Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Robbins, T. W.; James, M.; Owen, A. M.; Sahakian, B. J.; Lawrence, Andrew David; McInnes, L.; Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1998)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RC0321, BF
Several tests from the CANTAB neuropsychological test battery previously shown to be sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction were administered to a large group of normal volunteers (N = 341) ranging in age from 21 to 79 years. The main tests included a computerized form of the Tower of London test of planning, a self-ordered spatial working memory task, and a test of attentional set formation and shifting. A computerized form of the Corsi spatial span task was also given. Age-related graded declines in performance were seen, sometimes in a discontinuous manner, especially for the attentional set shifting task (at the extradimensional shift stage). Patterns of deficits reminiscent of frontal lobe or basal ganglia damage were observed in the oldest age group (74–79). However, overall the data were only partially consistent with the hypothesis that frontal lobe functions are the most sensitive to effects of aging. Factor analyses showed that performance in the executive tests was not simply related to a measure of fluid intelligence, and their performance had a factor loading structure distinct from that for the CANTAB tests of visual memory and learning previously administered to the same sample. Finally, only limited support was found for the hypothesis that cognitive aging depends on slowed information processing. (JINS, 1998, 4, 474–490.)
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abas, M.A., Sahakian, B.J., & Levy, R. (1990). Neuropsychological deficits and CT scan changes in elderly depressives. Psychological Medicine, 20, 507-520.
    • Arrigada, P.V., Marzloff, B.A., & Hyman, B.T. (1992). Distribution of Alzheimer-type pathologic changes in nondemented elderly individuals matches the pattern in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 42, 1681-1688.
    • Baddeley, A.D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28.
    • Beats, B.C., Sahakian, B.J., & Levy, R. (1996). Cognitive performance in tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction in the elderly depressed. Psychological Medicine, 26, 591-603.
    • Benton, A.L. & Hamsher, K. deS. (1976). Multilingual aphasia examination. Iowa City: University of Iowa.
    • Burgess, P.W. (1997). Theory and methodology in executive function research. In P. Rabbitt (Ed.), Methodology of frontal and executive functions, (pp. 81-111). Hove: Psychology Press.
    • Burgess, P.W. & Shallice, T. (1996a). Response suppression, initiative and strategy use following frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 34, 263-272.
    • Burgess, P.W. & Shallice, T. (1996b). Bizarre responses, rule detection and frontal lobe lesions. Cortex, 32, 241-259.
    • Cummings, J.L. (1986). Subcortical dementia: Neuropsychology, neuropsychiatry and pathophysiology. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 682-697.
    • Daigneault S., Braun, C.M.J., & Whitaker, H. (1992). Early effects of normal aging on perseverative and non-perseverative prefrontal measures. Developmental Neuropsychology, 8, 99-114.
    • Dias, R., Roberts, A., & Robbins, TW. (1996). Dissociation in prefrontal cortex of affective and attentional shifts. Nature, 380, 69-72.
    • Downes, J.J., Roberts, A.C., Sahakian, B.J., Evenden, J.L., & Robbins, T.W. (1989). Impaired extra-dimensional shift performance in medicated and unmedicated Parkinson's disease: Evidence for a specific attentional dysfunction. Neuropsychologia, 27, 1329-1344.
    • Duncan, J., Burgess, P., & Emslie, H. (1995). Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 33, 261-268.
    • Elliott, R., McKenna, P.J., Robbins, T.W., & Sahakian, B.J. (1995). Neuropsychological evidence for fronto-striatal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 25, 619-630.
    • Esposito, G., Kirkby, B.S., Van-Horn, J.D., Weinberger, D.R., & Berman, K.F. (1995). Different pathophysiological mechanisms of altered Wisconsin card sort performance in schizophrenics and elderly normal subjects. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 297, 16.
    • Heim, A. (1968). The AH-4 IQ Test. Slough, NFER-Nelson.
    • Hughes, C., Russell, J., & Robbins, T.W. (1994). Evidence for executive dysfunction in autism. Neuropsychologia, 32, 477- 492.
    • Joyce, E.M. & Robbins, T.W. (1991). Frontal lobe function in Korsakoff and non-korsakoff alcoholics: Planning and spatial working memory. Neuropsychologia, 29, 709-723.
    • Kullback, S. (1968). Information theory and statistics. New York: Dover.
    • Lawrence, A.D., Sahakian, B.J., Hodges, J.R., Rosser, A.E., Lange, K.W., & Robbins, T.W. (1996). Executive and mnemonic functions in early Huntington's disease. Brain, 119, 1633-1645.
    • Lehto, J. (1996). Are executive function tests dependent on working memory capacity? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 29-50.
    • Loessner, A., Alavi, A., Lewandrowski, K.-U., Mozeley, D., Souder, E., & Gur, R.E. (1995). Regional cerebral function determined by FDG-PET in healthly volunteers: Normal patterns and changes with age. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 36, 1141- 1149.
    • Milner, B. (1963). Effects of different brain lesions on card sorting: The role of the frontal lobes. Archives of Neurology, 9, 100-110.
    • Milner, B. (1971). Interhemispheric differences in the localisation of psychological processes in man. British Medical Bulletin, 27, 272-277.
    • Murphy, D.G.M., DeCarli, C., Schapiro, M.B., Rapoport, S.I., & Horwitz, B. (1992). Age-related differences in volumes of subcortical nuclei, brain matter, and cerebrospinal fluid in healthy men as measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of Neurology, 49, 839-844.
    • Nelson, H.E. (1982). National Adult Reading Test (NART) test manual. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
    • Nettelbeck, T. & Rabbitt, P.M.A. (1992). Aging, cognitive performance and mental speed. Intelligence, 16, 189-205.
    • Nettelbeck, T., Rabbitt, P.M.A., Wilson, C., & Batt, R. (1996). Uncoupling learning from initial recall: The relationship between speed and memory deficits in old age. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 593-607.
    • Norusis, M.J. (1990). SPSS0PC1 Statistics 4.0. Chicago: SPSS, Inc.
    • Owen, A., Downes, J.J., Sahakian, B.J., Polkey, C.E., & Robbins, T.W. (1990). Planning and spatial working memory following frontal lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 28, 1021-1034.
    • Owen, A.M., Beksinska, M., James, M., Leigh, P.N., Summers, B.A., Quinn, N.P., Sahakian, B.J., & Robbins, T.W. (1993). Visuospatial memory deficits at different stages of Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychologia, 31, 627-644.
    • Owen, A.M., Doyon, J., Petrides, M., & Evans, A.C. (1996b). Planning and spatial working memory: A positron emission tomography study in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, 8, 353-364.
    • Owen, A.M., Evans, A.C., & Petrides, M. (1996a). Evidence for a two-stage model of spatial working memory processing within the lateral frontal cortex: A positron emission tomography study. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 31-38.
    • Owen, A.M., James, M., Leigh, P.H., Summers, B.A., Marsden, C.D., Quinn, N.P., Lange, K.W., & Robbins, T.W. (1992). Fronto-striatal cognitive deficits at different stages of Parkinson's disease. Brain, 115, 1727-1751.
    • Owen, A.M., Morris, R.G., Sahakian, B.J., Polkey, C.E., & Robbins, T.W. (1996c). Double dissociations of memory and executive functions in working memory task following frontal lobe excision, temporal lobe excisions or amygdala-hippocampectomy in man. Brain, 119, 1597-1615.
    • Owen, A.M. & Robbins, T.W. (1993). Comparative neuropsychology of parkinsonian syndromes. In P. Wolters & E. Ch. Scheltens (Eds.), Mental dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (pp. 221-242). Amsterdam: Vrieje University Press.
    • Owen, A.M., Roberts, A.C., Polkey, C.E., Sahakian, B.J., & Robbins, T.W. (1991). Extra-dimensional versus intradimensional set shifting performance following frontal lobe excision, temporal lobe excision or amygdalo-hippocampectomy in man. Neuropsychologia, 29, 993-1006.
    • Owen, A.M., Sahakian, B.J., Semple, J., Polkey, C.E., & Robbins, T.W. (1995). Visuospatial short term recognition memory and learning after temporal lobe excisions, frontal lobe excisions or amygdala-hippocampectomy in man. Neuropsychologia, 33, 1-24.
    • Pandya, D.P. & Yeterian, E.H. (1995). Morphological correlations of human and monkey frontal lobe. In A.E. Damasio, H. Damasio, & Y. Christen (Eds.), Neurobiology of human decisionmaking (pp. 13-46). New York: Springer.
    • Pantano, P., Baron, J.-C., Lebrun-Grandié, P., Duquesnoy, N., Bousser, M-G., & Comar, D. (1984). Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in human aging. Stroke, 15, 635- 641.
    • Petrides, M. (1989). Frontal lobes and memory. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. 3, pp. 75- 90). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    • Petrides, M. (1996). Specialized system for the processing of mnemonic information within the primate prefrontal cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 351, 1455-1462.
    • Petrides, M. & Milner, B. (1982). Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 20, 249-262.
    • Price, J.L., Davies, P.B., Morris, J.C., & White, D.L. (1991). The distribution of tangles, plaques, and related immunohistochemical markers in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 12, 295-312.
    • Rabbitt, P.M.A. & Maylor, E. (1991). Investigating models of human performance. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 259-290.
    • Riege W.H., Metter, E.J., Kuhl, D.E., & Phelps, M.E. (1985). Brain glucose metabolism and memory functions: Age decrease in factor scores. Journal of Gerontology, 40, 459-467.
    • Rinne, J.O., Hietala, J., Ruotsalainen, U., Sako, E., Laihinen, A., Nagren, K., Lehikoinen, P., Oikonen, V., & Syvalahti, E. (1993). Decrease in human striatal dopamine D2 receptor density with age: A PET study with [ 11C] raclopride. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow Metabolism, 13, 310-314.
    • Robbins, T.W. (1977). A critique of the methods available for the measurement of locomotor activity. In L.L. Iversen, S.D. Iversen, & S.H. Snyder (Eds.), Handbook of psychopharmacology (Vol. 7, pp. 37-82). New York: Plenum.
    • Robbins, T.W. (1996). Dissociating executive functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 351, 1463-1471.
    • Robbins, T.W., James, M., Owen, A., Sahakian, B.J., McInnes, L., & Rabbitt, P.M. (1994). Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): A factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5, 266- 281.
    • Robbins, T.W., James, M., Owen, A.M., Sahakian, B.J., McInnes, L., & Rabbitt, P. (1997). A neural systems approach to the cognitive psychology of ageing using the CANTAB battery. In P. Rabbitt (Ed.), Methodology of frontal and executive function (pp. 215-235). Hove: Erlbaum.
    • Roberts, A., Everitt, B.J., & Robbins, T.W. (1988). Extra- and intradimensional shifts in man and marmoset. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40B, 321-342.
    • Roznowski, M. (1993). Measures of cognitive processes: The stability of other psychometric and measurement properties. Intelligence, 17, 361-388.
    • Sahakian, B.J., Downes, J.J., Roberts, A.C., Philpot, M., Levy, R., & Robbins, T.W. (1990). Preserved attentional function and impaired mnemonic function in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Neuropsychologia, 28, 1197-1213.
    • Sahakian, B.J., Elliott, R., Low, N., Mehta, M., Clark, R.T., & Pozniak, A.L. (1995). Neuropsychological deficits in tests of executive function in asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-1 seropositive men. Psychological Medicine, 25, 1233-1246.
    • Sahakian, B.J., Morris, R.G., Evenden, J.L., Heald, A., Levy, R., Philpot, M., & Robbins, T.W. (1988). A comparative study of visuo-spatial memory and learning in Alzheimer-type dementia and Parkinson's disease. Brain, 111, 695-718.
    • Sahgal, A., Sahakian, B.J., Robbins, T.W., Wright, C., Lloyd, S., Cook, J.H., McKeith, I., Disley, J.C.A., Eagger, S., Boddington, S., & Edwardson, J.A. (1991). Detection of memory and learning deficits in Alzheimer's disease using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Dementia, 2, 150- 158.
    • Sahgal, A., Lloyd, S., Wray, C.J., Gallaway, P.H., Robbins, T.W., Sahakian, B.J., McKeith, I.G., Cook, J.H., Disley, J.C.A., & Edwardson, J.A. (1992). Does visuospatial memory in Alzheimer's disease depend on the severity of the disorder? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 427-436.
    • Salthouse, T.L (1985). Theoretical perspectives on cognitive aging. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    • Salthouse, T.L. (1996). Constraints on theories of cognitive aging. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 287-299.
    • Sawle, G.V., Colebatch, J.G., Shah, A., Brooks, D.J., Marsden, C.D., & Frackowiak, R.J.S. (1990). Striatal function in normal agingimplications for Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology, 28, 799-804.
    • Shallice, T. (1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 298, 199- 209.
    • Shallice, T. & Evans, M.E. (1978). The involvement of the frontal lobe in cognitive estimation. Cortex, 14, 294-303.
    • Shallice, T., Fletcher, P., Frith, C.D., Grasby, P., Frackowiak, R.S.J., & Dolan, R. (1994). Brain regions associated with acquisition and retrieval of verbal episodic memory. Nature, 368, 633-635.
    • Tranel, D., Anderson, S.W., & Benton, A. (1994). Development of the concept of “executive function” and its relationships to the frontal lobes. In F. Boller & J. Grafman (Eds.), Handbook of neuropsychology (Vol. 9, pp. 125-148). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    • Tulving, E., Kapur, S., Markowitsch, H., Craik, F.I.M., Habib, S., & Houle, S. (1994). Hemispheric coding0retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: Positron emission tomography findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 91, 2012-2025.
    • van Dyck, C.H., Seibyl, J.P., Malison, R.T., Laruelle, M., Wallace, E., Zoghbi, S.S., Zea-Ponce, Y., Baldwin, R.M., Charney, D.S., Hoffer, P.B., & Innis, R.B. (1995). Age-related decline in striatal dopamine transporter binding with iodine-123-b-CIT SPECT. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 36, 1175-1181.
    • Vendrell, P., Junqué, C., Pujol, J., Angles Jurado, M.A., Molet, J., & Grafman, J. (1995). The role of prefrontal regions in the Stroop task. Neuropsychologia, 33, 341-352.
    • Waldemar, G., Hasselbalch, S.G., Anderson, A.R., Delecluse, F., Petersen, P., Johnsen, A., & Paulson, O.B. (1991). 99mTc-d, l-HMPAO and SPECT of the brain in normal aging. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 11, 508-521.
    • West, R.L. (1996). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 272- 292.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article