Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Tsolakis, Andreas
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: F1201
The present study theorises and empirically investigates the transformations of the Bolivian state between 1985 and 2005, from a historical materialist perspective. It argues that state transformations have formed part of the latest phase of capital globalisation, and hypothesises that these\ud transformations are captured effectively by concepts of ‘internationalisation’, ‘polyarchy’ and ‘depoliticisation’. Relying on substantive dialectical logic and qualitative methods (documentary analysis and interviewing), the thesis investigates reflexively whether, how and why processes of\ud internationalisation and liberalisation of the Bolivian state, concurrent to the depoliticisation of economic management, have been taking place in the period under focus.\ud I argue that the internationalisation of the Bolivian state was not superimposed upon an ‘endogenous’ process of political and economic liberalisation by external forces; rather, by consolidating a transnationalised elite fraction in Bolivia and the depoliticisation of economic management, the internationalisation of the state sustained polyarchy after the hyperinflationary crisis of 1985. The engagement of Multilateral Development Institutions (MDIs) and transnational private banks by a nucleus of competitive and ‘denationalised’ Bolivian elites in 1985, and in turn their unconditional integration into an expanding transnational historic bloc of elite social forces drove the internationalisation of the Bolivian state. Internationalisation, in turn, consolidated the structural\ud power of the transnational bloc in Bolivia by concurrently locking-in the depoliticisation of central government agencies and polyarchy. Polyarchy was an attempt to legitimise elite domination and the restructuring of society and state through a procedural conception of democracy. Following the more ‘open’ tradition of historical materialist thinking, the research conceptualises the state as a contradictory organisation of subjection, a social relation embedded in broader production relations, which both reflects and constitutes a particular configuration of forces within the social space bound by its institutions. The state is a terrain of intra-elite and class struggle. Aforementioned processes of state transformation have thus been shaped by the confrontation between a transnational elite bloc, domestically-oriented elites and labour forces, in ‘civil society’ but also within the institutions of the Bolivian state itself.\ud The radical program of social and state restructuring engineered by the staffs of MDIs in collaboration with a transnational fraction of Bolivian businessmen and technocrats from 1985 to 2005 was systematically undermined by social resistance. Equally, efforts to depoliticise state agencies – to functionally relate them to capital reproduction – contained their antithesis in recurrent attempts by domestic forces to capture and instrumentalise them.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Holloway, John (1995b) 'The Abyss Opens: The Rise and Fall of Keynesianism' in Werner Bonefeld and John Holloway (ed.) Global Capital, National States and the Politics of Money (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    • Holman, Otto and van der Pijl, Kees (2003), 'Structure and process in transnational European business' in Alan Cafruny and Magnus Ryner (ed.) A Ruined Fortress: Neoliberal Hegemony and Transformation in Europe (Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield).
    • Horkheimer, Max (1982) Critical Theory: Selected Essays (New York: Continuum).
    • Howarth, David (2000) Discourse (Buckingham: Open University Press).
    • Hoy (1988) 'Verguenza! Desde ministros para abajo son asalariados de instituciones internacionales'.
    • 28 July: 8-9.
    • Huntington, Samuel (1990) The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press).
    • Huntington, Samuel (1999) 'Robust Nationalism', The National Interest, 20 January.
    • Huntington, Samuel (2002[1996]) The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (London: Free Press).
    • Hylton, Forrest and Thomson, Sinclair (2007) Revolutionary Horizons: Past and Present in Bolivian Politics (London: Verso).
    • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) (1993) Progress Report on Private Sector Development, March 12. Prepared for Development Committee Meeting May 1, 1993.
    • International Crisis Group (2008) Bolivia: Rescuing the New Constitution and Democratic Stability, Latin America Briefing No.18, 19 June.
    • International Monetary Fund (1986a) Bolivia - Standby Arrangement. June 27. EBS/86/120.
    • International Monetary Fund (1986b) Bolivia - Report on External Debt Renegotiation. August 4, EBS/86/174.
    • International Monetary Fund (1988a) Official Multilateral Debt Rescheduling: Recent Experience.
    • March 9, SM/88/59.
    • International Monetary Fund (1988b) Bolivia Enhanced Structural Adjustment. August 2, EBS/88/131.
    • International Monetary Fund (1991a) Bolivia - Staff Report for the 1991 Article IV Consultation and Request for Third Annual Arrangement Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, June 10, EBS/91/93.
    • International Monetary Fund (1991b) Bolivia Recent Economic Developments. June 19, SM/91/124.
    • Malloy, James and Gamarra, Eduardo (1988) Revolution and Reaction: Bolivia 1964-1985 (New Brunswick: Transaction Books).
    • Mamani, Pablo (2005) Microgobiernos barriales. Levantamiento de la ciudad de El Alto (El Alto: IDIS-UMSA-CADES).
    • Mamani, Pablo (2007) 'Múltiples fracturas del Estado y la sociedad desde los movimientos indígenas de Bolivia', in Jesús Espasandín and Pablo Iglesias (eds.) Bolivia en movimiento: Acción colectiva y poder político (Madrid: El Viejo Topo).
    • Mandel, Ernest (1975) Late Capitalism (London: NLB).
    • Mansilla, H.C.F. (1994) La empresa privada boliviana y el proceso de democratización (La Paz: Fundación Milenio).
    • Marsh, Margaret (1928) The Bankers in Bolivia: A Study in American Foreign Investment (New York: Vanguard Press).
    • Marx, Karl (2003) 'Capital Vol.1' in David McLellan (ed.) Selected writings (Oxford: OUP).
    • Marx, Karl (2003) 'The Gundrisse' in David McLellan (ed.) Selected writings (Oxford: OUP).
    • Mayorga, Fernando (1991) Democratización y modernización del estado en Bolivia (La Paz: CEBEM).
    • Mayorga, René Antonio (1978) 'National Popular State, State Capitalism and Military Dictatorship in Bolivia: 1952-1975', Latin American Perspectives 5 (2): 89-119.
    • Mayorga, René Antonio (1988) 'Democratización y modernización del Estado: El caso de Bolivia', in Acuña et al. (eds.) ¿Hacia un nuevo orden estatal en America Latina? Democratización/modernización y actores socio-políticos (Buenos Aires: CLACSO).
    • Mayorga, René Antonio (1995) Antipolítica y neopopulismo (La Paz: Cebem).
    • Mayorga, René Antonio (1999) 'La Democracia o el Desafío de la Modernización Política in Fernando Campero Prudencio (ed.) Bolivia en el Siglo XX: La Formación de la Bolivia Contemporánea (La Paz: Harvard Club).
    • McNeish, John-Andrew (2002) 'Globalisation and the Reinvention of Andean Tradition: The Politics of Community and Ethnicity in Highland Bolivia', Journal of Peasant Studies 29 (3/4): 228-269.
    • McNeish, John-Andrew (2006) 'Stones on the Road: The Politics of Participation and the Generation of Crisis in Bolivia', Bulletin of Latin American Research 25 (2): 220-240.
    • Meiksins Wood, Elen (1981) 'The separation of the economic and the political in capitalism', New Left Review 127: 66-95.
    • Meiksins Wood, Ellen (2002a) The Origin of Capitalism: A Longer View (London: Verso).
    • Overbeek, Henk and Van der Pijl, Kees (1993) 'Restructuring capital and restructuring hegemony: Neoliberalism and the unmaking of the post-war order' in Henk Overbeek (ed.) Restructuring hegemony in the global political economy: the rise of transnational Neoliberalism in the 1980s (London: Routledge).
    • Painter, James (1994) Bolivia and Coca - A Study in Dependency (Boulder: Lynne Rienner).
    • Parkerson, Phillip (1989) 'Neither “Green Gold” nor “The Devil's Leaf”: Coca Farming in Bolivia' in Benjamen Orlove et al. (eds.) State, Capital and Rural Society: Anthropological Perspectives on Political Economy in Mexico and the Andes (Boulder: Westview Press) Parsons, Talcott (1977) The Evolution of Societies (London: Prentice-Hall).
    • Pastor, Manuel (1987) The International Monetary Fund and Latin America. Economic Stabilization and Class Conflict (Boulder: Westview Press).
    • Pastor, Robert (1987*) Latin America's Debt Crisis: Adjusting to the Past or Planning for the Future? (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers).
    • Patzi Paco, Felix (1999) Insurgencia y sumisión. Movimientos indígena-campesinos (1983-1998) (La Paz: Muela del Diablo).
    • Petras, James and Veltmeyer, Henry (2002) Globalization Unmasked: Imperialism in the 21st Century (London: Zed Books).
    • Petras, James and Veltmeyer, Henry (2005) Social movements and state power: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia (London: Pluto Press).
    • Picciotto, Sol (1978) 'Firm and state in the world economy' in Julio Faundez and Sol Picciotto (eds.) The Nationalisation of multinationals in peripheral economies (London: Macmillan Press) Picciotto, Sol (1990) 'The internationalization of the state', Review of Radical Political Economics 22 (1): 28-44.
    • Polak, Jacques (1994) The World Bank and the IMF (Washington DC: Brookings Institution).
    • Poulantzas, Nikos (1975), Classes in Contemporary Capitalism (London: NLB).
    • Poulantzas, Nikos (1978) State, Power, Socialism (London: NLB).
    • Poulantzas, Nikos (1978 [1968]) Political Power and Social Classes (London: Verso).
    • Prada, Raúl (2000) in Álvaro García Linera et al. (eds.) El retorno de la Bolivia plebeya (La Paz: Muela del Diablo).
    • Prada, Raúl (2002) 'Multitud y Contrapoder. Estudios del Presente: Movimientos Sociales Contemporáneos', in Raquel Gutiérrez (ed.) Democratizaciones Plebeyas (La Paz: Muela del Diablo).
    • Presidencia de la República (1985) Decreto Supremo No.21060. Promulgated 29 August.
    • Roca, José Luis (1980) Fisionomía del regionalismo Boliviano (La Paz: Los Amigos del Libro).
    • Roca, José Luis (2008) 'Regionalism revisited', in John Crabtree and Laurence Whitehead (eds.) Unresolved Tensions: Bolivia Past and Present (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press).
    • Rodríguez, Gustavo (1980) 'Original Accumulation, Capitalism, and Precapitalistic Agriculture in Bolivia (1870-1885)', Latin American Perspectives 7 (4): 50-66.
    • Roseberry, William (1989) 'Anthropology, History, and Modes of Production' in Benjamen Orlove et al. (eds.) State, Capital and Rural Society: Anthropological Perspectives on Political Economy in Mexico and the Andes (Boulder: Westview Press).
    • Rosenberg, Justin (2001) The Follies of Globalisation Theory (London: Verso).
    • Rupert, Mark (1995) Producing hegemony: The politics of mass production and American global power (Cambridge: CUP).
    • Sachs, Jeffrey (1999) 'Latinoamérica y el Desarrollo Económico Global in Fernando Campero Prudencio (ed.) Bolivia en el Siglo XX: La Formación de la Bolivia Contemporánea (La Paz: Harvard Club).
    • Salinas, Luis Fernando et al. (2002) La Capitalización Cinco Años después (La Paz: Fundación Milenio).
    • Salman, Ton (2006) 'The Jammed Democracy: Bolivia's Troubled Political Learning Process', Bulletin of Latin American Research 25(2): 163-182.
    • Salman, Ton (2007) 'Bolivia and the Paradoxes of Democratic Consolidation', Latin American Perspectives 34(6): 111-130.
    • Sanjinés, Javier (2004) Mestisaje Upside-Down: aesthetic politics in modern Bolivia (Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press).
    • Scholte, Jan Aaart (1996) 'Globalisation and Collective Identities' in Krause, Jill and Reinwick, Neil (eds.) Identities in International Relations (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    • Seligson, Mitchell (1987) 'Democratization in Latin America: The Current Cycle', in James Malloy and Mitchell Seligson (eds.) Authoritarians and Democrats: Regime Transition in Latin America (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press).
    • Serrate Reich, Carlos (1989) Interpelación al Neoliberalismo (La Paz: Empresa Editora Siglo Ltda).
    • Shaw, Martin (1997) 'The state of globalization: towards a theory of state transformation', Review of International Political Economy 4, no.3 (1997): 497-513.
    • Shaw, Martin (2000) Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution (Cambridge: CUP).
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article