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Grover, Darren (2012)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: GE300
The input of emerging pollutants into the natural environment is of considerable concern due to their potential implications for the health and development of humans and wildlife. Knowledge of the occurrence and removal (by sewage treatment) of these chemicals is limited and there is a need for these to be investigated if the transport and fate of these chemicals is to be better understood. To develop our understanding, reliable, accurate and precise measurements of these compounds at the very low (often sub-nanogram) concentrations at which they may be found, and may still be toxic, is crucial. However, as a result of the increasing international concern, increasing research attention has led to a large number of analytical techniques described as being suitable for the analysis of these compounds; this fragmentation and lack of collaborative focus is likely to have resulted in a lack of refinement of the techniques employed. In this research, a number of these proposed analytical and sample pre-treatment techniques have been assessed, both by internal experimentation and through inter-calibration with collaborating laboratories, to identify which techniques are best suited to further development for research in this area, and have subsequently been optimised, to examine the removal efficacy of traditional and novel sewage treatment techniques, and to monitor EDC and Pharmaceutical concentrations in several UK rivers.\ud Monitoring of the river Ray, Swindon, UK over a period of three years, using spot-sampling and 24-hour and 7-day integrated sampling, combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed mass spectrometric analyses, showed stable EDC and pharmaceutical levels, typical of comparable rivers throughout the EU, but with a significant reduction in concentrations after the installation of a granular activated charcoal plant at the Rodbourne Sewage Treatment Works (STW) of which the river Ray is a conduit. These results were in agreement with results from analyses biological assays, such as yeast estrogen screening performed independently by another laboratory.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3.4 The extraction of steroidal estrogens and selected pharmaceutical compounds
    • 3.4.1 Microwave accelerated Solvent extraction
    • 3.4.2 Clean-up of Sediment Samples
    • 3.5 Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Sample Extracts
    • 3.5.1 The Principles of Gas and Liquid Chromatography
    • 3.5.2 The Principles of Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    • 3.5.3 Mode of LC-MS/MS used for EDC and PPCP analysis
    • 3.5.4 Mode of GC-MS(/MS) used for EDC analysis
    • 3.5.5 Quantification of Target Compounds
    • 3.6 Characterisation of Water Samples
    • 3.6.1 Physical Properties
    • 3.6.2 Determination of River Sediment water content
    • 3.7 References 4. A comparison of three analytical techniques for the measurement of steroidal estrogens in environmental water samples………………………
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Experimental
    • 4.2.1 Chemicals and standard solution
    • 4.2.2 Sampling and sample treatment
    • 4.2.3 Solid phase extraction
    • 4.2.4 Derivitisation
    • 4.2.5 Samples analyses
    • LC-MS/MS
    • GC-MS/MS
    • GC-ion trap-MS
    • 4.3 Results and discussion
    • 4.3.1 Validation of the analytical methods
    • 4.3.2 Application of the analytical methods
    • 4.3.3 Comparisons with other analytical techniques
    • 4.3.1 Methods of Inter-comparison
    • 4.3.2 Results of Inter-comparison
    • 4.4 Conclusions
    • 4.5 References 5. Improvement of sample treatment techniques to reduce uncertainty of analyses of emerging pollutants……………………………………………..
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Experimental
    • 5.2.1 Sample Collection and Treatment
    • 5.3 Results and Discussion
    • 5.3.1 Initial Concentrations of Estrogens and Pharmaceutical Compounds
    • 5.3.2 Degradation of Estrogens and Pharmaceutical Compounds over time
    • 5.4 Conclusions
    • 5.5 References 6. The occurrence of steroidal estrogens in water, sediment and [1] C.E. Purdom, P.A. Hardiman, V.J. Bye, N.C. Eno, C.R. Tyler, J.P., Chem Ecol, 8 (1994), pp. 275-285 [2] J.E. Harries, D.A. Sheahan, S. Jobling, P. Matthiessen, M. Neall, J.P. Sumpter et al., Environ Toxicol Chem, 16 (1997), pp. 534-542 [3] P. Matthiessen, Pure Appl Chem, 75 (2003), pp. 2249-2261 [4] M.F. Kirby, Y.T. Allen, R.A. Dyer, S.W. Feist, I. Katsiadaki, P. Matthiessen et al., Environ Toxicol Chem, 23 (2004), pp. 748-758 [5] L.J. Mills, C. Chichester, Sci. Total Environ., 343 (2005), pp. 1-34 [6] M.P. Sárria, M.M. Santos, M.A. Reis-Henriques, N.M. Vieira, N.M. Monteiro, Environ. Int., 37 (2011), pp. 418-424 [7] J. Toppari, J.C. Larsen, P. Christiansen (Eds.), Male Reproductive Health and Environmental Chemicals with Estrogenic Effects, Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (1995) [8] M. Wormke, M. Stoner, B. Saville, S. Safe, FEBS Lett., 478 (2000), pp. 109-112 [9] Sumpter, JP., Toxicology 178 (1) : 39- 40 [10] British National Formulary, http://www.bnf.org/bnf/index.htm [11] T.A. Ternes, M. Stumpf, J. Mueller, K. Haberer, R.D. Wilken, M. Servos, Sci. Total Environ., 225 (1999), pp. 81-90
    • Bioanal. Chem., 378 (2004), pp. 697-708 [12] C. Baronti, R. Curini, G. D‟Ascenzo, A. Di Corcia, A. Gentili, R. Samperi, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34 (2000), pp. 5059-5066 [13] 34. Jones, K.C. and P. de Voogt, Environmental Pollution, (1999). 100 (1-3): p. 209-
    • 221. [14] Thorpe, KL., Cummings, RI., Hutchinson, TH., Scholze, M., Brighty, G., Sumpter, JP. and Tyler, CR., Environmental Science and Technology 37 (6) : 1142- 1149 [15] Sarmah, A.K., Northcott, G.L, Leusch, F.D.L, Tremblay, L.A. Science of The Total
    • Environment, (2005). In Press, Corrected Proof. [16] Matthiessen P, A.D., Johnson A C, Pepper T J, Pottinger T G, Pulman K G T. Science
    • of the Total Environment, (2006). 367(2-3): p. 616-630. [17] Sarmah A K, N.G.L., Leusch F D L, Tremblay L A. Science of the Total Environment,
    • EDCAT project - Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Catchments (2008). Report to
    • the Department for Food, Environment and Rural Affairs (Defra). (10) Balaam, J., Readman, J.W., Zhou, J.L., Grover, D.P., Roberts, P., Frickers,
    • of the EDCAT project - Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Catchments (2007).
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