Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ward, Emma V.; Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R. (2013)
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: priming, Hypothesis and Theory Article, Aging, implicit memory, models of memory, priming, recognition, Psychology, implicit memory, recognition, BF1-990, models of memory, aging
It is well documented that explicit memory (e.g., recognition) declines with age. In contrast, many argue that implicit memory (e.g., priming) is preserved in healthy aging. For example, priming on tasks such as perceptual identification is often not statistically different in groups of young and older adults. Such observations are commonly taken as evidence for distinct explicit and implicit learning/memory systems. In this article we discuss several lines of evidence that challenge this view. We describe how patterns of differential age-related decline may arise from differences in the ways in which the two forms of memory are commonly measured, and review recent research suggesting that under improved measurement methods, implicit memory is not age-invariant. Formal computational models are of considerable utility in revealing the nature of underlying systems. We report the results of applying single and multiple-systems models to data on age effects in implicit and explicit memory. Model comparison clearly favours the single-system view. Implications for the memory systems debate are discussed.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abbenhuis, M. A., Raaijmakers, W. G. M., Raaijmakers, J. G. W., and Van Woerden, G. J. M. (1990). Episodic memory in dementia of the Alzheimer type and in normal ageing: similar impairment in automatic processing. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. A 42, 569-583. doi: 10.1080/14640749008401237
    • Akaike, H. (1973). “Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle,” in Second International Symposium on Information Theory, eds B. N. Petrov and F. Caski (Budapest: Academiai Kiado), 267-281.
    • Berry, C. J., Henson, R. N. A., and Shanks, D. R. (2006). On the relationship between repetition priming and recognition memory: insights from a computational model. J. Mem. Lang. 55, 515-533. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2006.08.008
    • Berry, C. J., Shanks, D. R., and Henson, R. N. A. (2008a). A singlesystem account of the relationship between priming, recognition, and fluency. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 34, 97-111. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.34.1.97
    • Berry, C. J., Shanks, D. R., and Henson, R. N. A. (2008b). A unitary signal-detection model of implicit/explicit memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 12, 367-373. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2008.06.005
    • Berry, C. J., Shanks, D. R., Li, S., Rains, L. S., and Henson, R. N. A. (2010). Can “pure” implicit memory be isolated? A test of a single-system model of recognition and repetition priming. Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 64, 241-255. doi: 10.1037/a0021525
    • Berry, C. J., Shanks, D. R., Speekenbrink, M., and Henson, R. N. A. (2012). Models of recognition, repetition priming, and fluency: exploring a new framework. Psychol. Rev. 119, 40-79. doi: 10.1037/a0025464
    • Buchner, A., and Wippich, W. (2000). On the reliability of implicit and explicit memory measures. Cogn. Psychol. 40, 227-259. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0731
    • Burnham, K. P., and Anderson, D. R. (1998). Model Selection and Inference. New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757- 2917-7
    • Butler, B. C., and Klein, R. (2009). Inattentional blindness for ignored words: comparison of explicit and implicit tasks. Conscious. Cogn. 18, 811-819. doi: 10.1016/j.concog. 2009.02.009
    • Chiarello, C., and Hoyer, W. J. (1988). Adult age differences in implicit and explicit memory: time course and encoding effects. Psychol. Ageing 3, 358-366. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974. 3.4.358
    • Christensen, H., Henderson, A. A., Griffiths, K., and Levings, C. (1997). Does ageing inevitably lead to declines in cognitive performance? A longitudinal study of elite academics. Pers. Individ. Dif. 23, 67-78. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00022-6
    • Conroy, M. A., Hopkins, R. O., and Squire, L. R. (2005). On the contribution of perceptual fluency and priming to recognition memory. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 5, 14-20. doi: 10.3758/ CABN.5.1.14
    • Davis, H. P., Cohen, A., Gandy, M., Colombo, P., Van Dusseldorp, G., Simolke, N., et al. (1990). Lexical priming deficits as a function of age. Behav. Neurosci. 104, 288-297. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.104.2.288
    • Davis, H. P., Trussell, L. H., and Klebe, K. J. (2001). A ten-year longitudinal examination of repetition priming, incidental recall, free recall, and recognition in young and elderly. Brain Cogn. 46, 99-104. doi: 10.1016/S0278-2626 (01)80043-9
    • Dunn, J. C. (2003). The elusive dissociation. Cortex 39, 177-179. doi: 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70096-0
    • Dunn, J. C., Newell, B. R., and Kalish, M. (2012). The effect of feedback delay and feedback type on perceptual category learning: the limits of multiple systems. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 38, 840-859. doi: 10.1037/a0027867
    • Fleischman, D. A. (2007). Repetition priming in ageing and Alzheimer's disease: an integrative review and future directions. Cortex 43, 889-897. doi: 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70688-9
    • Fleischman, D. A., and Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1998). Repetition priming in normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease: a review of findings and theories. Psychol. Ageing 13, 88-119. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.13.1.88
    • Fleischman, D. A., Wilson, R. S., Gabrieli, J. D. E., Bienias, J. L., and Bennett, D. A. (2004). A longitudinal study of implicit and explicit memory in old persons. Psychol. Ageing 19, 617-625. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.19.4.617
    • Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49, 87-115. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.87
    • Gabrieli, J. D. E. (1999). “The architecture of human memory,” in Memory: Systems, Process, or Function?, eds J. K. Foster and M. Jelicic (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press), 205-231. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/ 9780198524069.003.0008
    • Geraci, L., and Barnhardt, T. M. (2010). Ageing and implicit memory: examining the contribution of test awareness. Conscious. Cogn. 19, 606-616. doi: 10.1016/j.concog. 2010.03.015
    • Hultsch, D. F., Hertzog, C., Small, B. J., McDonald-Miszczak, L., and Dixon, R. (1992). Short-term longitudinal change in cognitive performance in later life. Psychol. Ageing 7, 571-584. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974. 7.4.571
    • Hultsch, D. F., Masson, M. E. J., and Small, B. J. (1991). Adult age differences in direct and indirect tests of memory. J. Gerontol. 46, 22-30. doi: 10.1093/geronj/ 46.1.P22
    • Jelicic, M., Craik, F. I. M., and Moscovitch, M. (1996). Effects of ageing on different explicit and implicit memory tasks. Eur. J. Cogn. Psychol. 8, 225-234. doi: 10.1080/095414496383068
    • Kausler, D. H. (1994). Learning and Memory in Normal Ageing. New York, NY: Academic Press.
    • Kinder, A., and Shanks, D. R. (2001). Amnesia and the declarative/nondeclarative distinction: a recurrent network model of classification, recognition, and repetition priming. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 13, 648-669. doi: 10.1162/089892901750363217
    • Kinder, A., and Shanks, D. R. (2003). Neuropsychological dissociations between priming and recognition: a single-system connectionist account. Psychol. Rev. 110, 728-744. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X. 110.4.728
    • La Voie, D., and Light, L. L. (1994). Adult age differences in repetition priming: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Ageing 9, 539-553. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.9.4.539
    • LeBel, E. P., and Paunonen, S. V. (2011). Sexy but often unreliable: the impact of unreliability on the replicability of experimental findings with implicit measures. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 37, 570-583. doi: 10.1177/0146167211 400619
    • Light, L. (1991). Memory and ageing: four hypotheses in search of data. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 42, 333-376. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ps.42.020191. 002001
    • Light, L. L., La Voie, D., ValenciaLaver, D., Albertson Owens, S. A., and Mead, G. (1992). Direct and indirect measures of memory for modality in young and older adults. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 18, 1284-1297. doi: 10.1037/0278- 7393.18.6.1284
    • Light, L. L., Prull, M. W., and Kennison, R. F. (2000). Divided attention, aging, and priming in exemplar generation and category verification. Mem. Cogn. 28, 856-872. doi: 10.3758/BF03198421
    • Light, L. L., Prull, M. W., La Voie, D. J., and Healy, M. R. (2000). “Dual-process theories of memory in old age,” in Models of Cognitive Ageing: Debates in Psychology, eds T. J. Perfect and E. A. Maylor (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 238-300.
    • Mitchell, D. B. (1989). How many memory systems? Evidence from ageing. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 15, 31-49. doi: 10.1037/0278- 7393.15.1.31
    • Mitchell, D. B., Brown, A. S., and Murphy, D. R. (1990). Dissociations between procedural and episodic memory: effects of time and ageing. Psychol. Ageing 5, 264-276. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.5.2.264
    • Mitchell, D. B., and Bruss, P. J. (2003). Age differences in implicit memory: conceptual, perceptual, or methodological? Psychol. Ageing 18, 807-822. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.18.4.807
    • Newell, B. R., and Dunn, J. C. (2008). Dimensions in data: testing psychological models using state-trace analysis. Trends Cogn. Sci. 12, 285-290. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2008.04.009
    • Newell, B. R., Dunn, J. C., and Kalish, M. (2010). The dimensionality of perceptual category learning: a state-trace analysis. Mem. Cogn. 38, 563-581. doi: 10.3758/ MC.38.5.563
    • Nosofsky, R. M., Little, D. R., and James, T. W. (2012). Activation in the neural network responsible for categorization and recognition reflects parameter changes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 333-338. doi: 10.1073/pnas. 1111304109
    • Nosofsky, R. M., and Zaki, S. R. (1998). Dissociations between categorization and recognition in amnesic and normal individuals: an exemplar-based interpretation. Psychol. Sci. 9, 247-255. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00051
    • Ostergaard, A. L. (1998). The effects on priming of word frequency, number of repetitions, and delay depend on the magnitude of priming. Mem. Cogn. 26, 40-60. doi: 10.3758/BF03211369
    • Ostergaard, A. L. (1999). Priming deficits in amnesia: now you see them, now you don't. Int. J. Neuropsychol. Soc. 5, 175-190. doi: 10.1017/S1355617799533018
    • Park, D. C., and Shaw, R. J. (1992). Effect of environmental support on implicit and explicit memory in younger and older adults. Psychol. Ageing 7, 632-642. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.7.4.632
    • Russo, R., and Parkin, A. J. (1993). Age differences in implicit memory: more apparent than real. Mem. Cogn. 21, 73-80. doi: 10.3758/BF03211166
    • Rybash, J. M. (1996). Implicit memory and ageing: a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. Dev. Neuropsychol. 12, 127-179. doi: 10.1080/87565649609540644
    • Salthouse, T. A., McGuthry, K. E., and Hambrick, D. Z. (1999). A framework for analysing and interpreting differential ageing patterns: application to three measures of implicit learning. Ageing Neuropsychol. Cogn. 6, 1-18. doi: 10.1076/anec.
    • Schacter, D. L. (1987). Implicit memory: history and current status. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 13, 501-518. doi: 10.1037/0278- 7393.13.3.501
    • Schacter, D. L., Cooper, L. A., and Valdiserri, M. (1992). Implicit and explicit memory for novel visual objects in older and younger adults. Psychol. Ageing 2, 299-308. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.7.2.299
    • Schacter, D. L., and Tulving, E. (eds.). (1994). Memory Systems 1994. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model, Ann. Stat. 6, 461-464. doi: 10.1214/aos/1176344136
    • Shanks, D. R., and Perruchet, P. (2002). Dissociation between priming and recognition in the expression of sequential knowledge. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9, 362-367. doi: 10.3758/BF03196294
    • Shanks, D. R., Wilkinson, L., and Channon, S. (2003). Relationship between priming and recognition in deterministic and probabilistic sequence learning. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 29, 248-261. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.29.2.248
    • Small, B. J., Hultsch, D. F., and Masson, M. E. J. (1995). Adult age differences in perceptually based, but not conceptually based implicit tests of memory. J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 50, 162-170. doi: 10.1093/geronb/50B.3.P162
    • Soldan, A., Hilton, J. H., Cooper, L. A., and Stern, Y. (2009). Priming of familiar and unfamiliar visual objects over delays in young and older adults. Psychol. Ageing 24, 93-104. doi: 10.1037/a0014136
    • Spaan, P. E. J., and Raaijmakers, J. G. W. (2011). Priming effects from youngold to very old age on a wordstem completion task: minimising explicit contamination. Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 18, 86-107. doi: 10.1080/13825585.2010.511146
    • Squire, L. R. (1994). “Declarative and nondeclarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory,” in Memory Systems, eds D. L. Schacter and E. Tulving (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 203-231.
    • Squire, L. R. (2004). Memory systems of the brain: a brief history and current perspective. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 82, 171-177. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2004.06.005
    • Squire, L. R. (2009). Memory and brain systems: 1969-2009. J. Neurosci. 29, 12711-12716. doi: 10.1523/ JNEUROSCI.3575-09.2009
    • Tulving, E., and Schacter, D. L. (1990). Priming and human memory systems. Science 247, 301-306. doi: 10.1126/science.2296719
    • Tulving, E., Schacter, D. L., and Stark, H. A. (1982). Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 8, 336-342. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.8.4.336
    • Vuilleumier, P., Schwartz, S., Duhoux, S., Dolan, R. J., and Driver, J. (2005). Selective attention modulates neural substrates of repetition priming and “implicit” visual memory: suppressions and enhancements revealed by fMRI. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 1245-1260. doi: 10.1162/0898929055002409
    • Ward, E. V., Berry, C. J., and Shanks, D. R. (2013). An effect of age on implicit memory that is not due to explicit contamination: implications for single and multiple-systems theories. Psychol. Aging 28, 429-442. doi: 10.1037/a0031888
    • Wiggs, C. L., Weisberg, J., and Martin, A. (2006). Repetition priming across the adult lifespan - the long and short of it. Ageing Neuropsychol. Cogn. 13, 308-325. doi: 10.1080/138255890968718
    • Wilson, R. S., Leurans, S. E., Boyle, P. A., and Bennett, D. A. (2011). Cognitive decline in prodromal Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Arch. Neurol. 68, 351-365. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.31
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.