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Lee, Imogen Claire
Publisher: Goldsmiths, University of London
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
This thesis provides the first comprehensive examination of how children’s abilities were ‘classified’ and managed in London, following the creation of school places under the 1870 Elementary Education Act. It explores how new schools (known as Board Schools), shaped and were shaped by the diverse social, physical and mental capabilities of London’s children. I argue it was only through administering the 1870 Education Act across such a diverse city that a right to schooling was shown to be not enough, children needed a right to learn. Yet learning was not uniform and different authorities could not agree on how and what children needed for successful learning. The idea of the Board School and its students would become increasingly pluralistic.\ud In 1874 the School Board for London (SBL) described it as its ‘duty’ to educate London’s near half a million child-population. In order to realise this duty ideas of school and child were challenged. This thesis examines how these ideas developed from the implementation of the Education Act in 1870 to the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913 prior to the Great War. I unpick how children and their learning began to be classified by teachers, inspectors, doctors and local and national government bodies. In so doing I demonstrate how children’s abilities and disabilities, their origins and impact, could be both challenged and reinforced by the education system. Legislation and reports of Royal Commissions and government departments provide some of the voices and context for this study, but it is only by focusing on individual schools within The Capital that the day-to-day realities of classification emerges. Such focus reveals how and why the identification and treatment of children with perceived physical and mental ‘defects’ is a history which must be seen as part, not set apart, from the development of elementary schooling.
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    • 2.10 E.R. Robson, 'Desk for Graded School', plate 115, in Edward.R. Robson, School Architecture: Being Practical Remarks on the Planning, Designing, Building, and furnishing of School Houses (John Murray, London, 1874), p. 172 359
    • 2.11 Robson, 'Suggested plan for Graded school of 210 children embodying the use of the dual desk five rows deep,' plate 118, Robson, Architecture, p. 174 359
    • 2.12 Robson, 'Locality of the first Board School erected in London', plate 197, in Robson, Architecture, p. 291 360
    • 2.13 Robson, 'Old Castle Street School', plate 198, in Robson, Architecture, p. 293 360
    • 2.14 LMA: SBL/1500, 'Bolingbroke Road', plan, Report of the School Management Committee of the Late School Board for London (1904), p. 14 361
    • 2.15 LMA: 4211/001, Anonymous, 'Drill', Rosendale Road, (West Lambeth), photograph, (1896-7) 361
    • 2.16 Ordinance survey, (1872), London Sheet 7.85, Borough, Godgry Ed. 1:1750. OS, Gateshead, Alan Godfry Maps. 350
    • 2.17 Robson, 'Orange Street School' plate 234, in Robson, Architecture, p. 333 362
    • 10 Gareth Stedman Jones, Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History 1832-
    • 1982 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983), p. 221 19
    • All London Metropolitan Archives  LCC/EO/PS/12/B28/1-44, Beethoven Street, (1882-1936)  LCC/EO/PS/12/B49/1-43, Bloomfield Road, (1877-1913)  LCC/EO/PS/12/B50/1-54, Bolingbroke Road, (1874-1913)  LCC/EO/PS/12/D35/1-49, Droop Street, (1879-1949)  LCC/EO/PS/12/KIL/1-43 Kilburn Lane, (1886-1911)  LCC/EO/PS/12/C31/1-28, Lant Street, (1894-1911)  LCC/EO/PS/12/M21/1-28, Maryon Park, (1897-1913)  LCC/EO/PS/12/M41/1-53, Monnow Road, (1879-1926)  LCC/EO/PS/12/O/012/1-52, Orange Street, (1874-1936)  LCC/EO/PS/12/S106/1-43, Surrey Lane, (1896-1924)
    • All London Metropolitan Archive  LCC/EO/DIV2/BEE/LB/1, Beethoven Street Boys (1880-1881)  LCC/EO/DIV2/BEE/LB/2, Beethoven Street Mixed, (1881-1901)  LCC/EO/DIV2/BEE/LB/4, Beethoven Street Mixed, (1901-13)  LCC/EO/DIV6/BLO/LB1-2, Bloomfield Road Boys, (1906-1913)  LCC/EO/DIV6/BLO/LB/5, Bloomfield Road Girls, (1906-1913)  LCC/EO/DIV6/BLO/LB/6, Bloomfield Road Girls, (1913-1928)  LCC/EO/DIV2/KIL/LB/1, Kilburn Lane Boys, (1885 -1906)  LCC/EO/DIV2/KIL/LB/7-8, Kilburn Lane Girls, (1900 - 1913)  LCC/EO/DIV2/KIL/LB/12, Kilburn Lane Infants (1913 - 1920)  LCC/EO/DIV8/LAT/LB/1, Lant Street Boys, (1901 - 1913)  LCC/EO/DIV8/LAT/LB/2, Lant Street Infants, (1900-1913)  LCC/EO/DIV6/MAY/LB/8, Maryon Park Infants, (1896-1913)  LCC/EO/DIV6/MAY/LB/4, Maryon Park Girls, (1913-1921)  LCC/EO/DIV8/MON/LB/1, Monnow Road Boys, (1895 - 1909)  LCC/EO/DIV6/POW/LB/1, Powis Street MD, (1894-1913)  LCC/EO/DIV9/SUR/LB/3, Surrey Lane Girls, (1905-1913)
    •  LCC/LCC/EO/PS/6/59, Kensal Green Group, Minutes of Managers, June 1891 to July 1896
    •  LCC/LCC/EO/PS/6/60, Kensal Green Group, Minutes of Managers, Sept. 1896 to Sept. 1902
    •  LCC/LCC/EO/PS/6/57, Kensal Green Group, Minutes of Managers, July 1877 to January 1886
    •  LCC/LCC/EO/PS/6/14, Bolingbroke Road Group, Minutes of Managers, Sept. 1886 to March 1894
    •  LCC/LCC/EO/PS/6/15, Bolingbroke Road Group, Minutes of Managers, April 1894 to September 1898
    •  22.05, School Board for London, Minutes of Proceedings, 1870-1900
    •  22.05 LCC, London County Council Education Committee, Minutes of Proceedings, 1904-1916
    •  SBL/0430, Special Committee on Overpressure - Signed Minutes
    •  'The Alleged Murder of a Female in Southwark', The Standard (20th September 1855) [unnumbered]
    •  'The Work And The Worth Of The School Board', The Examiner, (Saturday, November 19, 1870)
    •  'Orange Street Corporal Punishment', Daily News (20th July 1876), p. 3
    •  'Orange Street corporal punishment', Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper (23rd July 1876), p.4
    •  'Police Intelligence: Wandsworth', The Morning Post (20th September 1878), p. 7
    •  Rev. R. A, Armstrong, 'The overstrain in Education', The Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, (Monday, 16th April 1883), p. 6
    •  'Educational Conference At Norwich', The Morning Post (Thursday 9th April 1885), pg. 2
    •  'Echoes Of The Week', The Newcastle Weekly Courant, (Friday 10th April 1885), p.4
    •  'Elementary Teachers' Conference', The Leeds Mercury, (Saturday 11th April 1885) p.8
    •  'Children's Free Dinners', The Standard (Tuesday 22nd December 1885), pg. 3
    •  'School Board Drill Competition', The Morning Post (18th July 1889), p.3
    •  'Studies in Board School', Daily News Wednesday (29th September 1897), p.6
    •  'Studies in Board School', The Morning Post (8th October 1897), p.3
    •  'Studies in Board School', The Pall Mall Gazette (Monday, 11th October 1897), p.10
    •  Anderson, Julie and Carden-Coyne, Ana, 'Enabling the Past: New Perspectives in the History of Disability,' pp. 447-457 in European Review of History Vol. 14, No. 4 (Dec, 2007)
    •  Anderson, Julie, 'Review Article “Voices in the Dark: Representations of Disability in Historical Research” pp. 107-116 in Journal of Contemporary History Vol. 44, (1), (2009)
    •  Bartlett, Peter, Review of 'The Borderland of Imbecility: Medicine, Society and the Fabrication of the Feeble Mind in Late Victorian and Edwardian England', (review no. 289) http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/289
    •  Bredberg, Elizabeth, 'Writing Disability History: Problems, perspectives and sources,' pp. 189-201 in Disability and Society, Vol, 14, No. 2 (1999)
    •  Bremner, Alex, 'Nation and Empire in the Government Architecture of Mid-Victorian London: The Foreign and India Office Reconsidered', pp. 703-742 in The Historical Journal, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Sept, 2005)
    •  Bressey, Caroline, 'The City of Others: Photographs from the City of London Asylum Archive', pp.1-15 in 19: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 13 (2011) http://19.bbk.ac.uk
    •  Burke, Catherine and Ribeiro de Castro, Helena, 'The School Photograph: Portraiture and the Art of Assembling the Body of the Schoolchild' pp. 213-226 in History of Education Vol. 36, No. 2, (March, 2007)
    •  Copeland, Ian, 'The Establishment of Models of Education for Disabled Children' pp. 179-200 in British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Jun, 1995)
    •  Davin, Anna, 'Imperialism and Motherhood' pp.9-66 in History Workshop Journal, Issue 5 (Spring, 1978)
    •  Davin, Anna, 'Loaves and Fishes: Food in Poor Households in Late Nineteenth-Century London,' pp. 167-192, in History Workshop Journal, No. 41 (Spring, 1996)
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