LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Siddiqi, Kamran; Shah, Sarwat; Abbas, Syed Muslim; Vidyasagaran, Aishwarya; Jawad, Mohammed; Dogar, Omara; Sheikh, Aziz (2015)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC Medicine
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Quality-Adjusted Life Years, Risk Assessment, ALCOHOL-DRINKING, Research Article, SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA, CIGARETTE-SMOKING, Mouth Neoplasms, Esophageal Neoplasms, Prevalence, /dk/atira/pure/subjectarea/asjc/2700, Medicine(all), EAST ASIA REGION, Female, Tobacco Use, Global Health, Risk Factors, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, ORAL-CAVITY CANCER, Tobacco, Smokeless, SOUTHERN INDIA, POSSIBLE RISK-FACTOR, General & Internal Medicine, MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION, Pharyngeal Neoplasms, SWEDISH MOIST SNUFF, Science & Technology, Medicine, General & Internal, 11 Medical And Health Sciences, Myocardial Ischemia, SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS, Adult, Humans, Male
Background Smokeless tobacco is consumed in most countries in the world. In view of its widespread use and increasing awareness of the associated risks, there is a need for a detailed assessment of its impact on health. We present the first global estimates of the burden of disease due to consumption of smokeless tobacco by adults. Methods The burden attributable to smokeless tobacco use in adults was estimated as a proportion of the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost and deaths reported in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study. We used the comparative risk assessment method, which evaluates changes in population health that result from modifying a population?s exposure to a risk factor. Population exposure was extrapolated from country-specific prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption, and changes in population health were estimated using disease-specific risk estimates (relative risks/odds ratios) associated with it. Country-specific prevalence estimates were obtained through systematically searching for all relevant studies. Disease-specific risks were estimated by conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on epidemiological studies. Results We found adult smokeless tobacco consumption figures for 115 countries and estimated burden of disease figures for 113 of these countries. Our estimates indicate that in 2010, smokeless tobacco use led to 1.7 million DALYs lost and 62,283 deaths due to cancers of mouth, pharynx and oesophagus and, based on data from the benchmark 52 country INTERHEART study, 4.7 million DALYs lost and 204,309 deaths from ischaemic heart disease. Over 85 % of this burden was in South-East Asia. Conclusions Smokeless tobacco results in considerable, potentially preventable, global morbidity and mortality from cancer; estimates in relation to ischaemic heart disease need to be interpreted with more caution, but nonetheless suggest that the likely burden of disease is also substantial. The World Health Organization needs to consider incorporating regulation of smokeless tobacco into its Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0424-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. CDC. Smokeless Tobacco Fact Sheets. Prepared for the 3rd International Conference on Smokeless tobacco: advancing Science and Protecting Public Health. Stockholm, Sweden: National Cancer Institute, CDC and Prevention & Stockholm Centre of Public Health; 2002.
    • 2. SEARO. WHO: report on oral tobacco use and its implications in South East Asia. New Delhi: SEARO; 2004.
    • 3. Palipudi K, Rizwan SA, Sinha DN, Andes LJ, Amarchand R, Krishnan A, et al. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use in four countries of the World Health Organization: South-East Asia region: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Indian J Cancer. 2014;51:S24-32.
    • 4. Boffetta P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:667-75.
    • 5. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Smokeless tobacco products. In: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 89. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2008.
    • 6. Stanfill SB, Connolly GN, Zhang L, Jia LT, Henningfield JE, Richter P, et al. Global surveillance of oral tobacco products: total nicotine, unionised nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Tob Control. 2011;20:e2.
    • 7. Malson JL, Sims K, Murty R, Pickworth WB. Comparison of the nicotine content of tobacco used in bidis and conventional cigarettes. Tob Control. 2001;10:181-3.
    • 8. Critchley JA, Unal B. Health effects associated with smokeless tobacco: a systematic review. Thorax. 2003;58:435-43.
    • 9. Gupta PC, Ray CS, Sinha DN, Singh PK. Smokeless tobacco: a major public health problem in the SEA region: a review. Indian J Public Health. 2011;55:199-209.
    • 10. Gupta PC, Sreevidya S. Smokeless tobacco use, birth weight, and gestational age: population based, prospective cohort study of 1217 women in Mumbai, India. BMJ. 2004;328:1538.
    • 11. Boffetta P, Straif K. Use of smokeless tobacco and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: systematic review with meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b3060.
    • 12. Gupta PC, Subramoney S. Smokeless tobacco use and risk of stillbirth: a cohort study in Mumbai, India. Epidemiology. 2006;17:47-51.
    • 13. England LJ, Kim SY, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Wilson HG, Kendrick JS, Satten GA, et al. Maternal smokeless tobacco use in Alaska Native women and singleton infant birth size. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91:93-103.
    • 14. Tomar SL. Is use of smokeless tobacco a risk factor for cigarette smoking? The U.S. experience. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:561-9.
    • 15. Zhou J, Michaud DS, Langevin SM, McClean MD, Eliot M, Kelsey KT. Smokeless tobacco and risk of head and neck cancer: evidence from a case-control study in New England. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1911-7.
    • 16. Napier AD, Ancarno C, Butler B, Calabrese J, Chater A, Chatterjee H, et al. Culture and health. Lancet. 2014;384:1607-39.
    • 17. Lawler TS, Stanfill SB, Zhang L, Ashley DL, Watson CH. Chemical characterization of domestic oral tobacco products: total nicotine, pH, unprotonated nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;57:380-6.
    • 18. Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet. 2002;360:1347-60.
    • 19. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224-60.
    • 20. Horton R, Chan M, Kim J, Watts C, Cairncross S. Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2053-260.
    • 21. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
    • 22. CDC. Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/global/gtss/.
    • 23. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses [http://www.ohri.ca/programs/ clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp].
    • 24. Chinn S. A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Stat Med. 2000;19:3127-31.
    • 25. Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C. Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:15-9.
    • 26. Öberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, Peruga A, Prüss-Ustün A. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet. 2011;377:139-46.
    • 27. Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2197-223.
    • 28. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2095-128.
    • 29. Teo KK, Ounpuu S, Hawken S, Pandey MR, Valentin V, Hunt D, et al. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study. Lancet. 2006;368:647-58.
    • 30. Idris AM, Ibrahim Y, Warnakulasuriya K, Cooper D, Johnson N, Nilsen R. Toombak use and cigarette smoking in the Sudan: estimates of prevalence in the Nile state. Prev Med. 1998;27:597-603.
    • 31. Siddiqi K, Gupta PC, Prasad VM, Croucher R, Sheikh A. Smokeless tobacco use by south Asians. Lancet Glob Health. 2013;1:e71.
    • 32. Sinha DN, Palipudi KM, Jones CK, Khadka BB, Silva PD, Mumthaz M, et al. Levels and trends of smokeless tobacco use among youth in countries of the World Health Organization South-East Asia Region. Indian J Cancer. 2014;51:S50-53.
    • 33. Norberg M, Malmberg G, Ng N, Broström G. Who is using snus? - Time trends, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in the ageing Swedish population. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:929-9.
    • 34. Rodu B, Stegmayr B, Nasic S, Cole P, Asplund K. Evolving patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden. J Intern Med. 2003;253:660-5.
    • 35. Khan A, Huque R, Shah SK, Kaur J, Baral S, Gupta PC, et al. Smokeless tobacco control policies in South Asia: a gap analysis and recommendations. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014;16:890-4.
    • 36. Panesar SS, Gatrad R, Sheikh A. Smokeless tobacco use by south Asian youth in the UK. Lancet. 2008;372:97-8.
    • 37. National Cancer Institute and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless tobacco and public health: a global perspective. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institute of Health, National Cancer Institute; 2014.
    • 38. STEPS Country Reports [http://www.who.int/chp/steps/reports/en/].
    • 39. Sreeramareddy CT, Pradhan P, Sin S. Prevalence, distribution, and social determinants of tobacco use in 30 sub-Saharan African countries. BMC Med. 2014;12:243.
    • 40. Ansra DL, Arnold F, Kishor S, Hsia J, Kaufmann R. Tobacco use by men and women in 49 countries with demographic and health surveys. DHS Comparative Reports No 31. Calverton, MD: ICF International; 2013.
    • 41. World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
    • 42. GATS (Global Adult Tobacco Survey) [http://www.who.int/tobacco/ surveillance/gats/en/].
    • 43. Sreeramareddy CT, Pradhan PM, Mir IA, Sin S. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys. Popul Health Metr. 2014;12:22.
    • 44. Agaku IT, Filippidis FT, Vardavas CI, Odukoya OO, Awopegba AJ, Ayo-Yusuf OA, et al. Poly-tobacco use among adults in 44 countries during 2008-2012: evidence for an integrative and comprehensive approach in tobacco control. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014;139:60-70.
    • 45. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. 2004 National Drug Strategy Household Survey: first results. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2005.
    • 46. Anantharaman D, Chaubal PM, Kannan S, Bhisey RA, Mahimkar MB. Susceptibility to oral cancer by genetic polymorphisms at CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 loci among Indians: tobacco exposure as a risk modulator. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1455-62.
    • 47. Balaram P, Sridhar H, Rajkumar T, Vaccarella S, Herrero R, Nandakumar A, et al. Oral cancer in southern India: the influence of smoking, drinking, paan-chewing and oral hygiene. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:440-5.
    • 48. Dikshit RP, Kanhere S. Tobacco habits and risk of lung, oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancer: a population-based case-control study in Bhopal, India. Int J Epidemiol. 2000;29:609-14.
    • 49. Goud ML, Mohapatra SC, Mohapatra P, Gaur SD, Pant GC, Knanna MN. Epidemiological correlates between consumption of Indian chewing tobacco and oral cancer. Eur J Epidemiol. 1990;6:219-22.
    • 50. Jayalekshmi PA, Gangadharan P, Akiba S, Nair RRK, Tsuji M, Rajan B. Tobacco chewing and female oral cavity cancer risk in Karunagappally cohort, India. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:848-52.
    • 51. Jayalekshmi PA, Gangadharan P, Akiba S, Koriyama C, Nair RRK. Oral cavity cancer risk in relation to tobacco chewing and bidi smoking among men in Karunagappally, Kerala, India: Karunagappally cohort study. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:460-7.
    • 52. Jayant K, Balakrishnan V, Sanghvi LD, Jussawalla DJ. Quantification of the role of smoking and chewing tobacco in oral, pharyngeal, and oesophageal cancers. Br J Cancer. 1977;35:232-5.
    • 53. Jussawalla DJ, Deshpande VA. Evaluation of cancer risk in tobacco chewers and smokers: an epidemiologic assessment. Cancer. 1971;28:244-52.
    • 54. Madani AH, Jahromi AS, Dikshit M, Bhaduri D. Risk assessment of tobacco types and oral cancer. Am J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010;5:9-13.
    • 55. Muwonge R, Ramadas K, Sankila R, Thara S, Thomas G, Vinoda J, et al. Rote of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking in the risk of oral cancer in Trivandrum, India: A nested case-control design using incident cancer cases. Oral Oncol. 2008;44:446-54.
    • 56. Nandakumar A, Thimmasetty KT, Sreeramareddy NM, Venugopal TC, Rajanna, Vinutha AT, et al. A population-based case control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India. British Journal of Cancer. 1990;62:847-51.
    • 57. Rao DN, Ganesh B, Rao RS, Desai PB. Risk assessment of tobacco, alcohol and diet in oral cancer: a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1994;58:469-73.
    • 58. Sanghvi LD, Rao KC, Khanolkar VR. Smoking and chewing of tobacco in relation to cancer of the upper alimentary tract. Br Med J. 1955;1:1111-4.
    • 59. Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Padmakumary G, Day NE, Nair MK. Risk factors for cancer of the buccal and labial mucosa in Kerala, southern India. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1990;44:286-92.
    • 60. Wasnik KS, Ughade SN, Zodpey SP, Ingole DL. Tobacco consumption practices and risk of oro-pharyngeal cancer: a case-control study in Central India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Publ Health. 1998;29:827-34.
    • 61. Subapriya R, Thangavelu A, Mathavan B, Ramachandran CR, Nagini S. Assessment of risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chidambaram, Southern India: a case-control study. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007;16:251-6.
    • 62. Wahi PN, Kehar U, Lahiri B. Factors influencing oral and oropharyngeal cancers in India. Br J Cancer. 1965;19:642-60.
    • 63. Merchant A, Husain SS, Hosain M, Fikree FF, Pitiphat W, Siddiqui AR, et al. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer. Int J Cancer. 2000;86:128-31.
    • 64. Roosaar A, Johansson AL, Sandborgh-Englund G, Axell T, Nyren O. Cancer and mortality among users and nonusers of snus. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:168-73.
    • 65. Znaori A, Brennan P, Gajalakshmi V, Mathew A, Shanta V, Varghese C, et al. Independent and combined effects of tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol drinking on the risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancers in Indian men. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:681-6.
    • 66. Boffetta P, Aagnes B, Weiderpass E, Andersen A. Smokeless tobacco use and risk of cancer of the pancreas and other organs. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:992-5.
    • 67. Lewin F, Norell SE, Johansson H, Gustavsson P, Wennerberg J, Biörklund A, et al. Smoking tobacco, oral snuff, and alcohol in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a population-based case-referent study in Sweden. Cancer. 1998;82:1367-75.
    • 68. Luo J, Ye W, Zendehdel K, Adami J, Adami H-O, Boffetta P, et al. Oral use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) and risk for cancer of the mouth, lung, and pancreas in male construction workers: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2007;369:2015-20.
    • 69. Rosenquist K, Wennerberg J, Schildt EB, Bladstrom A, Hansson BG, Andersson G. Use of Swedish moist snuff, smoking and alcohol consumption in the aetiology of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A population-based case-control study in southern Sweden. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:991-8.
    • 70. Schildt EB, Eriksson M, Hardell L, Magnuson A. Oral snuff, smoking habits and alcohol consumption in relation to oral cancer in a Swedish casecontrol study. Int J Cancer. 1998;77:341-6.
    • 71. Mashberg A, Boffetta P, Winkelman R, Garfinkel L. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx among U.S. veterans. Cancer. 1993;72:1369-75.
    • 72. Sapkota A, Gajalakshmi V, Jetly DH, Roychowdhury S, Dikshit RP, Brennan P, et al. Smokeless tobacco and increased risk of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers: A multicentric case-control study from India. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1793-8.
    • 73. Akhtar S, Sheikh AA, Qureshi HU. Chewing areca nut, betel quid, oral snuff, cigarette smoking and the risk of oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in South Asians: a multicentre case-control study. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:655-61.
    • 74. Dar NA, Bhat GA, Shah IA, Iqbal B, Makhdoomi MA, Nisar I, et al. Hookah smoking, nass chewing, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir, India. [Erratum appears in Br J Cancer. 2013;108(7):1552 Note: Kakhdoomi MA [corrected to Makhdoomi MA]]. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1618-23.
    • 75. Sehgal S, Kaul S, Gupta BB, Dhar MK. Risk factors and survival analysis of the esophageal cancer in the population of Jammu, India. Indian J Cancer. 2012;49:245-50.
    • 76. Talukdar FR, Ghosh SK, Laskar RS, Mondal R. Epigenetic, genetic and environmental interactions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from northeast India. PLoS One. 2013;8:e60996.
    • 77. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer. 2000;85:340-6.
    • 78. Zendehdel K, Nyren O, Luo J, Dickman PW, Boffetta P, Englund A, et al. Risk of gastroesophageal cancer among smokers and users of Scandinavian moist snuff. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1095-9.
    • 79. Bolinder G, Alfredsson L, Englund A, de Faire U. Smokeless tobacco use and increased cardiovascular mortality among Swedish construction workers. Am J Public Health. 1994;84:399-404.
    • 80. Sasco AJ, Merrill RM, Dari I, Benhaim-Luzon V, Carriot F, Cann CI, et al. A case-control study of lung cancer in Casablanca, Morocco. Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13:609-16.
    • 81. Brown LM, Blot WJ, Schuman SH, Smith VM, Ershow AG, Marks RD, et al. Environmental factors and high risk of esophageal cancer among men in coastal South Carolina. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988;80:1620-5.
    • 82. Alguacil J, Silverman DT. Smokeless and other noncigarette tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:55-8.
    • 83. Hassan MM, Abbruzzese JL, Bondy ML, Wolff RA, Vauthey JN, Pisters PW, et al. Passive smoking and the use of noncigarette tobacco products in association with risk for pancreatic cancer: a case-control study. Cancer. 2007;109:2547-56.
    • 84. Alexander M. Tobacco use and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in developed and developing countries. Cambridge: University of Cambridge; 2013.
    • 85. Rahman MA, Zaman MM. Smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption: possible risk factors for coronary heart disease among young patients attending a tertiary care cardiac hospital in Bangladesh. Public Health. 2008;122:1331-8.
    • 86. Rahman MA, Spurrier N, Mahmood MA, Rahman M, Choudhury SR, Leeder S. Is there any association between use of smokeless tobacco products and coronary heart disease in Bangladesh? PLoS One. 2012;7:e30584.
    • 87. Hergens MP, Ahlbom A, Andersson T, Pershagen G. Swedish moist snuff and myocardial infarction among men. Epidemiology. 2005;16:12-6.
    • 88. Hergens MP, Alfredsson L, Bolinder G, Lambe M, Pershagen G, Ye W. Long-term use of Swedish moist snuff and the risk of myocardial infarction amongst men. [Erratum appears in J Intern Med. 2007;262(5):590]. J Intern Med. 2007;262:351-9.
    • 89. Huhtasaari F, Asplund K, Lundberg V, Stegmayr B, Wester PO. Tobacco and myocardial infarction: is snuff less dangerous than cigarettes? BMJ. 1992;305:1252-6.
    • 90. Huhtasaari F, Lundberg V, Eliasson M, Janlert U, Asplund K. Smokeless tobacco as a possible risk factor for myocardial infarction: a populationbased study in middle-aged men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1784-90.
    • 91. Johansson S-E, Sundquist K, Qvist J, Sundquist J. Smokeless tobacco and coronary heart disease: a 12-year follow-up study. [Erratum appears in Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14(5):722]. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005;12:387-92.
    • 92. Wennberg P, Eliasson M, Hallmans G, Johansson L, Boman K, Jansson JH. The risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death amongst snuff users with or without a previous history of smoking. J Intern Med. 2007;262:360-7.
    • 93. Asplund K, Nasic S, Janlert U, Stegmayr B. Smokeless tobacco as a possible risk factor for stroke in men - a nested case-control study. Stroke. 2003;34:1754-9.
    • 94. Hergens M-P, Lambe M, Pershagen G, Terent A, Ye W. Smokeless tobacco and the risk of stroke.[Erratum appears in Epidemiology. 2009;20(3):471]. Epidemiology. 2008;19:794-9.
    • 95. Hansson J, Pedersen NL, Galanti MR, Andersson T, Ahlbom A, Hallqvist J, et al. Use of snus and risk for cardiovascular disease: results from the Swedish Twin Registry. J Intern Med. 2009;265:717-24.
    • 96. Janzon E, Hedblad B. Swedish snuff and incidence of cardiovascular disease. A population-based cohort study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009;9:21.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
    62
    62%
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

Cite this article