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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Tierney, S.
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: BF0724, HM1106, RJ506.A9

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: education
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of adolescent females on the autism spectrum. During adolescence, the quality of friendships and social expectations implicitly change, challenging those on the spectrum. The study aimed to understand how girls cope in social situations in the context of having socio-communication difficulties and at a developmental stage where demands to use these skills increases.\ud Semi-structured interviews were designed and piloted before ten participants with a diagnosis of any autism spectrum condition (ASC) were recruited. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to explore emerging themes within each interview. Themes were cross-referenced between interviews to identify phenomena within the sample. It was found that participants experienced peer rejection as a result of their ASC-related difficulties. Most participants were motivated to build friendships and had developed sophisticated strategies of masking and imitation in order to fit in with peers. The impact of using such strategies was often highly detrimental to the mental health of participants. Findings also included the catalysing effect of transitioning between primary and secondary schools on the participants' mental health and subsequent seeking of professional support. \ud The limitations and clinical implications are explored and suggestions for future research are presented.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Appendix 14: Table of Initial Emergent Themes ....................................................................31 Appendix 15: Sample of Reflective Diary...............................................................................36 Appendix 16: Sample of Summary Interpretation for one Participant ....................................39 Appendix 17: External Researcher's Comments on Analysis .................................................41 Appendix 18: Participant Flow Diagram .................................................................................42 Appendix 19: Publication Guidelines for the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders ..................................................................................................................................................43 Appendix 20: Summary to Trust and National Research Ethics Committee...........................44 11. Communication Style 1. Initiate conversation, 1. Ask questions, 4. Initiate contact, 8. Identify target, 8. Passive stance, 9. Initiation, 10 Initiating 3. Strategizing, 1.Creation of catalogue of “safe topics”, 1. Acting lessons, 5. Be agreeable, 5. Pretend to fit in, 5.
    • Be anything but yourself, 5. Masking, 8. Being in “role”, 8. No desire to conform 1. Anticipate/predict possible responses, 2. Empathy, 7.
    • Identify vulnerable others, 1. Identification of vulnerable others, 10. Identification of vulnerable others, 6.
    • Identification of vulnerable others, 7. Friends with Differences, 10. Identification of vulnerable others 6. Over-trying, 1. Talk about things you know about, 1.
    • Systematic reciprocation during conversation, 1.
    • Observe others 1. Look for people who look friendly, 4. Be nurtured, 5.
    • External support, 8. Nurtured by peers, 10. Nurtured by friend 6. Parental input, 3. Aided by parents, 8. Parental engineering, 10. Parental engineering, 9. Parental engineering 2. From others, 2. Of others, 3. Accepting of others, 4.
    • Accepted by others, 10. Being accepted, 9. Tolerant of differences 9. Shared history of difficulties, 8. Difficulties, 6.
    • Friends with Differences, 7. Shared history of stress 2. Common interests, 10. Shared interests, 9. Shared interests, 10. Shared interests 4. Non-girly friends, 7. Non-girly friends, 8. Non-girly friends, 10. Non-girly friends 1. Wanting company, 2. Emotional support, 7. Support, 2. Camaraderie, 3.Camaraderie, 3.Desire for new friends, 4. Ease the pressure, 4. For support, 4. To feel less alone, 4. To escape from stress, 5. Camaraderie through lack of choice 7. Protect Mental Health, 6. Protect Mental Health, 5.
    • Needing to talk, 9. protects MH 2. Conflict in friendships, 2. Compromising, 1. Pretend to like the same things, 3. Managing conflict, 3.
    • Understanding idiosyncrasies, 5. Obstacles, 6. Conflict, 5. Broken relationships 2. Frequency of contact, 3. Spending time together, 2.
    • Communication with friends, 2. Lack of initiation of contact, 3. Initiating contact, 4. Hard to initiate contact, 8. Hard to initiate contact, 7. Hard to initiate contact, 10.
    • Interpersonal communication is effortful 2. Safety in numbers, 3. Emotional intimacy 7 Copy covertly, 1. Be reflexive 1. Focus on quantity but not quality, 4. Hard to find words, 3. Borrowing words, 9. Focus on words - not innate, 10. Lack of reliance on verbals, 8. Lack of reliance on verbals 1. Pairing of similarities and differences, 2. Figures of speech, 2. Literal interpretations, 3. Turn of phrase, 3.
    • Black and white, 8. Use of analogy, 10. Use of sarcasm, 7. Use of phrases 1. Absence of details about emotions, 3. Absence of process, 7. Lack of detail, 10. Elaboration 8. Expressive difficulties, 8.Use of prompts, 8. Reliance on others, 10. Needs prompts, 6. Coping with numbers, 5. Impenetrable Groups, 10. Coping with numbers, 8.
    • Coping with numbers (See interpersonal: Dealing with groups) 4. Miscommunications (due to AsS), 6. Tangential, 7.
    • Misunderstandings, 10. Misunderstandings 3. Contradictions, 1. Lots of dichotomies, 6.
    • Contradiction, 4. Difficulties with Face-to-face, 10. The Mask, 10. Blank face 6. Logical, 8. Precise, 4. Listing, 7. Transparency 7. Perceptive of others' mood, 1. Can sense what mood people are in, 2. Perceptive, 3. Into others 1. Uses memory to inform empathy, 2. Can easily take someone else's perspective, 10. Empathy, 3. Empathy, 7.
    • Considerate 2. Observant, 10. Very aware 6. Masking difficulties, 9. Drama classes, 9. Scripted performance, 10. Drama, 1. Act like other people to blend in, 7.Blending in 1. Pretend to be happy when feeling sad, 2. Smiling, 7.
    • Hiding feelings, 5. Supersocial, 10. Making friends: acting happy 1. Copy frequently, intensely and deeply, 1. Be like “the target”, 3. Normal by proxy, 7. Copying, 6. Chameleon, 1. Synthesise different types of normal, 3. Adaptation 4. Letting mask down, 7. Taking it off, 7. Impact of wearing, 6. Revealing “true self”, 1. Impact of acting, 5.
    • Behind the strategies, 5. Anticipating rejection, 10.
    • Other's surprise, 6. Other's surprise, 7. Other's surprise, 8. Other's surprise 4. Interpretations, 8. Feeling Different, 1. “Normal” is easy to everyone else, 10. Loner, 10. Weird, 3. Isolation As a barrier to making friends 6. Rejection from non-ASD girls, 6. Differences to nonASD girls, 7. Rivalry, 10. Rejection from others, 3.
    • Being disliked, 4. Judgment 1. Please others, 6. Fear of negative reactions, 8. Fears of rejection/unavailability, 1. Fear of judgment, 10.
    • Rejected by others, 7. Stereotypes of peers, 7. Being caught out, 1. Must maintain the mask, 3. Being caught out, 5. Fear of standing out 1. World is illogical, 2. Unfairness, 2. Illogical social behaviour, 10. Others are not clear, 8. Rules 8. Dislike of large events, 8. Sensory difficulties, 9.
    • Sensory issues, 10. Sensory Sensitivity, 10. Physical pain 10. Predatory environment, 9. Predatory environment, 3. Being seen as vulnerable, 7. Others don't “get” ASD, 4. Being misunderstood, 8. Lost in translation 5. Social expectations, 8. Expectations, 10. Expectations, 10. Parental Engineering, 5. Gender differences, 2.
    • Emotional awareness (includes nurturing), 4. See Gender roles: girls are confusing 2. Manliness, 2. Femininity, 6. Others' confusion, 10.
    • Preferences, 8. Girliness 2. Coping style, 7. See Self-awareness (Differences to non-ASD girls), 6. See Gender: Differences to non-ASD girls), 4. see Insight: AsS Symptoms, 1. Difference in communication styles 8. Different quality of friendship, 2. Shorter-term friendships, 7. Need for space, 4. need for space (see Interpersonal Difficulties: Feeling overwhelmed) 4. Intensity of copying, 3. Intensity of chameleonism, 2.
    • Is more sensitive, 1. Intensity of copying, 10. Making friends is intuitive to others 8. Intensity of interests, 4. Absorbing/blocking out 7. Interests, 4. Girls are confusing (includes hair & Make-up), 2. Leisure time, 10. Sexuality, 8. Rules, 4.
    • Gender differences, 6. Communication styles 1. Making friends, 2. Making friends, 2. Interests, 5.
    • Similarities to TD population, 10. Similarities to TD population, 10. Empathy, 7. Desire for relationships, 5.
    • Acting is normal, 1. Acting is normal 8. Emerging problems, 7. Retrospective realisations, 5.
    • Seeing Emerging gaps, 9. Problems, 1. Emerging problems, 3. Triggers, 4. Triggers, 2. Emerging difficulties, 10. Triggers
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