LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Jefferson, Steven
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: CLL
This thesis addresses the traumata associated with Poland’s frontier changes in 1945, within a collective memory paradigm. These events include expulsions from German territories incorporated into Poland, and population transfers between Poland and the USSR. The thesis addresses two components: a central trauma complex, and the resulting collective memory discourse. Being a matter of historical record, the statistical details and chronology of these events are seldom contested, although they have often been instrumentalised by various stakeholders. Instead, the relevant collective memory discourse has focused on the production of broad, often exculpatory, narrative frameworks designed to explain a set of largely accepted facts. Accordingly, my thesis is primarily focused on this collective memory discourse.\ud \ud As an active phase, dominated by stakeholders with a high level of emotional investment in the narration and memorialisation of the relevant events, this collective memory discourse is currently undergoing a transition to the domain of History as a scholarly pursuit. This transition is best symbolised by the fact that, as of 2016, for the first time since 1945, all restrictions on the acquisition of agricultural land and forests in Poland’s former German territories, by Germans, will be lifted. Thus, for surviving expellees, the right of return, in conjunction with the potential to purchase any formerly held real estate and landholdings, will become a de jure reality, marking the end of the region’s long postwar period. Arguably, therefore, one can now engage, at a retrospective, analytical level, with the relevant collective memory discourse without being drawn into it.\ud \ud In order to navigate this complex discourse, I have developed a number of analytical and conceptual tools, which I hope may prove useful beyond this project. In this sense, this thesis can be viewed as a proof of concept. Chief among these tools are a novel working definition of collective memory as a discrete phase in the historification and mythologizing of traumatic events, and a three-level model designed for the consistent analysis of narrative texts, artefacts and cultural productions. By tracing the relevant collective memory discourse through a number of 4 disparate fields, including political myth-making, historiography, toponymic practice, cartography and literature, I have been able to test these analytical and conceptual tools to breaking point, often benefiting from the resulting heuristic gain wherever lived complexity defies simplistic analytic idealisation.\ud \ud To ensure a focused exposition of the theoretical framework and the sources analysed, this thesis is primarily centred upon Lower Silesia and the following broad research questions: what geo-socio-political power dynamics resulted in Poland’s postwar frontier changes and the associated traumata, and how were they justified at the time? How have historians reacted over time to Poland’s postwar frontier changes, and the humanitarian consequences, as well as to contemporary framework narratives relating to these events? How has the toponymic re-inscription of Poland’s former German territories influenced the relevant collective memory discourse, and to what extent have cartographic representations of postwar Poland been influenced by changing geo-political configurations? How have the prevailing socio-political conditions in postwar Germany and Poland constrained literary contributions to the relevant collective memory discourse? And, finally, in what ways, has literature contributed in turn, to the relevant collective memory discourse and the establishment of hegemonic historical narratives?\ud \ud This thesis presents a number of specific findings, the most significant of which is that political contingencies can result in a surprising deflection of collective memory discourse into seemingly unrelated fields, and can trigger a ripple effect, which has the ability to globalise collective memory discourse under certain circumstances. Similarly, my analysis of shared topoi in the works of German and Polish historians and literary authors demonstrates that, far from generating its own framework of reference based on specific traumatic events, collective memory discourse is exquisitely sensitive to broader socio-political narratives. In addition, I contend that mainstream historical narratives tend to simplify, for example, through the imposition of a chronology on multidirectional memories, and by focusing on homogenizing accounts of the collective at the expense of 5 individual narratives. In contrast, literature and local cultural performances often resist such simplification, thus preserving complexity. Viewed in this light, the pursuit of Cultural and Literary Studies addresses a clear problem within, and usefully augments, traditional historical scholarship. By carefully analysing a subset of Polish and German literature, historiography and cultural artefacts produced in response to the traumatic events in question, my thesis seeks to trace the transition from highly localised stakeholder-led collective memory discourses to hegemonic historical narratives developed and maintained in the service of broader geo-political agendas.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3.4.1 The Second Republic (1918-1939)
    • 3.4.2 The Polish People's Republic (1945/52-1989) 3.4.3 Consolidation and Transition
    • 7.2.1 Józef Hen: Toast (1964)
    • 7.2.2 Adam Zagajewski: Two Cities (1991)
    • 7.2.3 Stefan Chwin: Death in Danzig (1995)
    • 7.2.4 Olga Tokarczuk: House of Day, House of Night, (1998) 7.2.5 Joanna Bator: Sandberg (2009)
    • 7.2.6 Sabrina Janesch: Katzenberge (2011)
    • Kimble, Daniel P., The Anatomy of Memory: Learning, Remembering, and Forgetting (Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 1965).
    • King, Geoff, Mapping Reality: An Exploration of Cultural Cartographies (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996).
    • Kitchen, Martin, A History of Modern Germany: 1800-2000 (Malden, Mass.; Oxford: Blackwell, 2006).
    • Klafkowski, Alfons, Die deutsch-polnische Grenze nach dem II. Weltkrieg, trans. Sikorski, Janusz (Poznan: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, 1970).
    • ---, The Potsdam Agreement, trans. Trop-Kryński, Aleksander (Warsaw: PWN, 1963).
    • Klier, J. D., 'Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland by Jan T. Gross', The Slavonic and East European Review, 81 (2003), 581-82.
    • Klußmann, Uwe, 'Breslauer Apokalypse', Der Spiegel Geschichte. Die Deutschen im Osten Europas: Eroberer, Siedler, Vertriebe 2011, pp. 98-99.
    • Knopp, Guido, Entscheidung Stalingrad (Munich: Bertelsmann, 1992).
    • Kosian, Menne, 'Handling Intangible Data', in 13th International Congress "Cultural Heritage and New Technologies", ed. by Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Vienna: Cultural Heritage Agency, 2008).
    • ---, 'Mapping the Immaterial', ed. by Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Vienna: Cultural Heritage Agency, 2008).
    • Kossert, Andreas, Kalte Heimat: Die Geschichte der deutschen Vertriebenen nach 1945, 3 edn (Munich: Random House, 2008).
    • Kostrowicki, Jerzy, 'Geography in Poland Since the War', The Geographical Journal, 122 (1956), 441-50.
    • Kotljarchuk, Andrej, In the Shadows of Poland and Russia: The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Sweden in the European Crisis of the mid-17th Century (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2006).
    • Kraushaar, Wolfgang, Frankfurter Schule und Studentenbewegung: Von der Flaschenpost zum Molotowcocktail; 1946 - 1995 (Hamburg: Rogner & Bernhard, 1998), 2.
    • Kriwat, Karsten, Der andere Holocaust: Die Vertreibung der Deutschen 1944-1949 (Munich: FZ-Verlag, 2004).
    • Kruse, Christiane, Wer lebte wo in Leipzig (Stürtz, 2011).
    • Krzoska, Markus, Ein Land unterwegs: Kulturgeschichte Polens seit 1945 (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schönigh, 2015).
    • Kühnl, Reinhard, Nation, Nationalismus, Nationale Frage: was ist das und was soll das?, Kleine Bibliothek (Cologne: Pahl-Rugenstein, 1986).
    • La Capra, Dominick, Writing History, Writing Trauma (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).
    • Lachman, Gary, Jung the Mystic: The Esoteric Dimensions of Carl Jung's Life and Teachings (London: Penguin, 2010).
    • Lawaty, Andreas, Das Ende Preussens in polnischer Sicht: Zur Kontinuität negativer Wirkungen der preussischen Geschichte auf die deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1986).
    • Leuschner, Markus, 'Heimat and Schicksal: Eine kurze Chronologie', ed. by Vertriebenen, Bund der (Bonn: BdV, 2011).
    • ---, Heimat und Schickal: Eine kurze Chronologie, ed. Stratmann, Walter, 2 edn (Bonn: BdV, 2011).
    • Luckhurst, Roger, The Trauma Question (London: Routledge, 2008).
    • Lukowski, Jerzy, Liberty's Folly: the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Eighteenth Century 1697-1795 (London: Routledge, 1991).
    • ---, The Partitions of Poland: 1772, 1793, 1795 (London: Longman, 1999).
    • MacDonogh, Giles, After the Reich: The Brutal History of the Allied Occupation (New York: Basic Books, 2007).
    • Magocsi, Paul Robert, The Roots of Ukrainian Nationalism: Galicia as Ukraine's Piedmont (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002).
    • March, Ulrich, Die deutsche Ostsiedlung, Kulturelle Arbeitshefte (Bonn: BdV, 1990).
    • Marples, David R., Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine (Budapest; New York: Central European University Press, 2007).
    • Martel, Gordon, The Origins of the Second World War reconsidered : the A.J.P. Taylor debate after twenty-five years (Boston ; London: Allen & Unwin, 1986).
    • Massie, Robert K., Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman (London: Head of Zeus, 2012).
    • Mast, Peter, Brandenburg, Kulturelle Arbeitshefte (Bonn: BdV, 1998).
    • ---, Kleine Geschichte West- und Ostpreußens, Kulturelle Arbeitshefte (Bonn: BdV, 1997).
    • Mazower, Mark, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (London: Penguin Books, 1998).
    • Mende, Erich, 'Der Annaberg und das deutsch-polnische Verhältnis', ed. by Vertriebenen, Bund der (Bonn: BdV, 1994).
    • Moeller, Robert G., 'Germans as Victims? Thoughts on a Post-Cold War History of World War II's Legacies', History and Memory (Indiana University Press, Bloomington), 17 (2005).
    • ---, War stories: the search for a usable past in the Federal Republic of Germany (Berkeley ; London: University of California Press, 2001).
    • Monmonier, Mark, How to Lie with Maps (Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 1991).
    • Mühlen, Heinz von zur, Die baltischen Lande von der Aufsegelung bis zur Umsiedlung, Kulturelle Arbeitshefte (Bonn: BdV, 1997), 15.
    • Musekamp, Jan, Zwischen Stettin und Szczecin: Metamorphosen einer Stadt von 1945 bis 2005 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2010).
    • Nawratil, Heinz, Schwarzbuch der Vertreibung 1945 bis 1948: das letzte Kapitel unbewältigter Vergangenheit, 5 edn (Munich: Universitas, 1999 [1982]).
    • Nawrocki, Joachim, Die Beziehungen zwischen den beiden Staaten in Deutschland: Entwicklungen, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen (Berlin: Holzapfel, 1986).
    • Neubach, Helmut, Kleine Geschichte Schlesiens, Kulturelle Arbeitshefte (Görlitz: Senfkorn, 2005).
    • Neubaur, Michael, Der zweite Dreißigjährige Krieg 1914 - 1945: Der Untergang des Abendlandes (Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2010).
    • Neumann, Karl-Heinz, Theater in Oldenburg: Wesen und nordwestdeutschen Bühne (Oldenburg: Holzberg, 1982).
    • Potichnyj, Peter J., Poland and Ukraine, Past and Present, Canadian Library in Ukrainian Studies (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1980).
    • Prażmowska, Anita, Britain and Poland, 1939-1943: The Betrayed Ally (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
    • ---, Civil war in Poland, 1942-1948, Studies in Russia and East Europe (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004).
    • ---, Poland: a Modern History (London: I.B.Tauris and Co Ltd, 2010).
    • ---, A History of Poland (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004).
    • Rees, Laurence, The Nazis: a Warning from History (London: BBC Worldwide Ltd, 1997).
    • Roldán, Mary, Blood and Fire: La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946-1953 (Durham, N.C.; London: Duke University Press, 2002).
    • Roman, Eric, Austria-Hungary & the Successor States: a Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present (New York: Facts On File, 2003).
    • Rothberg, Michael, Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization, Cultural Memory in the Present (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2009).
    • Sadlier, Mary Anne, The Knout: a Tale of Poland (Dublin: Gill & Son, 1884).
    • Saldern, Adelheid, Mythen in Geschichte und Geschichtsschreibung aus polnischer und deutscher Sicht, Politik und Geschichte (Münster: Lit, 1996).
    • Saul, Harald, Unvergessliche Küche Schlesien: Traditionelle Familienrezepte und ihre Geschichten (Leipzig: Bassermann, 2009).
    • Schachtmeyer, Ferdinand von, Die Theilung Polens in Jahren 1773, 1793, 1796 und 1815 nebst einen Dynastien-Tafel der Könige von Polen und der Wiener Kongress im Jahre 1815 (Berlin: Akademische Buchhandlung, 1864).
    • Schiller, Friedrich, Die Geschichte des Dreißigjährigen Krieges, Schillers Werke, 10 vols (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1946 [1792]), 9.
    • Schiller, Gerhard, 'Ein kulinarisches Kulturerbe: Die über 900-jährige Geschichte rund um den Pfefferkuchen in Schlesien und Europa', Schlesische Geschichtsblätter, 41 (2014), 33-63.
    • Schmitz, Helmut, A Nation of Victims? Representations of German Wartime Suffering from 1945 to the Present, German monitor (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007).
    • Schnell, Ralf, Literarische innere Emigration: 1933 - 1945, Metzler Studienausgabe (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1976).
    • Schulze, Hagen, Gibt es überhaupt eine deutsche Geschichte?, Corso bei Siedler (Berlin: Siedler, 1989).
    • Schwarz, Wolfgang, Bilder aus Schlesien: Über 500 Fotos vom Leben wie es damals war (Eggolsheim: Nebel, 2000).
    • Service, Hugo, Germans to Poles: Communism, Nationalism and Ethnic Cleansing after the Second World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
    • Siebel-Achenbach, Sebastian, Lower Silesia from Nazi Germany to Communist Poland, 1942-1949 (Basingstoke: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's, 1994).
    • Simine, Silke Arnold-de, Mediating Memory in the Museum: Trauma, Empathy, Nostalgia (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013).
    • Smith, Anthony D., The ethnic origins of nations (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986).
    • ---, Die Vertreibung der Deutschen: Unbewältigte Vergangenheit Europas, Kulturelle Arbeitshefte (Bonn: BdV, 1998).
    • Wilson, Andrew, The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2000).
    • Wilson, Peter H., Europe's Tragedy: a History of the Thirty Years War (London: Allen Lane, 2009).
    • Young, James E., The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1993).
    • Zamoyski, Adam, The Polish Way: a Thousand-Year History of the Poles and their Culture (London: Murray, 1987).
    • ---, Rites of Peace: the Fall of Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna, 2 edn (London: Harper Perennial, 2008).
    • Zayas, Alfred-Maurice de, A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950, trans. Koehler, John a. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993 [1986]).
    • Zemella, Günter, Deutschland im Fadenkreuz: Der zweite Dreissigjährige Krieg 1914-1945: Zwischen Lüge und Wahrheit (Wahlsburg: Klosterhaus-Verlag, 2013).
    • Berg, Lawrence D., et al., Critical Toponymies: the Contested Politics of Place Naming (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009).
    • Beutin, Wolfgang, et al., A History of German Literature: From the Beginnings to the Present Day, 4 edn (London ; New York: Routledge, 1993).
    • Białek, Edward, et al., SILESIA IN LITTERIS SERVATA: Paradigmen der Erinnerung in Texten schlesischer Autoren nach 1945 (Dresden: Neisse, 2009), 1.
    • Black, Jeremy, et al., Studying History, 2 edn (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000).
    • Bömelburg, Hans-Jürgen, et al., Vertreibung aus dem Osten: Deutsche und Polen erinnern sich, trans. Faas, Marta, et al., Zeitzeugnisse, 2 edn (Olsztyn: Stowarzyszenie Wspólnota Kulturowa "Borussia", 2006).
    • Helbig, Adriana, et al., Culture and Customs of Ukraine (Westport, Conn.; London: Greenwood, 2009).
    • Marwick, Arthur, et al., Total war and Historical Change: Europe, 1914-1955 (Buckingham: Open University Press, 2008).
    • Meusburger, Peter, et al., Cultural Memories: the Geographical Point of View (Dordrecht: Springer, 2011).
    • Niven, William John, et al., Germans as Victims: Remembering the Past in Contemporary Germany (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).
    • ---, et al, Memorialization in Germany since 1945 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
    • Olick, Jeffrey K., et al., The Collective Memory Reader (New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
    • Orla-Bukowska, Annamaria, et al., Rethinking Poles and Jews: Troubled Past, Brighter Future (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Pub., 2007).
    • Reddaway, William Fiddian, et al., The Cambridge History of Poland: From Augustus II to Pilsudski, 1697-1935 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941).
    • ---, The Cambridge History of Poland: From the Origins to Sobieski (to 1696) (Cambridge University Press, 1950).
    • Rhode, Gotthold, et al., The Genesis of the Oder-Neisse Line in the Diplomatic Negotiations During World War II: Sources and Documents (Stuttgart: Brentano-Verlag, 1959).
    • Rogg, Inga, et al., Die Völker der Erde: Kulturen und Nationalitäten von A-Z (Gütersloh: Bertelsmann, 1992).
    • Rudnytsky, Ivan L., et al., Rethinking Ukrainian History (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1981).
    • Steber, Martina, et al., Visions of Community in Nazi Germany: Social Engineering and Private Lives (2014).
    • Stokes, David, et al., Small Business Management and Entrepreneurship (Andover: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2010).
    • Sulimierski, Filip, et al., Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich (Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, 1975 [1880- 1902]).
    • Swoboda, Hannes, et al., Politics of the Past: The Use and Abuse of History (Antelope, CA: The Socialist Group in the European Parliament, 2009).
    • Taberner, Stuart, et al., Germans as Victims in the Literary Fiction of the Berlin Republic (Rochester, NY ; Woodbridge, Suffolk: Camden House, 2009).
    • Tatlock, Lynne, et al., Distant Readings: Topologies of German Culture in the Long Nineteenth Century, 1 edn (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2014).
    • Ther, Philipp, et al., Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948, Harvard Cold War Studies (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
    • Thomson, Peter, et al., The Cambridge Companion to Brecht (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
    • Toranska, Teresa, et al., Oni: Stalin's Polish Puppets, trans. Kolakowska, Agnieszka (London: Collins Harvill, 1987).
    • Voisine-Jechova, Hana, et al., Les effets de l'émigration et exil dans les cultures tchèque et polonaise (Paris: Presses Paris Sorbonne, 1987).
    • Waites, Bernard, et al., The Impact of World War I, Total War and Social Change in Europe 1914-1955 (Milton Keynes: The Open University, 2006).
    • Warner, David, et al., Ottonian Germany: the Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, Manchester Medieval Sources Series (Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2000).
    • Wichner, Ernest, et al., "Literaturentwicklungsprozesse": die Zensur der Literatur in der DDR, 1 edn (Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 1993).
    • Wiewióra, Boleslaw, et al., Polish-German Frontier from the Standpoint of International Law (Poznan: Wydawnictwo Zachodnie, 1959).
    • Wodak, Ruth, et al., Right-wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse (London: Bloomsbury, 2013).
    • Wolff-Powęska, Anna, 'Die doppelte Identität in den West- und Nordgebieten Polens', in Deutschlands Osten - Polens Westen: Vergleichende Studien zur geschichtlichen Landeskunde, ed. by Weber, Matthias, (Frankfurt a.M.: P. Lang, 2001).
    • Wolnicz-Pawłowska, Ewa, et al., Toponymic Guidelines of Poland for Map Editors and Other Users, trans. Bryl, D., et al., 4 edn (Warsaw: Główny Urząd Geodezji i Kartografii (GUGiK), 2010).
    • Yoshioka, Jun, 'Imagining Their Lands as Ours: Place Name Changes on Ex-German Territories in Poland after World War II', in Regions in Central and Eastern Europe: Past and Present, ed. by Fukuda, Hiroshi, (Sapporo: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, 2007).
    • Zamora, Lois Parkinson, et al., Magical Realism: Theory, History, Community (Durham, N.C. ; London: Duke University Press, 1995).
    • Gallese, Vittorio, 'The 'Shared Manifold' Hypothesis: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy', Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5 (2001), 33-50.
    • Garlinski, Jozef, 'The Polish Underground State (1939-45)', Journal of Contemporary History, 10 (1975), 219-59.
    • Gasiorowska, Xenia, 'The Postwar Polish Historical Novel', Comparative Literature, 9 (1957), 17-32.
    • Gilbert, Margaret, 'Collective Guilt and Collective Guilt Feelings', The Journal of Ethics, 6 (2002), 115-43.
    • Kundnani, Hans, 'Perpetrators and Victims: Germany's 1968 Generation and Collective Memory', German Life and Letters, 64 (2011), 272-82.
    • Lehmann, Rosa, 'The Strength of Diversity: A Micro-History of Ethnic Conflict and Coexistence in Rural Southeast Poland', Anthropological Quarterly, 82 (2009), 509-45.
    • Leszczycki, Stanisƚaw, 'The Application of Geography in Poland', The Geographical Journal, 126 (1960), 418-26.
    • Linek, Bernard, 'Recent Debates on the Fate of the German Population in Upper Silesia 1945-1950', German History, 22 (2004), 372-405.
    • Lokatis, Siegfried, 'Die Zensur historischer Literatur in der DDR unter Ulbricht', Historische Zeitschrift. Beihefte, 27 (1998), 281-93.
    • Lord, Robert Howard, 'The Russo-Polish Boundary Problem', Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 68 (1944), 407-23.
    • ---, 'The Third Partition of Poland', The Slavonic Review, 3 (1925), 481-98.
    • Meyer, Heinrich, 'Review of Der Himmel war Unten', Books Abroad, 26 (1952), 356.
    • Bruckmüller, Ernst, et al., Putzger Historischer Weltatlas, 104 edn (Berlin: Cornelsen, 2011).
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article