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Shepherd, Jonathan Paul
Publisher: What Works Network/Cardiff University
Languages: English
Types: Book
Subjects: RA0421
An evaluation of the What Works initiative, a network of independent centres whose role is to gather, synthesise and disseminate evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in key policy areas, including health and social care, education attainment, ageing better, local economic growth, crime reduction and early intervention. Using the analogy of the supply chain borrowed from the petrochemical industry, the study outlines key aspects of the evidence ecosystem in which the centres operate, including evidence flow, demand pulls, transmission lines, usability, waste and incentives. Drawing on a literature review, the report identifies interventions most likely to improve the implementation of evidence in policy making and delivery and outlines the characteristics of evidence ecosystems that contribute most to their effectiveness and efficiency. The study then presents the findings from fifty-five semi-structured interviews with a structured sample of personnel in each What Works sector, reflecting on evidence sources, transmission lines, problems and incentives across sectors. It concludes with the presentation of a generic form of the evidence ecosystem followed by a list of generic recommendations, addressing issues across all What Works sectors and focusing on evidence creation, translation and implementation. The ecosystem adapted for each What Works sector is then presented followed by lists of recommendations for each sector.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. The evidence ecosystem .................................... 9
    • 2. Requirements for the adoption of evidencebased interventions and programmes .............11 Literature search strategy .......................................11 A useful and relevant body of evidence ................11 Supportive structures.............................................. 13 A workforce able and eager to use evidence .......14 Appraisal and readjustment.................................... 17 Targeted interventions ............................................. 18 Summary .................................................................... 18 Brands and branding ............................................... 18 Recommendations....................................................21
    • 3. Characterising the evidence ecosystem: evidence sources, transmission lines, problems and incentives ................................................... 22 Crime reduction .........................................................22 Health and social care ............................................. 23 Education ................................................................... 25 Early intervention ..................................................... 26 Ageing better ............................................................. 28 Local economic growth........................................... 29 Appendix................................................................ 50 Interviewees .............................................................. 50 M a r k e 50% t s h a r e
    • 1. Cubitt, JM, England WA, Larter SR. Understanding 13. Pronovost PJ, Berenholtz SM, Needham DM. Translating Petroleum Reservoirs: Towards an Integrated evidence into practice: a model for large scale Reservoir Engineering and Geochemical knowledge translation. BMJ 2008; 337: a1714. Approach. The Geological Society; 2004. 14. Sampson RJ, Winship C, Knight C. Overview of: “Translating
    • 2. Edwards R. Well-to-Wheels analysis of future automotive Causal Claims: Principles and Strategies for Policy-Relevant fuels and powertrains in the European context. JEC/ Criminology”. Criminology & Public Policy 2014; 12: 585-86. CONCAWE/EUCAR, WELL-TO-TANK Report Version 3.0. 2008. 15. Stokes K, Barker R, Piggott R. Which doctors take up
    • 3. Keesom B, Blieszner J & Unnasch S. EU Pathway promising ideas? New insights from open data. Nesta; 2014. Study: Life Cycle Assessment of Crude Oils in a European 16. Heiwe S, Kajermo KN, Tyni-Lenne R, Guidetti S, Samuelsson Context. Calgary: Jacobs Consultancy; 2012. M, Andersson I-L, Wengström Y. Evidence-based practice:
    • 4. Crane. Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, attitudes,knowledge and behavior among allied health Crane Technical Paper No. 410 (TP-410). Crane Co.; 2006 care professionals. Int J Qual Health Care 2011; 23: 198-209.
    • 5. Lefler W. Petroleum refining (4th Edition) . 17. Spaapen J, van Drooge L. Introducing “productive Tulsa: PennWell Corporation; 2008. interactions” in social impact assessment.
    • 6. Chalmers I, Glaziou P. Avoidable waste in the production Research Evaluation 2011; 20: 211-218. and reporting of research evidence. Lancet 2009; 374: 86-9. 18. Davies P. Is Evidence-Based Government Possible?
    • 7. Wallace J, Nwosu B, Clarke M. Barriers to the Jerry Lee Lecture 2004, presented to Campbell uptake of evidence from systematic reviews and Collaboration Colloquium, Washington DC, 2004. meta-analyses: a systematic review of decision 19. Sheldon TA, Cullum N, Dawson D, Lankshear A, Lowson makers' perceptions. BMJ Open 2012; 2: e001220. K, Watt I, West P, Wright D, Wright J. What's the evidence
    • 8. Foy R, MacLennan G, Grimshaw J,Penney G,Campbell that NICE guidance has been implemented? Results from M, Grol R. Attributes of clinical recommendations a national evaluation using time series analysis, audit that inuflence change in practice following audit of patients' notes, and interviews. BMJ 2004; 329: 999. and feedback. J Clin Epidemiol 2002; 55: 717-22. 20. Shepherd JP. How clinical research changed the
    • 9. Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Bate P, Macfarlane F. Difusion habit of a lifetime. Br Dent J 1997; 183: 121. of innovations in health service organisations: a 21. Tooke J et al. Report of the Spring Meeting for Clinician systematic review. London: BMJ books; 2005. Scientists in Training. Lancet (Special Issue) 2014.
    • 10. Grol R, Grimshaw J. From best evidence to best 22. Shepherd JP. Explaining feast or famine in randomised practice: efective implementation of change in ifeld trials: medical science and criminology patients' care. Lancet 2003; 362: 1,225-30. compared. Evaluation Review 2003; 27: 290-315.
    • 11. Honig MI, Coburn CE. When districts use 23. Shepherd JP. The production and management evidence for instructional improvement: What of evidence for public service reform. do we know and where do we go from here? Evidence and Policy 2007; 3: 231-51. Voices in Urban Education 2005; 6: 22-29. 24. Bero L, Grilli R, Grimshaw J et al. Closing the gap between
    • 12. Nutley S, Davies H, Walter I. Evidence Based Policy and research and practice: an overview of systematic Practice: Cross Sector Lessons from the UK. Paper presented reviews of interventions to promote the implementation at a seminar on 'Evidence-Based Policy and Practice', of research nfidings. BMJ 1998: 317: 465-68. organised by the Royal Society, Wellington, 2002.
    • 40. Shepherd JP. Report of the Summit: Professions and Evidence-Informed Practice. Alliance for Useful Evidence. www.alliance4usefulevidence.org/ publication/report-of-the-professions-summitprofessions-and-evidence-informed-practice/.
    • 41. Mitchell, C. Selling the brand inside. Harvard Business Review 2002. http://hbr.org/2002/01/ selling-the-brand-inside/ar/1.
    • 42. Anholt, S. Competitive identity: the new brand management for nations, cities and regions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2007.
    • 43. Evans JR, Berman B. Marketing. New York: Macmillan; 1982.
    • 44. Needham C. Brand Leaders: Clinton, Blair and the Limitations of the Permanent Campaign. Political Studies 2005; 53: 343-61.
    • 45. Healey, M. What is branding? Switzerland: Rotavision; 2008.
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