LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hope, VD; Marongiu, A; Parry, JV; Ncube, F (2010)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
Injection site infections in injecting drug users (IDUs) are associated with serious morbidity and healthcare costs. Factors associated with symptoms of these were examined through annual (2006-2008) unlinked-anonymous survey of IDUs in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Overall 36% (1863/5209) self-reported having a symptom with no trend over time (35% 2006, 37% 2007, 34% 2008). Symptoms were less common in the North East of England; increased with years injecting; and were higher in women, those recently homeless, those recently using a needle exchange, and those injecting both opiates and stimulants. Of those injecting during the previous 4 weeks (n=3733) symptoms were associated with: injecting daily; injecting >or=10 times a day; injecting into hands, groin, or legs; sharing filters; and reusing water to flush syringes. Symptoms of injection site infections are common in IDUs. Better-targeted preventive interventions are needed, and continued surveillance should assist with assessing the impact of new initiatives.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Cherubin C, Sapira J. The medical complications of drug addiction and the medical assessment of the intravenous drug user. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993 ; 119 : 1017-1028.
    • 2. Del Guidice P. Cutaneous complication of intravenous drug abuse. British Journal of Dermatology 2004 ; 150 : 1-10.
    • 3. Lloyd-Smith E, et al. Risk factors for developing a cutaneous injection-related infection among injection drug users : a cohort study. BMC Public Health 2008 ; 8 : 405.
    • 4. Salmon AM, et al. Injecting-related injury and disease among clients of a supervised injecting facility. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2009 ; 101 : 132-136.
    • 5. Takahasi T, et al. Type and location of injection drug use-related soft tissue infections predict hospitalization. Journal of Urban Health 2003 ; 80 : 127-136.
    • 6. Biswanger I, et al. High prevalence of abscesses and cellulitis among community-recruited injection drug users in San Fransisco. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000 ; 30 : 579-581.
    • 7. Lloyd-Smith E, et al. Prevalence and correlates of abscesses among a cohort of injection drug users. Harm Reduction Journal 2005 ; 2 : 24.
    • 8. Hope V, et al. Frequency, factors and costs associated with injection site infections : findings from a national multi-site survey of injecting drug users in England. BMC Infectious Diseases 2008 ; 8 : 120.
    • 9. Kerr T, et al. High rates of primary care and emergency department use among injection drug users in Vancouver. Journal of Public Health (Oxford) 2005 ; 27 : 62-66.
    • 10. Palepu A, et al. Hospital utilization and costs in a cohort of injection drug users. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2001 ; 165 : 415-420.
    • 11. Murphy E, et al. Risk factors for skin and soft-tissue abscesses among injection drug users : a case-control study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001 ; 33 : 35-40.
    • 12. Vlahov D, et al. Bacterial infections and skin cleaning prior to infection among intreavenous drug users. Public Health Reports 1992 ; 107 : 595-598.
    • 13. Dwyer R, et al. Prevalences and correlates of non-viral injecting-related injuries and diseases in a convenience sample of Australian injecting drug users. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2009 ; 100 : 9-16.
    • 14. Topp L, et al. Prevalence and predictors of injectingrelated injury and disease among clients of Australia's needle and syringe programs. Australia & New Zealand Journal of Public Health 2008 ; 32 : 34-37.
    • 15. Spijkerman I, van Ameijden EJ, Mientjes G. Human immunodeficiency virus and other risk factors for skin abscesses and endocarditis among injection drug users. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1996 ; 49 : 1149-1154.
    • 16. Darke S, Ross J, Kaye S. Physical injecting sites among injecting drug users in Sydney, Australia. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 2001 ; 62 : 77-82.
    • 17. Health Protection Agency, Health Protection Scotland, National Public Health Service for Wales, CDSC Northern Ireland, CRDHB, and the UASSG. Shooting Up : Infections Among Injecting Drug Users in the United Kingdom 2007. London : Health Protection Agency, October, 2008.
    • 18. Lamagni TL, et al. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes infections, United Kingdom, 2003-2004. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2008 ; 14 : 202-209.
    • 19. Irish C, et al. Skin and soft tissue infections and vascular disease among drug users, England [Letter]. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007 ; 13 (October).
    • 20. Jones JA, et al. An outbreak of serious illness and death among injecting drug users in England and Wales during 2000. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 2002 ; 51 : 978-984.
    • 21. Beeching, NJ, Crowcroft NS. Tetanus in injecting drug users. The latest Clostridium infection to threaten injectors in Britain. British Medical Journal 2005 ; 330 : 208-209.
    • 22. Akbulut D, et al. Outbreak report : Wound botulism in injectors of illicit drugs : upsurge in cases in England during 2004. Eurosurveillance Monthly 2005 ; 10 (September).
    • 23. Kearns AM, et al. An unusual clone of MRSA causing infection in injecting drug users. Journal of Infection 2004 ; 49 : 49-50.
    • 24. Morrison A, Elliott L, Gruer L. Injecting-related harm and treatment seeking behaviour among injecting drug users. Addiction 1997 ; 92 : 1349-1352.
    • 25. Noone A, et al. HIV infection in injecting drug users attending centres in England and Wales, 1990-1991. AIDS 1993 ; 7 : 1501-1507.
    • 26. Gordon L, et al. The Economic and Social Costs of Class A Drug use in England and Wales, 2003/04. In : Singleton N, Murray R, Tinsley L, eds. Measuring different aspects of problem drug use : methodological developments. London, Home Office, 2006. Home Office Online Report, 16/06.
    • 27. Ciccarone D, et al. Soft tissue infections among injection drug users-San Francisco, California, 1996-2000. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Reports : CDC Surveillance Summaries 2001 ; 50 : 381-384.
    • 28. French M, et al. Chronic illicit drug use, health services utilisation and the cost of medical care.Social Science & Medicine 2000 ; 50 : 1703-1713.
    • 29. van Beek I, Dwyer R, Malcom A. Cocaine injecting : the sharp end of drug related harm ! Drug & Alcohol Review 2001 ; 20 (Harm Reduction Digest 14) : 333- 342.
    • 30. Harris H, Young D, Organ Jr. C. Care of injection drug users with soft tissue infections in San Fransisco, California. Archives of Surgery 2002 ; 137 : 1217- 1222.
    • 31. Grau L, et al. Expanding harm reduction services through a wound and abscess clinic. American Journal of Public Health 2002 ; 92 : 1915-1917.
    • 32. Rhodes T, et al. Groin injecting in the context of crack cocaine and homelessness : From ' risk boundary ' to ' acceptable risk ' ? International Journal of Drug Policy 2006 ; 17 : 164-170.
    • 33. Rhodes T, et al. Crack-heroin speedball injection and its implications for vein care : qualitative study. Addiction 2007 ; 102 : 1782-1789.
    • 34. Hope VD, Hickman M, Tilling K. Capturing crackcocaine use : Estimating the prevalence of Crackcocaine use in London using capture-recapture with covariates. Addiction 2005 ; 100 : 1701-1708.
    • 35. Van Den Berg C, et al. Full participation in harm reduction programmes is associated with decreased risk for human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus : evidence from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among drug users. Addiction 2007 ; 102 : 1454-1462.
    • 36. Vickerman P, Hickman M, Judd A. Modelling the impact on hepatitis C transmission of reducing syringe sharing : London case study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2007 ; 36 : 396-405.
    • 37. Craine N, et al. Incidence of hepatitis C in drug injectors : the role of homelessness, opiate substitution treatment, equipment sharing, and community size. Epidemiology and Infection 2009 ; 137 : 1255-1265.
    • 38. NICE. Needle and syringe programmes : providing people who inject drugs with injecting equipment. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Public Health Guidance, PH18, February 2009 (http:// guidance.nice.org.uk/PH18).
    • 39. Harm Reduction Works. National Treatment Agency for Substance Use and Exchange Supplies. (www. harmreductionworks.org.uk/). Accessed 17 August 2009.
    • 40. Hickman M, et al. Hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence, and injecting risk behaviour in multiple sites in England in 2004. Journal of Viral Hepatitis 2007 ; 14 : 645-652.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article