Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Atkinson, Nikola R.
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
The use of peri-urban fenlands for agriculture usmg urban waste as manorial treatments is increasingly common worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The risk to human health from the use of these contaminated materials for crop production has been studied using two historically contaminated fenlands in NW England. The GBASE survey carried out by the British Geological Survey identified two areas of metal contaminated fenland; west of Manchester (Chat Moss) and north of Liverpool (Halsall Moss). The two areas are used for arable agriculture, and current demand for locally sourced food is increasing pressure on farmers to move to vegetable horticulture. The effect of the metal contamination on the soils and crops is of key importance to monitor any risk to the food chain.\ud Historical research identified the two mossland areas as contaminated with urban wastes, Halsall Moss contaminated with urban organic wastes such as manure and Chat Moss contaminated with urban organic and mineral wastes. Waste disposal on Chat Moss was carried out by the Manchester Corporation to dispose of city waste and generate farmland from the peat. During the drainage up to 1.92 Mt of waste was incorporated into the soil, representing 38% of the topsoil today.\ud Profiles of contaminated and control sites on Chat Moss and a contaminated site on Halsall Moss were collected, with pH, organic matter content and trace metal content measured. Trace metal content was elevated over subsoil levels in the topsoil of all sites, for example arsenic showed topsoil concentrations of 45 mg kg-I in the most contaminated site (CM-3) compared to 3 mg kg-I in the subsoil. The elevation of trace metals in the historically uncontaminated sites indicated possible atmospheric deposition of metals at the control site. Contamination levels were found to be less than originally identified in the GBASE survey, possibly due to differing sample preparation methods and survey size. The GBASE survey measured an average lead concentration in contaminated sites of 1985 mg kg-I compared to 378 mg kg-I measured by the current study. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations exceeded Soil Guideline Values in the most contaminated site, 43 mg kg-I and 1.8 mg kg-I respectively, but all other metals were within guideline limits. Halsall Moss was found to be less contaminated than Chat Moss, due to the mainly organic nature of the waste disposed at Halsall Moss.\ud The mobility and fractionation of the contamination at the most contaminated site on Chat Moss were studied to understand the behaviour of the metals and assess potential risk to ecological or human health. Using sequential extractions, most metals were identified as hosted by organic, Fe/Mn oxide or residual phases. There was no difference observed in fractionation between control and contaminated sites, indicating that soil properties such as organic matter and Fe/Mn oxide content were more important in controlling fractionation than the source of metals. A comparison of Chat Moss with three soils of known contamination history also identified soil properties as key in controlling fractionation. \ud Lability of Pb in the contaminated Chat Moss soil was assessed using 204Pb stable isotope dilution, it was found that 65% of lead was labile. This was the highest out of the four soils studied, and again most likely controlled by soil properties such as organic matter content and pH. The impact of flooding events on the Chat Moss soils was assessed, and it was found that under redox conditions of -200 mY, large quantities of arsenic, lead, molybdenum and manganese were released to soil solution, and drinking water limits for these metals were violated, for example As solution concentration reached 308 J.1g L-1 and the drinking water limit is 10 Ilg L-1. Environmental quality standards for freshwater were also violated by arsenic, copper, lead and zinc showing potential ecological hazard under these reducing conditions, with lead concentrations reaching 137 J.1g L-1 in contrast to the environmental quality standard of 4 - 20 J.1g L-1.\ud The effect of soil contamination on vegetables grown on Chat Moss was also investigated, EU limits for Cd were exceeded by lettuce and onion, and EU limits for Pb were exceeded by parsley, carrot, radish and onion. Hazard Quotients used to assess the impact of plant contamination in the context of human intake showed that only cadmium and molybdenum were potentially hazardous. Thus it is not recommended to grow lettuce (high Cd), parsley, cabbage, radish and onion (all high molybdenum) at contaminated sites on Chat Moss. To minimise risk, conducting liming to raise the pH and immobilise the metals could be used, and careful selection of cultivars that do not accumulate metals is recommended.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Ahlberg, G., Gustafsson, O. and Wedel, P., 2006. Leaching of metals from sewage sludge during one year and their relationship to particle size. Environmental Pollution, 144(2),545-553.
    • Ahnstrom, Z.S. and Parker, D.R., 2001. Cadmium reactivity in metal-contaminated soils using a coupled stable isotope dilution-sequential extraction procedure. Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 121-126.
    • Alexander, P.O., Alloway, B.J. and Dourado, A.M., 2006. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables. Environmental Pollution. 144, 736 -745.
    • Alloway, B.J. (ed.), 1989, Heavy metals in soils, Wiley, New York.
    • Alloway, B. and Jackson, A., 1991. The behaviour of heavy metals in sewage sludge amended soils. The Science ofthe Total Environment, 100, 151-176.
    • Anton, A. and Mathe-Gaspar, G., 2005. Factors affecting heavy metal uptake in plant selection for phytoremediation. Z. Naturforsch, 60c, 244-246.
    • Ault, W.U., Senechal, R.G. and Erlebach, W.E., 1970, Isotopic composition as a natural tracer of lead in environment, Environmental Science and Technology, 4(4), 305.
    • Berrow, M.L., Wilson, MJ., and Reaves, G.A., 1978, Origin of extractable titanium and vanadium in A-horizons of Scottish Podzols, Geoderma, 21(2), 89-103.
    • Breward, N., 2003. Heavy metal contaminated soils associated with drained fenland in Lancashire, England, UK, revealed by BGS soil geochemical survey. Applied Geochemistry, 18, 1663-1670.
    • Breward, N., WiJliams, M. and Bradley, D., 1996. Comparison of alternative extraction methods for determining particulate metal fractionation in carbonate-rich Mediterranean soils. Applied Geochemistry, 11(1-2), 101-104.
    • Buckley, C. 1990. Potters and paintresses: women designers in the pottery industry, 1870-1955, Womens Press, London.
    • Burt, R., Wilson, M.A., Keck. TJ., Dougherty, B.D., Strom, D.E. and Lindahl, J.A. 2003. Trace element speciation in selected smelter-contaminated soils in Anaconda and Deer Lodge Valley, Montana, USA. Advances in Environmental Research, 8, 51-67.
    • Chary, N.S., Kamala, C.T. and Raj, D.S.S. 2008. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ec%xicology and Environmental Safety, 69(3), 513-524.
    • Chuan, M.C., Shu, G.Y. and Liu, J.C. 1996. Solubility of heavy metals in a contaminated soil: Effects redox potential and pH. Water, Air and Soil Pol/ution, 90(3-4), 543-556.
    • Clarke, M., 1990. The Leeds and Liverpool canal: A history and guide. Carnegie Press, Preston
    • Clemens, S., 2006. Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms oftoJerance in pJants. Biochimie, 88(11),1707-1719.
    • Cloy, lM., Farmer, 1.G., Graham, M.C. and MacKenzie, A.B., 2009. Retention of As and Sb in ombotrophic peat bogs: Records of As, Sb and Pb deposition at four Scottish sites. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(6), 1756- 1762.
    • Coney, A., 1995. Liverpool dung: The magic wand of agriculture. Lancashire Local Historian, 10, 15-26.
    • Contin, M., Mondini, C., Leita, L. and De NobiJi, M., 2007. Enhanced soil toxic metal fixation in iron (hydr)oxides by redox cycles. Geoderma, 140(1-2), 164-175.
    • Cotter-Howells, J. and Thornton, I. 1991, Sources and pathways of environmental lead to children in a Derbyshire mining village. Environmental Geochemistry and lIealth, 13(2), 127-135.
    • Degryse, F., Waegeneers, N. and Smolders, E., 2007. Labile lead in polluted soils measured by stable isotope dilution. European Journal o/Soil Science, 58(1), 1-7.
    • Deer, W.A., Ilowie, R.A. and Zussman, J. 1992. An introduction to the rock fonning minerals, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Harlow, England.
    • Fanner, J.G., Eades, L.J., Atkins, H. and Chamberlain, D.F., 2002. Historical trends in the lead isotopic composition of archival sphagnum mosses from Scotland (1883-2000). Environmental Science and Technology, 36, 152-157.
    • Fanner, J.G., Graham, M.e., Bacon, J.R., Dunn, S.M., Vinogradoff, S.1. and MacKenzie, A.B. 2005. Isotopic characterisation of the historical lead deposition at Glensaugh, an organic-rich, upland catchment in rural NE Scotland. Science o/the Total Environment, 346, 121-137.
    • Ferct, F.R., lIamouche, II. and Boissonneault, Y. 2003. Spectral interference in xRay Fluorescence analysis of common samples. Advances in X-ray Analysis, 26,381·387.
    • Finster, M.E., Gray, K.A. and Binns, II.J., 2004. Lead levels of edibles grown in contaminated residential soils: A field survey. Science 0/ the Total Environment, 320,245·257.
    • Gabler, JI.-E., Dahr, A. and Micke, B., 1999. Detennination of the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Fresenius Journal 0/Analytical Chemistry, 365, 409-414.
    • Ge, L.Q., Lai, w.e. and Lin, v.e., 2005. Influence of and correction for moisture in rocks, soils and sediments on in situ XRF analysis. X-Ray Spectrometry, 34(1),28-34.
    • Gleyzes, C., Tellier, S. and Astruc, M. 2002. Fractionation studies of trace elements in contaminated soils and sediments: a review of sequential extraction procedures. TAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 21(6-7), 451-467.
    • Griffiths, B.S., Hallet, P.D., Kuan, B.L., Pitkin, Y. and Aitken, M.N., 2005. Biological and physical resilience of soil amended with heavy metalcontaminated sewage sludge. European Journal o/Soil Science, 56,197-205.
    • Grybos, M., Davranche, M., Gruau, G. and Petitjean, P., 2007. Is trace metal release in wetland soils controlled by organic matter mobility or Fe-oxyhydroxides reduction? Journal o/Colloid and Interface Science, 314(2), 490-501.
    • lIale, W.G. and Coney, A., 2005. Martin Mere: Lancashire's lost lake. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.
    • Ilalim, M. A., Majumdcr, R. K., Nessa, S. A., Oda, K., Hiroshiro, Y., Saha, B. B., Ilassain, S. M., Latif, Sk. A., Islam, M. A. and Jinno, K. Groundwater contamination with arsenic in Sherajdikhan, Bangladesh: geochemical and hydrological implications. Environmental Geology. 58, 73-84.
    • lIall, D., Wells, C.E. and lIuckerby, E., 1995. The wetlands of Greater Manchester, 2. Lancaster University Archaeology Unit, Oxford.
    • Hammer, D., Keller, C., Mclaughlin, M.J. and Hamon, R., 2006. Fixation of metals in soil constituents and potential remobilisation by hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating plants: Results from an isotopic dilution study. Environmental Pollution, 143,407-415.
    • IlartJey, W., Edwards. R. and Lepp, N.W., 2004. Arsenic and heavy metal mobility in iron oxide-amended contaminated soils as evaluated by short and long tenn leaching tests. Environmental Pol/ution, 131,495-504.
    • 110, M.D. and Evans, G.J., 2000. Sequential extraction of metal contaminated soils with radiochemical assessment of readsorption effects. Environmental Science & Technology, 34(6), 1030-1035.
    • Hough, R.L., Breward, N., Young, S.D., Crout, N.MJ., Tye, A.M., Moir, A.M. and Thornton, I. 2004. Assessing potential risk of heavy metal exposure from consumption of home-produced vegetables by urban populations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(2),215-221.
    • Hough, R.L., Tye, A.M., Crout, N.MJ., McGrath, S.P., Zhang, H. And Young, S.D. 2005. Evaluating a 'free ion activity model' applied to metal uptake by lolium perenne 1. Grown in contaminated soils. Plant and Soil, 270, 1-12.
    • Jarosz-WilkoJazka, A. and Gadd, G.M., 2003. Oxalate production by wood-rotting fungi growing in toxic metal amended medium. Chemosphere, 52, 541-547.
    • Jensen. P.E., Ottosen, L.M. and Pedersen, AJ., 2006. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Water, Air and Soil Pol/ution, 170, 359-382.
    • Juang. K.-W., Lee, D.-Y. and Teng. Y.-L., 2005. Adaptive sampling based on the cumulative distribution function of order statistics to delineate heavy-metal contaminated soils using kriging. Environmental Pollution, 138,268-277.
    • Kabata-Pendias, A., 2001. Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida.
    • McBride, M., Sauve, S. and Hendershot, W., 1997. Solubility control of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in contaminated soils. European Journal ofSoil Science, 48(2), 337- 346.
    • McGill, R.A.R., Pearce. J.M., Fortey, N.J., Watt, J., Autt, L. and Parrish, R.R. 2003. Contaminant source apportionment by PIMMS lead isotope analysis and SEM-image analysis. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 25(1), 25-32.
    • Pareuil, P., Penilla, S., Ozkan, N., Bordas, F. and Bollinger, J.-C. 2008. Influence of reducing conditions on metallic elements released from various contaminated soil samples. Environmental Science and Technology. 42. 7615-7621.
    • Speir, T.W., Van Schaik, A.P., Percival, 11.1., Close, M.E. and Pang, L., 2003. Heavy metals in soil, plants and groundwater following high-rate sewage sludge application to land. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 150,319-358.
    • Strawn, D.G., Hickey, P., Knudsen, A. and Baker, L., 2007. Geochemistry of lead contaminated wetland soils amended with phosphorus. Environmental Geology, 52(1), 109-122.
    • Tipping, E., Smith, E.J., Lawlor, A.J., Hughes, S. and Stevens, P.A., 2003. Predicting the release of metals from ombotrophic peat due to drought-induced acidification. Environmental Pol/ution, 123,239-253.
    • Tongtavee, N., Shiowatana, J., Mclaren, R.G. and Gray, C.W., 2005. Assessment of lead availability in contaminated soil using isotope dilution techniques. Science o/the Total Environment, 348, 244-256.
    • Young, S.D., Tye, A., Carstensen, A., Resende, L. and Crout, N., 2000. Methods for detennining labile cadmium and zinc in soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 51, 129-136.
    • Young, S.D., Zhang, II., Tye, A.M., Maxted. A.• Thums, C. and Thornton, I. 2005. Characterizing the availability of metals in contaminated soils. I. The solid phase: Sequential extraction and isotopic dilution. Soil Use and Management, 21,450-458.
    • Zhao, L.Y.L., SchuJin, R. and Nowack, B., 2007. The effects of plants on the mobilization of Cu and Zn in soil columns. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(8), 2770-2775.
    • ZhuJidov, A.V., Headley, J.V., Robarts, R.D., Nikanorov, A.M., Ischenko, A.A. and Champ, M.A. 1997. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in pristine wetlands of the Russian Arctic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 35(7-12), 242-251.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article