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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillian
Languages: English
Types: Other
Subjects: 4000, 2050
Security Council resolution 1325 was a landmark in collective security, making the link between women's security and international peace and security. This book argues it is time to rethink the way the women, peace and security framework has impacted on peacekeeping, gender equality and collective security, drawing lessons from past practices and re-framing gender perspectives. From the hyper visibility of sexual violence to strategies for 'counting the women', this book considers the limitations of the contemporary women, peace and security agenda. It urges for a renewed structure that returns to the anti-militarist agenda associated with feminist thinking and one that recognises and responds to women's diversity and takes seriously the dangers of pursing peace through the Security Council.
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    • 1. Laura Bush launched President George W. Bush's 'women's rights' campaign in Afghanistan on the President's weekly radio address, on 17 November 2001: see D. Stout, 'A nation challenged: The First Lady; Mrs Bush cites women's plight under the Taliban', The New York Times (18 November 2001), p. 4. Starting just before the invasion of Iraq in 2003, Iraqi women were heralded by the US Administration as promoters of freedom and democracy: see N. Al-Ali, 'Embedded feminism - Women's rights as justification for war', Gunda Werner Institute, http://www.gwi-boell.de/web/un-resolutions-embeddedfeminism-nadje-al-ali-2811.html (last accessed October 2013). Contrast with P. J. Dobriansky, M. Alattar, Z. Al-Suwaij, T. Gilly and E. Naama, 'Human rights and women in Iraq: Voices of Iraqi women', US Department of State Archive (6 March 2003), http://2001-2009.state.gov/g/rls/rm/2003/18477 .htm (last accessed October 2013).
    • 2. L. B. Costin, 'Feminism, pacifism, internationalism and the 1915 International Congress of Women', Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 5, No. 3-4 (1982), p. 301; A. Wiltsher, Most Dangerous Women: Feminist Peace Campaigners of the Great War (London: Pandora Press, 1985); L. Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997); J. A. Tickner, Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992); and C. Enloe, Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women's Lives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).
    • 3. See, for example, D. Otto, 'Power and danger: Feminist engagement with international law through the UN Security Council', Australian Feminist Law Journal, Vol. 32 (2010), p. 97.
    • 4. Security Council Resolution 1325, UN Doc. S/RES/1325 (31 October 2000) (SCR 1325).
    • 5. C. Cohn, H. Kinsella and S. Gibbings, 'Women, peace and security: Resolution 1325', International Feminist Journal of Politics, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2004), p. 130; D. Otto, 'A sign of “weakness”? Disrupting gender certainties in the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325', Michigan Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. 13, No. 1 (2006), p. 113.
    • 6. United Nations Department of Public Information, 'Peace Inextricably Linked with Equality between Women and Men Says Security Council, in International Women's Day Statement' (Press Release No. SC/6816, United Nations, 8 March 2000): '[T]he Security Council recognize[s] that peace is inextricably linked with equality between women and men … [and] that the equal access and full participation of women in power structures and their full involvement in all efforts for the prevention and resolution of conflicts are essential for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security'.
    • 7. SCR 1325, paras 1-4.
    • 8. Five organisations were initially involved in the NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security: the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom; International Alert; Amnesty International; the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children; and the Hague Appeal for Peace. They have since been joined by: Femmes Africa Solidarite; International Women's Tribune Centre; Women's Action for New Directions; Women's Division of the General Board of Global Ministries of the United Methodist Church; and the Women's Environment and Development Organization. The Women's Caucus for Gender Justice in the International Criminal Court was also a member for a period of time. See further NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security (2013), http://www.womenpeacesecurity.org (last accessed October 2013).
    • 9. PeaceWomen, http://www.peacewomen.org, a project of WILPF. The e-newsletter can be found at http://www.peacewomen.org/publications_enews.php (last accessed October 2013).
    • 10. Security Council Resolution 1820, UN Doc. S/RES/1820 (19 June 2008) (SCR 1820); Security Council Resolution 1888, UN Doc. S/RES/1888 (30 September 2009) (SCR 1888); Security Council Resolution 1889, UN Doc. S/RES/1889 (5 October 2009) (SCR 1889); Security Council Resolution 1960, UN Doc. S/RES/1960 (16 December 2010) (SCR 1960); Security Council Resolution 2106, UN Doc. S/RES//2106 (24 June 2013) (SCR 2106); and Security Council Resolution 2122, UN Doc. S/RES/2122 (18 October 2013) (SCR 2122).
    • 11. The first of these resolutions, SCR 1820, does not establish any accountability mechanisms as such. The second, SCR 1888, para. 4, requests the UN Secretary-General to appoint a Special Representative to provide leadership in order to ensure that sexual violence during armed conflict is addressed; and para. 8, calls on the Secretary-General to establish a Team of Experts who can be deployed rapidly to situations of specific concern. The third, SCR 1960, paras 3, 4, 6 and 7, establishes listing, monitoring and sanctions procedures to enable the Security Council to hold parties to armed conflict, who are credibly suspected of perpetrating sexual violence, to account. The fourth, SCR 2106, para. 6, calls for more timely and reliable information to enable more effective prevention and response.
    • 12. SCR 2122, paras 1 and 15.
    • 13. Peacekeeping in the Asia-Pacific: Gender Equality, Law and Collective Security, Melbourne Law School, 19-20 April 2012, an international symposium hosted by the Asia Pacific Centre for Military Law (APCML), in conjunction with the Centre for Gender Studies, SOAS, University of London. Funding was generously provided by the British Academy, APCML, the United Nations Population Fund and Melbourne Law School.
    • 14. SCR 1325, para. 5.
    • 15. S. Whitworth, Men, Militarism and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2004), p. 120.
    • 16. The first operation of this kind was the UN Emergency Force, established by the UN General Assembly to secure an end to the 1956 Suez Crisis with Resolution 1001 (ES-I) on 7 November 1956. The UN Emergency Force was deployed on both sides of the armistice line.
    • 17. B. Boutros-Ghali, An Agenda for Peace: Preventative Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping (New York: United Nations, 1992), para. 20.
    • 18. C. Bell and C. O'Rourke, 'Peace agreements or pieces of paper? The impact of UNSC Resolution 1325 on peace processes and their agreements', International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 4 (2010), p. 941; F. Ní Aoláin, 'Women, security, and the patriarchy of internationalized transitional justice', Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 4 (2009), p. 1055.
    • 19. SCR 1325, para. 5.
    • 20. D. Otto, 'The Security Council's alliance of “gender legitimacy”: The symbolic capital of Resolution 1325', in H. Charlesworth and J. Coicaud (eds), Fault Lines of International Legitimacy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), p. 239.
    • 21. Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, Gender Mainstreaming: An Overview (New York: United Nations, 2002), p. 1.
    • 22. Charter of the United Nations, opened for signature on 26 June 1945, 1 UNTS XVI (entered into force on 24 October 1945) (UN Charter).
    • 23. SCR 1325, para. 14; SCR 1960, para. 7; and SCR 2106, para. 13.
    • 24. SCR 1820, para. 1; SCR 1888, para. 1; SCR 1960, para. 1; and SCR 2106, para. 1.
    • 25. SCR 1820, para. 1; SCR 1888, para. 1; SCR 1960, para. 1; and SCR 2106, para. 1.
    • 26. For elaboration, see G. Heathcote, The Law on the Use of Force: A Feminist Analysis (Abingdon: Routledge, 2011).
    • 27. Stop Rape Now, http://www.stoprapenow.org (last accessed October 2013). See also UN Action against Sexual Violence in Conflict, 'UN Action public service announcement - Stop rape now', YouTube (10 May 2010), http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9fg2oHHBaM (last accessed October 2013).
    • 28. FemLINKPACIFIC (2007), http://www.femlinkpacific.org.fj (last accessed October 2013).
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