LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Smith, Jennifer; Durham, Mercedes (2012)
Publisher: Duke University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: P1
This article investigates the use of traditional dialect forms in a community in Shetland, northern Scotland. Specifically, we seek to establish whether the younger generations' patterns of language use signal rapid dialect obsolescence or bidialectalism. It compares recordings in which audience design is manipulated—the addressee is either an insider or an outsider—across a range of lexical, phonological, and morphosyntactic variables. Results show that only some of the younger speakers are bidialectal: the remaining speakers use virtually no dialect forms. These findings may signal dialect shift and a move from local to standard in the coming generations. The article further explores the linguistic details of the bidialectal speakers' language use through a qualitative and quantitative comparison of forms across the different recordings. It finds that the use of the two varieties operates on a continuum, where rates of use differ but constraints remain the same across the two speech styles. It discusses these findings against the backdrop of bidialectalism and the process of dialect obsolescence in the British Isles and elsewhere.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 2 The analysis for hoose is auditory. The standard and local variants are said to be discrete, rather than forming a continuum of use from monophthong to diphthong (e.g. Macafee 1997: 521, Macaulay 1991).
    • 9 A chi square test comparing the rates of Joanne's first and second recordings is statistically significant (p < 0.05 df = 1, χ2 = 7.8), as is Valerie's (p < 0.001 df = 1, χ 2 = 13.1) and Lisa's (p < 0.05 df = 1, χ2 = 10.4). The test for Jake is not statistically significant (p > 0.05, df = 1, χ2 = 0.34) and neither is Stewart's (p > 0.05, df=1, χ2 = 0.22).
    • 10 A chi square test comparing the rates of Sean's first and second recordings is statistically significant at p < 0.05 (df = 1, χ2 = 5.7). The test for Mark (p > 0.05, df =1, χ2 = 1.9) and Rory (p > 0.05, df =1, χ2 = 0.2) is not statistically significant. Although Michelle's rates of th- stopping and her overall number of tokens make it impossible to test for statistical significance, the rates between the first and second recording are within one percent of each other which suggests no difference.
    • Cornips, Leonie and Aafke Hulk. 2006. “External and Internal Factors in Bilingual and Bidialectal Language Development: Grammatical Gender of the Dutch Definite Determiner”. In L2 Acquisition and Creole Genesis: Dialogues, ed. Claire Lefebvre, Lydia White and Christine Jourdan, 355-378. Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins, 2006.
    • Coupland, Nikolas. 1980. “Style-shifting in a Cardiff work setting”. Language in Society, 9: 1-12.
    • Douglas-Cowie, Ellen. 1978. “Linguistic code-switching in a North Irish Village”. In Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English, ed. Peter Trudgill, 37-51. London: Edward Arnold.
    • Dorian, Nancy C. 1994. “Varieties of variation in a very small place: Social homogeneity, prestige norms, and linguistic variation”. Language 70: 631- 96.
    • Eckert, Penelope. 2008. Variation and the indexical field. Journal of Sociolinguistics. 12: 453-76.
    • Fishman, Joshua A. 1964. “Language maintenance and language shift as a field of inquiry”. Linguistics 9: 32-70.
    • Giles, Howard, Donald Taylor, and Richard Y. Bourhis. 1973. “Towards a theory of interpersonal accommodation through language: Some Canadian data”. Language in Society 2:77-192.
    • Hazen, Kirk. 2001. “An introductory investigation into bidialectalism”. In Penn Working Papers in Linguistics: Selected papers from NWAV 29, ed. Daniel Johnson and Tara Sanchez, 85-99. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania.
    • Hazen, Kirk. 2006. The final days of Appalachian heritage language. In Language variation and change in the American Midland, ed. Thomas E. Murray & Beth Lee Simon, 129-150. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
    • Houston, S. H. 1969. “A Sociolinguistic consideration of Black English of children in Northern Florida”. Language 45: 599-607.
    • Irvine, Alison. 2008. “Contrast and convergence in Standard Jamaican English: the phonological architecture of the standard in an ideologically bidialectal community”. World Englishes 27: 9-25.
    • Johnston, Paul. 1997. “Regional variation”. In The Edinburgh History of the Scots Language, ed. Charles Jones, 433-513. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    • Kerswill, Paul. 1987. “Levels of Linguistic Variation”. Journal of Linguistics 23: 25-49.
    • Kerswill, Paul and Ann Williams. 2002. "'Salience' as an explanatory factor in language change: Evidence from dialect levelling in urban England”. In Language change: The interplay of internal, external and extralinguistic factors, ed. Mari C. Jones and Edith Esch, 81-110. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Knooihuizen, Remco. 2005. “The Norn-to-Scots language shift: another look at sociohistorical evidence”. Northern Studies 39: 105-117.
    • Knooihuizen, Remco. 2010. “Perspectives on the Norn-to-Scots language shift in Shetland”. In Jakob Jakobsen in Shetland and the Faroes, ed. Turið Sigurðardóttir and Brian Smith, 85-98. Lerwick: Shetland Amenity Trust.
    • Kytö, Merja. 1997. “Be/have + past participle: The choice of the auxiliary with intransitives from Late Middle to Modern English”. In English in transition: Corpus-based studies in Linguistic Variation and Genre Styles, ed. Matti Rissanen, Merja Kytö and Kirsi Heikkonen, 17-84. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Labov, William. 1966. The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    • Labov, William. 1972. Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    • Labov, William. 1994. Principles of linguistic change: Internal factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
    • Labov, William. 1998. “Co-existent systems in African-American Vernacular English”. In The structure of African-American English: Structure, history and use, ed. Salikoko Mufwene, John Rickford, Guy Bailey and John Baugh, 110-153. London and New York: Routledge.
    • Labov, William. 2001. “The anatomy of style-shifting”. In Style and sociolinguistic variation, ed. Penelope Eckert and John Rickford, 85-108. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
    • Labov, William, Ash, Sharon, Ravindranath, Maya, Weldon, Tracey, Baranowski, Maciej, Nagy, Naomi. 2011. Properties of the Sociolinguistic Monitor. Journal of Sociolinguistics. 15(4):431-463
    • Lim, Laureen and Guy, Gregory. 2005. “The limits of linguistic community: speech styles and variable constraint effects”. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 10: 157- 170.
    • Linnes, Kathleen. 1998. “Middle-class AAVE versus middle-class bilingualism: Contrasting speech communities”. American Speech 73: 339-67.
    • Lippi-Green, Rosina. 1997. English with an Accent: Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. London: Routledge.
    • Macafee, Caroline (1997). Ongoing change in modern Scots: The social dimension. In Charles Jones (ed.), The Edinburgh history of the Scots language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 514-548.
    • Macaulay, Ronald K. S. (1991). Locating dialect in discourse: The language of honest men and bonnie lassies in Ayr. New York: Oxford University Press.
    • Melchers, Gunnel. 1983. NORN, The Scandinavian element in Shetland dialect, report No. 1: a presentation of the project. Department of English, Stockholm University.
    • Melchers, Gunnel. 1991. Norn-Scots: A complicated language contact situation in Shetland. In Language Contact in the British Isles: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988, ed. P. Sture Ureland and George Broderick, 461-477. Linguistische Arbeiten 238. Tübingen, Germany: Max Niemeyer.
    • Melchers, Gunnel. 1996. "'We're aa da same here - but different, too': some notes on regional linguistic variation in Shetland”. In Shetland's northern links: language and history, ed. Doreen Waugh and Brendan Smith, 44-51. Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies.
    • Melchers, Gunnel. 2004a. “English spoken in Orkney and Shetland: Phonology”. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 1 Phonology, ed. Bernd Kortmann and Edgar Schneider, 35-46. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Melchers, Gunnel. 2004b. “English spoken in Orkney and Shetland: Morphology, syntax and lexicon”. In A Handbook of Varieties of English, Vol. 2 Morphology and Syntax, ed. Bernd Kortmann and Edgar Schneider, 34-47. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    • Millar, Robert. 2007. Northern and Insular Scots. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    • Miller, James. 1993. The grammar of Scottish English. In Real English: The Grammar of English Dialects in the British Isles, ed. James Milroy and Lesley Milroy, 99-138. Harlow: Longman.
    • Moore, Emma and Robert J. Podesva. 2009. “Style, indexicality and the social meaning of tag questions”. Language in Society 38: 447-485.
    • Mufwene, Salikoko. 2001. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Papapavlou, Andreas. 2004. “Verbal fluency of bidialectal speakers of Standard Modern Greek and the role of language-in-education practices in Cyprus”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 168: 91-100.
    • Pavlenko, Alexander. 1997. “The origin of the be-perfect with transitives in the Shetland dialect”. Scottish Language 16: 88-96.
    • Roeper, T. (1999) “Universal bilingualism”. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 2, 169- 186.
    • Rickford, John and Faye McNair-Knox. 1994. “Addressee- and topic- influenced style shift: A quantitative sociolinguistic study”. In Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register, ed. Douglas Biber and Edward Finegan, 235-276. New York, Oxford University Press.
    • Robertson, T. A. and John Graham. 1952/1991. Grammar and Usage of the Shetland Dialect. Lerwick: Shetland Times Ltd.
    • Schiffrin, Deborah. 1987. Discourse markers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    • Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 1998. “Investigating 'self-conscious' speech: The performance register in Ocracoke English”. Language in Society 27: 53-83.
    • Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2004. “Constructing ethnicity in interaction”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8: 163-195.
    • Sharma, Devyani. 2011. “Style Repertoire and Social Change in British Asian English”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15: 464-492
    • Smith, Brian. 1996. The development of the spoken and written Shetland dialect: a historian's view. In Shetland's Northern Links: Language and History, ed. Doreen Waugh and Brendan Smith, 30-43. Edinburgh: Scottish Society for Northern Studies.
    • Smith, Jennifer & Mercedes Durham. 2011. “A Tipping Point in Dialect Obsolescence? Change across the Generations in Lerwick, Shetland”. Journal of Sociolinguistics 15: 197-225.
    • Smith, Jennifer, Mercedes Durham & Liane Fortune. 2007. “Community, caregiver and child in the acquisition of variation in a Scottish dialect”. Language Variation and Change 19: 63-99.
    • Smith, Jennifer, Mercedes Durham & Liane Fortune. 2009. “Universal, dialect-specific pathways of acquisition: Caregivers, children and t/d deletion”. Language Variation and Change 21: 69-95.
    • Stuart-Smith, Jane. 2003. “The phonology of Modern Urban Scots”. In The Edinburgh Companion to Scots, ed. John Corbett, J. Derrick McClure and Jane Stuart-Smith, 110-137. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    • Tagliamonte, Sali. 2000. “The grammaticalization of the present perfect in English: Tracks of change and continuity in a linguistic enclave”. In Pathways of Change: Grammaticalization in English, ed. Olga Fischer, Anette Rosenbach, and Dieter Stein, 329-354. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    • Tait, John. 2001. "Whit is Shetlandic?", Lallans 58: 7-16.
    • Thelander, Mats. 1982. “A qualitative approach to the quantitative data of speech variation”. In Sociolinguistic variation in speech communities, ed. Suzanne Romaine, 65-83. London: Hodder Arnold.
    • Trudgill, Peter. 1972. “Sex, covert prestige, and linguistic change in the urban British English of Norwich.” Language in Society 1: 179-195
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article