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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Cowan, Brian (1998)
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: DA
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    • 7 Samuel Richardson, Clarissa; or, The History of a Young Lady, 4 vols. (1748; reprint,London,1932), 2:59.
    • 8HenryFielding,TomJones,ed. MartinBattestinandFredsonBowers,bk.5, chap.5 (1749;reprintO,xford,1974), 1:232-33. See alsoFielding'sJosephAndrews,ed. Douglas Brooks-Davies,(1742; reprint,Oxford, 1970), 3:3, 189-90; and MartinBattestin,The Moral Basis of Fielding's Art: A Study of Joseph Andrews (Middletown, Conn., 1959), pp. 11-13.
    • 14 Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness, p. 76, n. 17, "Liberty, Manners and Politeness in Early Eighteenth-CenturEyngland," Historical Journal 32, no. 3 (1989): 583-605.
    • 15 Champion, Pillars; A. B. Worden, "Introduction," in A Voyce from the Watch Tower,PartFive: 1660-1662, ed. A. B. Worden,CamdenFourthSeries,vol. 21 (London, 1978), pp. 1-84.
    • 16 See the workscited in note 13 above.
    • 17The firstearlof Shaftesbury'srole in the formationof a whig identityhasrecently undergone significant revision; see Tim Harris, London Crowds in the Reign of Charles II (Cambridge, 1987), p. 100; JonathanScott, Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis, 1677-1683 (Cambridge1,991),esp. pp. 13-14; andMarkKnights,Politicsand Opinion in Crisis, 1678-1681, (Cambridge,1994), esp. pp. 107, 131-34.
    • 18 Hannah Pitkin, Fortune Is a Woman: Gender and Politics in the Thought of NiccolbMachiavelli(BerkeleyandLos Angeles, 1984),remainsthemostdetailedcase study of the role of genderin republicanpoliticaldiscourse.But see also RachelWeil, "Sexual IdeologyandPoliticalPropagandain England,1678-1714" (Ph.D.diss., PrincetonUniversity, 1991), esp. chap.2.
    • 19Rand,ed., TheLife, pp. 301, 303-5, 321-22, 341, 408, 433; cf. RobertVoitle, The Third Earl of Shaftesbury, 1671-1713 (Baton Rouge, La., 1984), p. 284.
    • 20 [Toland],ed., Letters,pp. xiii, 3, 10; cf. Rand,TheLife,pp. 391 ff. Shaftesbury's two attemptsat courtshipandmarriagearediscussedin Voitle, TheThirdEarl,pp. 283- 310. Trumbachuses Shaftesbury'sreluctanceto marryas evidencefor his contentionthat the earl "fit into the patternof the traditionalbisexuallibertine,"in "SodomyTransformed,"p. 113; cf. Voitle, The ThirdEarl, p. 242.
    • 21 [Toland], ed., Letters, p. 41.
    • 22See, e.g., Voitle, The Third Earl, p. 196.
    • 23Ibid.,pp. 18-19, 196, n. 34.
    • 24 See Shaftesbury'suse of "enthusiasm"as an identifierof inclusionwithinan esotericclubincludingLordSomersin Rand,ed., TheLife,pp. 386, 394, 420, 430. Shaftesburysent copies of his worksand sharedhis philosophywith Stanhope(ibid.,pp. 413- 16), who was also made an executorof Shaftesbury'sestate (Voitle, The ThirdEarl, p. 248, n. 49). Shaftesburyremarkson his friendshipswith bothRobertandJohnMolesworthin Rand,ed., TheLife,p. 520. VoitlediscussesShaftesbury'sfriendshipswithSomers andStanhopein TheThirdEarl, pp. 67, 170, 196, 241-42, 260, 302-3, 307-8, 324, 407-8. William L. Sachse, Lord Somers: A Political Portrait (Manchester, 1975), has little to say aboutSomers'srelationshipwith Shaftesbury.
    • 25 None of Stanhope's letters to Shaftesbury have survived; see Voitle, The Third Earl, pp. 247-48, esp. n. 49.
    • 26 Rand, ed., The Life, pp. 181, 179; cf. pp. 68, 107, 247-48. Shaftesbury's concerns with the falseness of theatricality in social life are discussed in Klein, Shaftesbury and the Culture of Politeness, pp. 72-80, 90-96. See also David Marshall, The Figure of Theater: Shaftesbury, Defoe, Adam Smith, and George Eliot (New York, 1986), pp. 1- 70; and Agnew, Worlds Apart, pp. 162-69.
    • 27Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 1:177-78; cf. 2:315, 1:178-179, 2:258.
    • 28Rand, ed., The Life, p. 112.
    • 37PRO 30/24/20/110, fols. 274v-275r. Shaftesbury'sdispleasurewith "rake-hell" libertinismis not out of characterbut significantneverthelessin this context.
    • 38PRO 30/24/20/110, fol. 275r.
    • 39Voitle simplydeclares,"ThatShaftesburywouldcherisha letterthatconsciously revealedhim as a homosexualis inconceivable,"in TheThirdEarl,p. 244, while Trumbach assertsthe contraryin "SodomyTransformed,"p. 115.
    • 40Alan Bray, "Homosexualityandthe Signs of Male Friendshipin ElizabethanEngland," HistoryWorkshopJournal29 (1990): 1-20; this articleemendshis own earlier distinction in Homosexuality in Renaissance England (Boston, 1982), pp. 60-62. A similar situationobtainedamongthe earlymodernFrencharistocracya,ccordingto Jonathan Dewald, Aristocratic Experience and the Origins of Modern Culture: France, 1570-1715, (BerkeleyandLos Angeles, 1993),pp. 117-20. Thevarietiesof homosexualityandhomosocialityareusefullyexploredin G. S. Rousseau,"The Pursuitof Homosexualityin the EighteenthCentury,"in Maccubbin,ed., 'TisNature'sFault, pp. 132-69.
    • 41BrianVickers,ed., FrancisBacon(Oxford,1996),p. 477. Baconhimselfwas later accusedof sodomy:Bray, "Male Friendship,"pp. 14-15. DonaldM. Frame,ed., The Complete Essays of Montaigne (Stanford, Calif., 1958), p. 138.
    • 42 Rand, ed., The Life, pp. 163, 218; Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 2:38-39.
    • 43Shaftesbury, An Inquiry concerning Virtue, or Merit (1699 ed.) in Standard Edition of the Complete Works of... the Third Earl of Shaftesbury, ed. Gerd Hemmerich and Wolfram Bends (Stuttgart, 1981), 2:2, 285 (p. 175 in original). Compare Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 1:314, 2:348.
    • 44Shaftesbury'sailmentshinderedhis marriageprospects,and were apparentlyso severe thatLady Wentworth'sfirstimpressionof him was that "he looks as if he was very short lived." J. J. Cartwright, ed., The Wentworth Papers, 1705-1739 (London, 1883), p. 60.
    • 45 Shaftesbury, The Adept Ladys or the ANGELICK SECT: Being the Matters of Fact of CertainAdventuresSpiritual,Philosophical,PoliticalandGallant,in Hemmerichand Bends, eds., Standard Edition, 1:2, 378-442. The letter is addressed "Dear Brother." See also the account in Voitle, The Third Earl, pp. 198-200.
    • 46Trumbach",Sodomy Transformed,"p. 113; cf. Trumbach,"Erotic Fantasy," p. 270; ShaftesburyA,deptLadys,pp. 396, 404, 390, 410, 422, 386;Aldridgepersuasively arguesthatthe adeptswereRosicruciansand,less convincingly,thatthe text reflectshis breakwith JohnToland,in "Shaftesbury'sRosicrucianLadies." 47Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 2:179.
    • 48Shaftesbury, Adept Ladys, p. 420.
    • 49JohnToland,Pantheisticon(1721; reprint,London,1751),p. 64. The importance of esotericcommunicationfor Shaftesbury'sunreliablefriendandclient JohnTolandis stressed in Stephen H. Daniel, John Toland: His Methods, Manners, and Mind (Kingston andMontreal,1984),pp. 176-85. Shaftesbury'svexed relationshipwith Tolandis documentedin F. H. Heinemann,"JohnTolandandthe Age of Reason,"Archivfur Philosophie 4, no. 1 (September1950):35-66, andA. B. Worden,"Introduction,"pp. 42-55.
    • 60Shaftesbury, An Inquiry (1699) in Hemmerich and Bends, eds., Standard Edition 2:2, 288-89 (p. 180 in original);cf. ShaftesburyC,haracteristics,1:200.
    • 61Rand, ed., The Life, p. 50.
    • 62Ibid., p. 163.
    • 63Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 1:219-20; 2:95, 147-48, 203-7, 271.
    • 64J. G. A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (Princeton, N.J., 1975), pp. 430-31, 445, 466-67, and Virtue,CommerceandHistory(Cambridge1,985),p. 114;see alsoNigel Smith,"Popular Republicanismin the 1650s:JohnStreater's'heroickmechanicks,'" in Miltonand Republicanism,ed. David Armitage,ArmandHimy, and QuentinSkinner(Cambridge, 1995),p. 150;DavidArmitage,"JohnMilton:PoetagainstEmpire,"in Armitage,Himy, and Skinner,eds., Miltonand Republicanismp,p. 208-9, 211, 223; M. M. Goldsmith, "Liberty,Luxury,andthe Pursuitof Happiness,"in TheLanguagesof Political Theory in Early-Modern Europe, ed. Anthony Pagden (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 225-51. For Shaftesbury'srelationshipto this strandof political thought, see Klein, Shaftesbury and the Cultureof Politeness, pp. 124-53, and "Liberty,Manners,and Politeness," pp. 593-98, 603-5; and Caroline Robbins, The Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthman (CambridgeM,ass., 1959), pp. 6, 128-32.
    • 11Shaftesburydidnotapproveof unnecessaryvisits to Londonby his family;Voitle, TheThirdEarl,p. 82. DavidMarshallimaginativelyexploresthe significanceof theways in whichShaftesbury"deniesthepubliccharacterof his publishedbook," in the Characteristics in The Figure of Theater, pp. 1-33, quote at p. 18.
    • 112Rand, ed., The Life, p. 68; Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 2:4. See also Shaftesbury, Characteristics, 2:165, 327-330.
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