted in a better understanding of AA phonology by shedding light on various AA phonological aspects chief among which are gemination, stress assignment constraints, and syllable structure.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abd Al-Jaleel, A. (2010). ʔilm al- saraf al- sawti (Morphophonology). Amman: Safaa Press.
    • Abd-El-Jawad, H. R. (1986). The emergence of an urban dialect in the Jordanian urban centres. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 61(1), 53- 64.
    • Abdullah, A., & Daffar, A. (2006). English loan words in the spoken Arabic of the southern part of Iraq: A sociolinguistic study. Journal of the College of Arts. University of Basrah, 41, 19-36
    • Abdo, D. (l969). Stress and Arabic phonology. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Illinois.
    • Abu-Abbas, K. H. (2003). Topics in the phonology of Jordanian Arabic. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Kansas.
    • Abu-Mansour, M. (1996). Voice as a privative feature: Assimilation in Arabic. In M. Eid (Ed.), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics VIII: Papers from the eighth annual symposium on Arabic Linguistics (pp. 201-231). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    • Abu-Mathkour, H. (n.d.). Morphological analysis of Jordanian colloquial Arabic loanwords: The case of cars and transportation. Retrieved Jan 2013 from http://www.academia.edu/870848/
    • Abu-Rakhieh, B. A. (2009). The phonology of Ma'ani Arabic: Stratal or parallel OT. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Essex.
    • Abu-Salim, I. (1980). Epenthesis and geminate consonants in Palestinian Arabic. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 10(2), 1-11.
    • _____. (1982). A reanalysis of some aspects of Palestinian Arabic: A metrical approach. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Illinois.
    • _____. (1987). Vowel harmony in Palestinian Arabic: A metrical perspective. Journal of Linguistics, 23(01), 1-24.
    • Adler, A. N. (2006). Faithfulness and perception in loanword adaptation: A case study from Hawaiian. Lingua, 116(7), 1024-1045.
    • Adra, M. A. (1999). Identity effects and opacity in Syrian Arabic: An Optimality Theory analysis (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign.
    • Al-Absi, K. (2011). Al-Nabir fi Al-ʕarabia (stress in Arabic). Irbid: Modern Books' World.
    • Al-Ani, S. (1970). Arabic Phonology: An acoustical and physiological investigation. The Hague: Mouton.
    • ____. (1992). Stress variation of the construct phrase in Arabic: A spectrographic analysis. Anthropological Linguistics, 34, 258-276.
    • Al-Bay, N. (2001). Some aspects of a Palestinian Arabic variant and Standard English stress patterns: A metrical approach. (MA thesis), University of Jordan.
    • Al-Jarrah, R. (2002). An optimality-theoretic analysis of stress in the English of native Arabic speakers. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Ball State University.
    • Al-Khalil, T. (1983). Linguistic analysis of the English loanwords in journalistic Arabic as read by an educated native speaker of Arabic. (MA Thesis), Yarmouk University. Jordan.
    • Al-Khatib, M. A. A. (1988). Sociolinguistic change in an expanding urban context: A case study of Irbid city, Jordan. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Durham.
    • Al-Khouli, M. (1990). Al-aswaat al-lughawyya. (Language sounds). Amman: Dar Al- Falaah Press.
    • Al-Mohanna, F. M. (2004). Paradoxical non-finality: Stress assignment in three Arabic dialects. Retrieved Feb 2014, from http://roa.rutgers.edu/files/735- 0505/735-AL-MOHANNA-0-1.PDF
    • Al-Omoush, O. & Al- Faqara, W. (2010). The adaptation of English loanwords into Jordanian Arabic. Journal of Language and Literature 1(2), 27-39.
    • Al-Saqqa, S. (2001). English loanwords in the language of Arabic advertising in Jordan. (MA Thesis), University of Jordan. Jordan.
    • Al-Sughayer, K. (1990). Aspects of comparative Jordanian and Modern Standard Arabic phonology. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Michigan State University.
    • Al-Tamimi, F., Abu-Abbas, K., & Tarawnah, R. (2010). Jordanian Arabic final geminates: An experimental clinical phonetic study. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 46(2), 111-125.
    • Altmann, H. (2006). The perception and production of second language stress: A crosslinguistic experimental study. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Delaware.
    • Al-Wer, E. (2002). Jordanian and Palestinian dialects in contact: vowel raising in Amman. Contributions to the Sociology of Language, 86, 63-80.
    • ______. (2007). Jordanian Arabic. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich & A. Zaborski (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Arabic language and linguistics, 2 (pp. 506-517). Leiden: Brill.
    • Amer, F., Adaileh, B., & Abu- Rakhieh, B. (2011). Arabic diglossia: A phonological study. Argumentum Debreceni Egyetemi Kiadó 7, 19-36.
    • Anani, M. (1999). Arabic vowel formant frequencies. In Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 9, 2117-2119.
    • Apichai, R. (2007). English loanwords in Thai and Optimality Theory. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Ball state University.
    • Araj, S. (1993). Foreign words in the Arabic press: A study of the impact of western languages on Arabic. (Unpublished PhD thesis), The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Archangeli, D. & Pulleyblank, D.(1994). Grounded phonology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
    • Atawneh, A. (2007). Loanwords in Arabic. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich & A. Zaborski (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Arabic language and linguistics, 2 (pp. 29-35). Leiden: Brill.
    • Bakovic, E. (2000). Harmony, dominance and control. (Unpublished PhD thesis), The State University of New Jersey.
    • Bader, Y. (1990). Semantic change in Arabic loanwords from English and French. Abhath Al-Yarmouk "Literature and Linguistics", 8(2), 33-48.
    • Ball, M. J., & Rahilly, J. (1999). Phonetics. London: Arnold.
    • Bani-Khaled, T. (2014). The role of English as perceived by students of Applied English at the University of Jordan. European Scientific Journal. 10(5), 400- 420.
    • Bamakhramah, M. (2009). Syllable structure in Arabic varieties with a focus on superheavy syllables. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Indiana University.
    • Becker, M., & Potts, K. F. (2011). The emergence of the unmarked. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology (pp. 1003-1026). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Bellem, A. (2007). Towards a comparative typology of emphatics: Across Semitic and into Arabic dialect phonologymphatics. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of London.
    • Benua, L. (1997). Transderivational identity: Phonological relations between words. (Unpublished PhD thesis), UMass.
    • Bermúdez-Otero, R. (2003). The acquisition of phonological opacity. In Variation within Optimality Theory: Proceedings of the Stockholm Workshop on Variation within Optimality Theory (pp. 25-36).
    • Blair, A. D., & Ingram, J. (1998). Loanword formation: A neural network approach. In Proceedings of the Fourth Meeting of the ACL Special Interest Group in Computational Phonology, (pp. 45-54). Montreal,
    • Blevins, J. (2004). Evolutionary phonology: The emergence of sound patterns. Cambridge University Press.
    • Boersma, P., & Hamann, S. (2009). Loanword adaptation as first-language phonological perception. In A. Calabrese & W.L. Wetzels (Eds.), Loan phonology (Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science. Series IV, Current issues in linguistic theory, 307) (pp. 11-58). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
    • Boersma, P. & Weenink, D. (2015). Praat: Doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Version 1.4.9, retrieved January 2015 from http://www.praat.org.
    • Brame, M. (1974). The Cycle in phonology: Stress in Palestinian, Maltese, and Spanish Linguistic Inquiry, 5(1), 39-60.
    • Brasington, R. (1997). Cost and benefit in loanword adaptation. Reading Working Papers in Linguistics, 3, 1-19.
    • Broselow, E. (1992). Parametric variation in Arabic dialect phonology. In E. Broselow, M. Eid & J. McCarthy (Eds.), Perspectives on Arabic linguistics IV, (pp. 7-45). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    • _____. (2000). Stress, epenthesis, and segment transformation in Selayarese loans. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, Berkeley Linguistics Society 25. (pp. 311-325).
    • _____. (2007). Arabic phonology. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich & A. Zaborski (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Arabic language and linguistics, 3 (pp. 607-615). Leiden: Brill.
    • ____ . ( 2009). Stress adaptation in loanword phonology: Perception and learnability. In P. Boersma & S. Hamann (Eds.), Phonology in perception (pp. 191-234). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Broselow, E., Chen, S. I., & Huffman, M. (1997). Syllable weight: convergence of phonology and phonetics. Phonology, 14(01), 47-82.
    • Btoosh, M. A. (2006). Constraint interactions in Jordanian Arabic phonotactics: An Optimality-theoretic approach. Journal of Language and Linguistics, 5(2), 102-221.
    • Buckwalter, T., & Parkinson, D. (2014). A frequency dictionary of Arabic: Core vocabulary for learners. Routledge.
    • Butros, A. J. (1963). English loanwords in the colloquial Arabic of Palestine (1917- 1948) and Jordan (1948-1962). (Unpublished PhD thesis), Columbia University.
    • Bye, P. (2011). Dissimilation. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology (pp. 1408-1433). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Calabrese, A., & Wetzels, W. (Eds.). (2009). Loan phonology (Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic science. Series IV, Current issues in linguistic theory, 307). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
    • Casali, R. (2011). Hiatus resolution. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology (pp. 1434-1460). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Chang, C. B. (2008). Phonetics vs. phonology in loanword adaptation: Revisiting the role of the bilingual. In Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Information Structure, Berkeley, CA. Berkeley Linguistics Society.
    • Chomsky, N. & M. Halle. (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
    • Clements, G. N. (1990). The role of the sonority cycle in core syllabification. Papers in Laboratory Phonology, 1, 283-333.
    • ______. (2003). Feature economy in sound systems. Phonology, 20(03), 287-333.
    • Cleveland, R. L. (1963). A classification for the Arabic dialects of Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, (171), 56-63.
    • Cohen, E. G. (2009). The role of similarity in phonology: Evidence from loanword adaptation in Hebrew. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Tel Aviv University.
    • Cole, J. & Kisseberth, C. (1995). An optimal domains theory of harmony. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 24, 101-114.
    • Crawford, C. J. (2009). Adaptation and transmission in Japanese loanword phonology. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Cornell University.
    • Daana, H. A. (2009). The development of consonant clusters, stress and plural nouns in Jordanian Arabic child language . (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Essex.
    • Davidson, L., & Noyer, R. (1997). Loan phonology in Huave: Nativization and the ranking of faithfulness constraints. In Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (Vol. 15, pp. 65-79).
    • Davidson, L., & Stone, M. (2003). Epenthesis versus gestural mistiming in consonant cluster production: An ultrasound study. In Proceedings. of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (Vol. 22, pp. 165-178).
    • Davis, S. (1988). Topics in syllable geometry. New York: Garland Press. (In the series "Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics".)
    • ______. (1994). Loanwords: Phonological treatment. In R. E. Asher (Ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics, 4 (pp. 2273-2276). New York and Oxford: Pergamon Press.
    • ______. (1995). Emphasis spread in Arabic and grounded phonology. Linguistic Inquiry, 465-498.
    • ______. (1998). Syllable contact in Optimality Theory. Korea Journal of Linguistics, 23, 181-211.
    • ______. (2011a). Quantity. In J. Goldsmith, J. Riggle and A. Yu (Eds.), The handbook of phonological theory (2nd edition) (pp. 103-140). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • ______. (2011b). Geminates. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology .v. 2, (pp. 837-859). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Davis, S., & Abu-Elhij'a Mahajna, D. (2016). On the status of derived affricates in Arabic dialects. In Y. Haddad & E. Potsdam (Eds.), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XXVIII. (pp. 89-104). Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins Co.
    • Davis, S., & Baertsch, K. (2012). Formal versus functional explanation for a universal theory of syllable structure. Journal of Universal Language, 13, 7-34.
    • Davis, S., & Cho, M. H. (2006). Phonetics versus phonology: English word final /s/ in Korean loanword phonology. Lingua, 116(7), 1008-1023.
    • Davis, S., & Kang, H. (2006). English loanwords and the word-final [t] problem in Korean. Language Research-Seoul, 42(2), 253.
    • Davis, S., & Ragheb, M. (2014). Geminate representation in Arabic. In S. Farwaneh, & H. Ouali (Eds.), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XXIV-XXV. (pp. 3-19). Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins Co.
    • Davis, S., Tsujimura, N., & Tu, J. (2012). Toward a taxonomy of loanword prosody. Catalan Journal of Linguistics, 11, 13-39.
    • de Jong, K. & Cho, M. H. (2012). Loanword phonology and perceptual mapping: Comparing two corpora of Korean contact with English. Language, 88(2), 341-368.
    • de Jong, K., & Zawaydeh, B. A. (1999). Stress, duration, and intonation in Arabic word-level prosody. Journal of Phonetics, 27(1), 3-22.
    • de Lacy, P. (Ed.) (2007). The Cambridge handbook of phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • ______. (2014). Evaluating evidence for stress systems. In H. van der Hulst (Ed.). Word stress: Theoretical and typological issues (pp. 149-193). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Dell, G. S., Schwartz, M. F., Martin, N., Saffran E. M. & Gagnon, D. A. (1997). Lexical access in aphasic and nonaphasic speakers. Psychological Review 104. 801-838.
    • Deterding, D. (1997). The formants of monophthong vowels in Standard Southern British English pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 27, 47-55.
    • Dickins, J. (2011). Fa'* l forms in Sudanese Arabic: The reassertion of morphology. Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik, 53, 36-67.
    • Dictionaries, O. (2013). Oxford University Press, Retrieved June 2014, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com.
    • El-Ramli, Y. M. (2012). Assimilation in the phonology of a Libyan Arabic dialect: A constraint-based approach. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Newcastle University.
    • Embarki, M. (2013). Phonetics. In J. Owens, (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of Arabic linguistics (pp. 23-44). Oxford University Press.
    • Espy‐Wilson, C. Y. (1992). Acoustic measures for linguistic features distinguishing the semivowels /wjrl/ in American English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 92(2), 736-757.
    • Ewen, C. J., & Hulst, H. van der. (2001). The phonological structure of words: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.
    • Farwaneh, S. (1995). Directionality effects in Arabic dialect syllable structure. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Utah.
    • ______. (2007). Epenthesis. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich & A. Zaborski (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Arabic language and linguistics, 2. Leiden: Brill.
    • _______. (2009). Toward a typology of Arabic dialects: The role of final consonantality. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies, 9, 82-109.
    • Fenyvesi, A., & Zsigri, G. (2006). The role of perception in loanword adaptation: The fate of initial unstressed syllables in American Finnish and American Hungarian. SKY Journal of Linguistics, 19, 131-146.
    • Ferragne, E., & Pellegrino, F. (2010). Formant frequencies of vowels in 13 accents of the British Isles. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40(01), 1- 34.
    • Finegan E. & Besnier, N. (1989). Language: Its structure and use. Harcourt.
    • Finely, S. (2008). Formal and cognitive restrictions on vowel harmony. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Johns Hopkins University.
    • Flemming, E. (2007). The phonetics of schwa vowels. MS. Retrieved Jan 2015, from http://web.mit.edu/flemming/www/paper/schwaphonetics.pdf
    • Fox, A. (2000). Prosodic features and prosodic structure: The phonology of suprasegmentals. Oxford University Press.
    • Frisch, S. A. (2011). Frequency effects. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 2137-2163). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Frisch, S. A., Pierrehumbert, J. B., & Broe, M. B. (2004). Similarity avoidance and the OCP. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 22(1), 179-228.
    • Frisch, S. A., & Zawaydeh, B. A. (2001). The psychological reality of OCP-Place in Arabic. Language, 77, 91-106.
    • Gafos, D. & Dye, A. (2011). Vowel harmony: Opaque and transparent vowels. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 2164-2189). Malden, MA & Oxford: WileyBlackwell.
    • Gnanadesikan, A. (2004). Markedness and faithfulness constraints in child phonology. In R. Kager, J. Pater, & W. Zonneveld (Eds.). Constraints in phonological acquisition (pp. 73-108). Retrived Feb 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511486418.004
    • Goad, H. (2011). The representation of sC clusters. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology 2, (pp. 898-923). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Gordon, M. (2007). Functionalism in phonology. In P. de Lacy (Ed.). The Cambridge handbook of phonology (pp. 61-77). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • _____. (2011a). Stress: Phonotactic and phonetic evidence. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 924-948). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • _____. (2011b). Stress systems. In J. Goldsmith, J. Riggle and A. Yu (Eds.), The handbook of phonological theory (2nd edition) (pp. 141-163). Oxford: WileyBlackwell.
    • Gordon, M., Jany, C., Nash, C., & Takara, N. (2010). Syllable structure and extrametricality: A typological and phonetic study. Studies in Language, 34(1), 131-166.
    • Grijzenhout, J. (2011). Consonant mutation. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp.1537- 1558). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Gurevich, N. (2011). Lenition. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 1559-1575). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Gouskova, M. (2001). Falling sonority onsets, loanwords, and syllable contact. Chicago Linguistic Society, 37(1), 175-185.
    • _____. (2011). Vowel epenthesis. In M. van Oostendorp, J. E. Colin, E. Hume, & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 1576-1596). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Halle, M., & Vergnaud, J. R. (1987). An essay on stress. MIT press.
    • Ham, W. (2001). Phonetic and phonological aspects of geminate timing. New York: Routledge.
    • Hanafieh, N. (2011). Al-asswaat al alughwaye: Dirasat fi al tafxiim al sawti. (Language sounds: Studies in emphasis). Amman: Dar Jalis Al- Zamman.
    • Hanson, H. M. (2009). Effects of obstruent consonants on fundamental frequency at vowel onset in Englisha). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(1), 425-441.
    • Haspelmath, M. & Tadmor, U. (Eds.). (2009). Loanwords in the world's languages: A comparative handbook. Walter de Gruyter.
    • Haugen, E. (1950). The analysis of linguistic borrowing. Language, 26, 210-231.
    • _____. (1953). The process of borrowing. The Norwegian Language in America, 2, 383-411.
    • Haunz, C. (2004). The role of perception in the adaptation of loanwords. Retrieved on July 1, 2010 from www.ling.ed.ac.uk/~pgc/archive/2002/proc02/haunz02.
    • Hava, J. G. (1915). Arabic-English Dictionary: For the use of students. Beyrut: Catholic Press.
    • Hayes, B. (1989). Compensatory lengthening in moraic phonology. Linguistic inquiry, 20, 253-306.
    • Hoffer, B. L. (2002). Language borrowing and language diffusion: An overview. Intercultural Communication Studies XI(2), 1-36.
    • Herzallah, R. (1990). Aspects of Palestinian Arabic phonology: A non-linear approach. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
    • Holes, C. (1995). Modern Arabic: Structures, functions, and varieties. London and New York: Longman.
    • Hoole, P. & Honda, K. (2011). Automaticity vs. feature-enhancement in the control of segmental F0. In: N. Clements & R. Ridouane (Eds.) Where do phonological features come from? Cognitive, physical and developmental bases of distinctive speech categories. (pp. 131-171). John Benjamins Publishing.
    • Hussein, R., & El-Ali, N. (1989). Subjective reactions of rural university students toward different varieties of Arabic. Al-Arabiyya, 22(1-2), 37-54.
    • Hussein, R., & M. Zughoul. (1993). Lexical interference in journalistic Arabic in Jordan. Language Science 15 (3): 239-254.
    • Hyman, L. (1970). The role of borrowing in the justification of phonological grammars. Studies in African Linguistics 1, 1-48.
    • _____. (1985). A theory of phonological weight. Dordrecht: Foris.
    • Hyde, B. (2003). NonFinality. Washington University (unpublished, 2003). Retrieved Sep 2014 from http://roa.rutgers.edu/files/633-1103/633-HYDE-0-0.PDF
    • _____. (2008). The odd-parity parsing problem. Unpublished ms. Washington University (ROA-971). Retrieved Sep 2014 from roa.rutgers.edu/files/971- 0508/971-HYDE-0-0.PDF
    • _____. (2011). Extrametricality and non-finality. In M. van Oostendorp, J. E. Colin, E. Hume, & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 1027- 1051). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Irshied, O. (1984). The phonology of Bani-Hassan Arabic, (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Illinois.
    • Irshied, O., & Kenstowicz, M. (1984). Some phonological rules of Bani-Hassan Arabic: A Bedouin dialect. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 14(1), 109-147.
    • Itô, J. (1989). A prosodic theory of epenthesis. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 7, 217-259.
    • Itô, J. & Mester, A. (1995). The core-periphery structure of the lexicon and constraints on re-ranking. In J. Beckman, S. Urbanczyk & L. Walsh (Eds.), University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics [UMOP] Vol. 18: Papers in Optimality Theory. (pp. 181-209). University of Massachusetts, Amherst: GLSA.
    • Itô, J., Mester, A., & Padgett, J. (1995). Licensing and underspecification in Optimality Theory. Linguistic Inquiry, 26(4) 571-613.
    • Iverson, G. K., & Lee, A. (2006). Perception of contrast in Korean loanword adaptation. Korean Linguistics, 13(1), 49-87.
    • Iverson, G. K., & Salmons, J. C. (2006). On the typology of final laryngeal neutralisation: Evolutionary phonology and laryngeal realism. Retrieved August 2014 from https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/iverson/www/comment.pdf
    • _____. (2011). Final devoicing and final laryngeal neutralisation. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology (pp. 1622-1643). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Jacobs, H., & Gussenhoven. C. (2000). Loan phonology: Perception, salience, the lexicon and OT. In J. Dekkers, F. van der Leeuw & J. van de Weijer (Eds.), Optimality Theory: Phonology, syntax, and acquisition, (pp. 193-210). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Jun, J. (2011). Positional effects in consonant clusters. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology, (pp. 1103-1123). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Kabrah, R. (2004). Transparency and opacity in the phonology of Makkan Arabic: A Stratalot Theoretic approach. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Boston University.
    • _____. (1986). Notes on syllable structure in three Arabic dialects. Revue Québécoise de Linguistique, 16(1), 101-127. (1994), Phonology in generative grammar .Cambridge, Mass., Oxford:
    • _____. (1996). Base-identity and uniform exponence: Alternatives to cyclicity. In J. Durand & B. Laks (Eds.), Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods. (pp. 363-393). European Studies Research Institute and University of Salford.
    • _____. (2003). The role of perception in loanword phonology. Studies in African Linguistics 32, 95-112.
    • _____. (2007). Salience and similarity in loanword adaptation: A case study from Fijian. Language Sciences, 29(2), 316-340.
    • Kenstowicz, M., & Suchato, A. (2006). Issues in loanword adaptation: A case study from Thai. Lingua 116, 921-949.
    • Kertész, Z. (2006). Approaches to the phonological analysis of loanword adaptation. The Even Yearbook, 7. Retrieved June 2012, from http://seas3.elte.hu/delg/publications/even
    • Khabir, M. A. (1998). Issues in Arabic morphology and phonology: Theoretical implications. (Unpublished PhD thesis), Universite de Montreal.
    • Khattab, G., Al-Tamimi, F., & Heselwood, B. (2006). Acoustic and auditory differences in the/t/-/T/opposition in male and female speakers of Jordanian Arabic. In S. Boudelaa (Ed.), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XVI: Papers from the sixteenth annual symposium on Arabic linguistics (pp. 131-160). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    • Kilani, T. (1994). English loanwords in Jordanian colloquial Arabic: A study in language and culture. Dirasat 21(6) 39-80.
    • Kingston, J. (2008). Lenition. In L. Colantoni & J. Steele, (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology, (pp 1-31). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
    • Kiparsky, P. (2000). Opacity and cyclicity. Linguistic review, 17(2/4), 351-366.
    • _____. (2003). Syllables and moras in Arabic. In C. Féry & R. van de Vijver (Eds.) The syllable in Optimality Theory. (pp. 147-182). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • _____. (2006). The amphichronic program vs. evolutionary phonology. Theoretical Linguistics-Berlin and New York, 32(2), 217.
    • Kraehenmann, A. (2011). Initial geminates. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 1124- 1146). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Kroll, M. I. (2014). Vowel and consonant lengthening in Finnish loanword adaptation.(MA Thesis). UCLA.
    • Kubozono, H. (2006). Where does loanword prosody come from? A case study of Japanese loanword accent. Lingua, 116, 1140-1170.
    • Kubozono, H. Ito, J. & Mester A. (2008). Consonant gemination in Japanese loanword phonology. In Current issues in unity and diversity of languages. Collection of papers selected from the 18th International Congress of Linguists (Eds.). The Linguistic Society of Korea, 953-973. Republic of Korea: Dongam Publishing Co.
    • _____. (1988). Feature geometry and dependency: A review. Phonetica, 45, 84-108.
    • _____. (1994). The phonetics and phonology of Semitic pharyngeals. In P. Keating (Ed.), Papers in Laboratory Phonology III: Phonological Structure and Phonetic Form. (pp. 191-233). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • _____. (1997). Process-specific constraints in Optimality Theory. Linguistic Inquiry 28, 231-251
    • _____. (1999). Sympathy and phonological opacity. Phonology 16, 331-399.
    • _____. (2003). Sympathy, cumulativity, and the Duke-of-York gambit. In C. Féry & R. van de Vijver (Eds.) The syllable in Optimality Theory. (pp. 23-76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • _____. (2005). The length of stem-final vowels in Colloquial Arabic. In M. T. Alhawary, & E. Benmamoun (Eds.), Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics (Vol. XVII-XVIII (pp. 1-26). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    • _____. (2007a). Morphology. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich & A. Zaborski (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Arabic language and linguistics, (pp. 297- 307). Leiden: Brill.
    • Mester, A. & Padgett, J. (1994). Directional syllabification in generalized alignment. In J. Merchant, J. Padgett & R. Walker (Eds.). Phonology at Santa Cruz 3. (pp. 79-85).Santa Cruz: Linguistics Research Centre.
    • Number of registered Syrian refugees reaches 637,000 -gov't (2015, Jan 28). Jordan Times. Retrieved May 2016 from http://www.jordantimes.com/news/local/number-registered-syrian-refugeesreaches-637000-%E2%80%94-gov%E2%80%99t#sthash.8GRHAhf6.dpuf
    • Obrecht, D. H. (1965). Three experiments in the perception of geminate consonants in Arabic. Language and Speech, 8(1), 31-41.
    • Odden, D. (2011). The representation of vowel length. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology . (pp. 465-490). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Ohala, J. J., & Eukel, B. W. (1987). Explaining the intrinsic pitch of vowels. In honor of Ilse Lehiste, 207-215.
    • Owino, D. (2003). Phonological nativization of Dholuo loanwords. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Pretoria.
    • Padgett, J. (2011). Consonant-vowel place feature interactions. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology. (pp. 1761-1786). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Paradis, C., & Béland, R. (2002). Syllabic constraints and constraint conflicts in loanword adaptations, aphasic speech and children's errors. In J. Durand, & B. Laks, (Eds.), Phonetics, phonology, and cognition (No. 3). Oxford University Press.
    • Paradis, C. & LaCharité, D. (1997). Preservation and minimality in loanword adaptation, Journal of Linguistics 33, 379-430.
    • _____. (2001). Guttural deletion in loanwords. Phonology 18, 255-300.
    • _____. (2011). Loanword adaptation: From lessons learned to findings. In J. Goldsmith, J. Riggle and A. Yu (Eds.), The handbook of phonological theory (2nd edition) (pp. 751-778). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Peperkamp, S. & Dupoux, E. (2002). A typological study of stress ‗deafness'. Laboratory Phonology, 7, 203-240.
    • _____. (2003). Reinterpreting loanword adaptations: The role of perception. International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 15, 367-370.
    • Peperkamp, S. (2005). A psycholinguistic theory of loanword adaptations. In M. Ettlinger, N. Fleischer, & M. Park-Doob (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 341-352). Berkeley: The Society.
    • Peperkamp, S., Vendelin, I. & Nakamura, K. (2008). On the perceptual origin of loanword adaptations: Experimental evidence from Japanese. Phonology 25, 129-164.
    • Poplack, S. & Sankoff, D. (1984). Borrowing: The synchrony of integration. Linguistics 22 (269): 99-136. doi:10.1515/ling.1984.22.1.99.
    • Poplack, S., Sankoff, D. & Miller, C. (1988). The social correlates and linguistic processes of lexical borrowing and assimilation. Linguistics 26, 47-104.
    • Poplack, S., & Dion, N. (2012). Myths and facts about loanword development. Language Variation and Change, 24(03), 279-315.
    • Sakarna, A. (1999). Phonological aspects of 9abady Arabic: A Bedouin Jordanian dialect. (Unpublished PhD thesis), University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    • Zawaydeh, B. A. & de Jong, K. (2011).The phonetics of localising uvularisation in Ammani-Jordanian Arabic: An acoustic study. In Z. M. Hassan & B. Heselwood (Eds.), Instrumental studies in Arabic phonetics: Current issues in linguistic theory. (pp. 257-276). Amesterdam: John Benjamins.
    • Zemanek, P. (2007). Root. In K. Versteegh, M. Eid, A. Elgibali, M. Woidich & A. Zaborski (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of Arabic language and linguistics, 2 (pp. 93- 98). Leiden: Brill.
    • Zsiga, E. (2011). Local assimilation. In M. van Oostendorp, C. Ewen, E. Hume & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to phonology . (pp. 1919-1944). Malden, MA & Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article