Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
St. John, Freya A.V.; Mai, Chin-Hsuan; Pei, Kurtis J. C. (2014)
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: QH75, H1
Rules restricting resource use are ubiquitous to conservation. Recent increases in poaching of iconic species such as African elephant and rhino have triggered high-profile interest in enforcement. Previous studies have used economic models to explore how the probability and severity of sanctions influence poacher-behaviour. Yet despite evidence that compliance can be substantial when the threat of state-imposed sanctions is low and profits high, few have explored other factors deterring rule-breaking. We use the randomised response technique (RRT) and direct questions to estimate the proportion of rural residents in north-western Taiwan illegally killing wildlife. We then model how potential sources of deterrence: perceived probabilities of detection and punishment, social norms and self-imposed guilt, relate to non-compliant behaviour (reported via RRT). The perceived likelihood of being punished and two types of social norms (injunctive and descriptive) predict behaviour and deter rule-breaking. Harnessing social norms that encourage compliance offers potential for reducing the persecution of threatened species.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Council of Agriculture, 1989. Wildlife Conservation Act. The Gazette of the Office of the President Accessed 06 January 2014,.
    • Cross, P., St. John, F.A.V., Khan, S., Petroczi, A., 2013. Innovative techniques for estimating illegal activities in a human-wildlife-management conflict. PLoS ONE 8, e53681.
    • Felson, M., 1986. Chapter 8. Linking criminal choices, routine activities, informal control, and criminal outcomes, In The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice Perspectives on Offending. eds A. Blumstein, D.P. Farrington. Springer-Verlag, New York.
    • Francis, C., 2008. A Field Guide to the Mammals of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd, London.
    • Freedman, J.L., Wallington, S.A., Bless, E., 1967. Compliance without pressure: The effect of guilt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7, 117-124.
    • Garoupa, N., 1997. The theory of optimal law enforcement. Journal of Economic Surveys 11, 267-295.
    • Gavin, M., Solomon, J., Blank, S.G., 2010. Measuring and monitoring the illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology 24, 89-100.
    • Gezelius, S.S., 2002. Do norms count? State regulation and compliance in a Norwegian fishing community. Acta Sociologica 45, 305-314.
    • Goldenberg, S., 2013. Hillary and Chelsea Clinton unveil $80m effort to fight illegal ivory trade. The Guardian, London. (accessed January 2013).
    • Grasmick, H.G., Bryjak, G.J., 1980. The deterrent effect of perceived severity of punishment. Social Forces 59, 471-491.
    • Grasmick, H.G., Bursik, R.J.J., 1990. Conscience, signficant other, and rational choice: Extending the deterrence model,. Law and Society Review 24, 827-862.
    • Grasmick, H.G., Green, D.E., 1980. Legal punishment, social disapproval and internalization as inhibitors of illegal behaviour. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 71, 325- 335.
    • Hilborn, R., 2007. Managing fisheries is managing people: What has been learned? Fish and Fisheries 8, 285-296.
    • Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., Hando, J., Hopcraft, G., Loibooki, M., Mduma, S., Sinclair, A.R.E., 2006. Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science 314, 1266.
    • Hox, J.J., Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M., 2004. Randomized response analysis in Mplus. Structural Equation Modeling 11, 615-620.
    • Hwang, J.-C., 2008. Some notes on the ecology of gem-faced palm civet: From burrowing behavior to seed dispersal. Notes Newsletter Wildlife 12, 12-19 (in Chinese).
    • Ian, C.W., 1979. An evaluation of the changes of bird and mammal populations after 6 years of hunting ban enforcement in Taiwan., p. 48. Environmental Research Center, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (in Chinese).
    • Jachmann, H., 2008. Monitoring law-enforcement performance in nine protected areas in Ghana. Biological Conservation 141, 89-99.
    • Keane, A., Jones, J.P., Milner-Gulland, E., 2012. Modelling the effect of individual strategic behaviour on community-level outcomes of conservation interventions. Environmental Conservation 39, 305.
    • Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Edwards-Jones, G., Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2008. The sleeping policeman: Understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Animal Conservation 11, 75-82.
    • Keane, A., Ramarolahy, A.A., Jones, J.P.G., Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2011. Evidence for the effects of environmental engagement and education on knowledge of wildlife laws in Madagascar. Conservation Letters 4, 55-63.
    • Kennedy, D.M., 1997. Pulling levers: Chronic offenders, high-crime settings, and a theory of prevention. Valparaiso University Law Review 31, 449.
    • Kollmuss, A., Agyeman, J., 2002. Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research 8, 239-260.
    • Kroneberg, C., Heintze, I., Mehlkop, G., 2010. The interplay of moral norms and instrumental incentives in crime causation. Criminology 48, 259-294.
    • Landsheer, J., Van Der Heijden, P., Van Gils, G., 1999. Trust and understanding, two psychological aspects of randomized response. Quality & Quantity 33, 1-12.
    • Laurance, W.F., 2008. The need to cut China's illegal timber imports. Science 319, 1184- 1185.
    • Lee, N.R., Kotler, P., 2011. Social marketing: Influencing behaviors for good. Sage Publications, California, USA.
    • Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M., Hox, J.J., van der Heijden, P.G.M., Maas, C.J.M., 2005. Metaanalysis of randomized response research: Thirty-five years of validation. Sociological Methods Research 33, 319-348.
    • Mastrangelo, M.E., Gavin, M.C., Laterra, P., Linklater, W.L., Milfont, T.L., 2013. Psychosocial factors influencing forest conservation intentions on the agricultural frontier. Conservation Letters 7, 103-110.
    • McCullough, D.R., 1974. Status of larger mammals in Taiwan. A report to World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., p. 36. Tourism Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    • Miaoli County Government Household Registration Service, 2014. Village population stastistics Accessed April 2014.
    • Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2012. Interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367, 270-278.
    • Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bennett, E.L., 2003. Wild meat: The bigger picture. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18, 351-357.
    • Milner-Gulland, E.J., Clayton, L., 2002. The trade in babirusas and wild pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Economics 42, 165-183.
    • Milner-Gulland, E.J., Leader-Williams, N., 1992. A model of incentives for the illegal exploitation of black rhinos and elephants; poaching pays in Luangwa Valley, Zambia. Journal of Applied Ecology 29, 388-401.
    • Milner-Gulland, E.J., Rowcliffe, J.M., 2007. Understanding natural resource users' incentives, In Conservation and Sustainable Use, A Handbook of Technique. pp. 83- 124. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Moshagen, M., Hilbig, B.E., Erdfelder, E., Moritz, A., 2013. An experimental validation method for questioning techniques that assess sensitive issues. Experimental Psychology 61, 48-54.
    • Nagin, D.S., 1998. Criminal deterrence research at the outset of the twenty-first century. Crime and justice, 1-42.
    • Newing, H., 2011. Sampling, In Conducting Research in Conservation: A Social Science Perspective. pp. 65-82. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.
    • Nuno, A.N.A., Bunnefeld, N., Naiman, L.C., Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2013. A novel approach to assessing the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the Serengeti. Conservation Biology 27, 1355-1365.
    • Ong, Weiss, 2000. The impact of anonymity on response to sensitive questions. Journal ofApplied Social Psychology 30, 1691-1708.
    • Ostapczuk, M., Musch, J., 2011. Estimating the prevalence of negative attitudes towards people with disability: A comparison of direct questioning, projective questioning and randomised response. Disability & Rehabilitation 33, 399-411.
    • Ostrom, E., 2000. Collective action and the evolution of social norms. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 137-158.
    • Paternoster, R., 1987. The deterrent effect of the perceived certainty and severity of punishment: A review of the evidence and issues. Justice Quarterly 4, 173-218.
    • Pei, K.J.-C., 2008. Present status and conservation of small carnivores at low elevation mountains in Shinchu County and Miaoli County (3/3). Final report, In Forestry Bureau Cons. Res. 96-01. p. 88, Taiwan (in Chinese with English abstract).
    • Pei, K.J.-C., Lu, D.-J., Hwang, M.-H., Chao, J.-L., Chen, M.-T., 2014. Initiating communityinvolved conservation actives for endangered leopard cats in Miaoli, Taiwan. Final report. Forestry Bureau Cons. Res. 100-02-08-02. 72p. (in Chinese with English abstract).
    • Petr√≥czi, A., Mazanov, J., Nepusz, T., Backhouse, S., Naughton, D., 2008. Comfort in big numbers: Does over-estimation of doping prevalence in others indicate selfinvolvement? Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 3, 19.
    • Posner, R.A., 1997. Social norms and the law: An economic approach. The American Economic Review 87, 365-369.
    • Pratt, T.C., Cullen, F.T., 2000. The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirshi's general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology 38, 931-964.
    • Primmer, E., Karppinen, H., 2010. Professional judgment in non-industrial private forestry: Forester attitudes and social norms influencing biodiversity conservation. Forest Policy and Economics 12, 136-146.
    • R Development Core Team, 2012. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/.
    • Razafimanahaka, J.H., Jenkins, R.K.B., Andriafidison, D., Randrianandrianina, F., Rakotomboavonjy, V., Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., 2012. Novel approach for quantifying illegal bushmeat consumption reveals high consumption of protected species in Madagascar. Oryx 46, 584-592.
    • Robinson, E.J., Kumar, A.M., Albers, H.J., 2010. Protecting developing countries' forests: Enforcement in theory and practice. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research 2, 25-38.
    • Robinson, J.P., Shaver, P.R., Wrightsman, L.S., 1991. Criteria for scale selection and evaluation, In Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. eds J.P. Robinson, P.R. Shaver, L.S. Wrightsman. Elsevier, California, USA.
    • Ross, L., Greene, D., House, P., 1977. "The false consensus effect": An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13, 279-301.
    • Scollon, C.N., Diener, E., Oishi, S., Biswas-Diener, R., 2004. Emotions across cultures and methods. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 35, 304-326.
    • Simon, H.A., 1955. A behavioural model of rational choice. Quarterly Journal of Economics 69, 99-118.
    • Simpson, S.S., Koper, C.S., 1992. Detering corporate crime. Criminology 30, 347-376.
    • Smith, R.J., Roberts, D.L., Duffy, R., St. John, F.A.V., 2013. New rhino conservation project in South Africa to understand landowner decision-making. Oryx 47, 323-323.
    • Solomon, J., Jacobson, S.K., Wald, K.D., Gavin, M., 2007. Estimating illegal resource use at a Ugandan park with the randomized response technique. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 12, 75 - 88.
    • St. John, F.A.V., Edwards-Jones, G., Gibbons, J.M., Jones, J.P.G., 2010a. Testing novel methods for assessing rule breaking in conservation. Biological Conservation 143, 1025-1030.
    • St. John, F.A.V., Edwards-Jones, G., Jones, J.P.G., 2010b. Conservation and human behaviour: Lessons from social psychology. Wildlife Research 38, 658-667.
    • St. John, F.A.V., Keane, A.M., Edwards-Jones, G., Jones, L., Yarnell, R.W., Jones, J.P.G., 2012. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: Carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279, 804-812.
    • St. John, F.A.V., Keane, A.M., Milner-Gulland, E.J., 2013. Effective conservation depends upon understanding human behaviour, In Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2. eds D.W. MacDonald, K.J. Willis, pp. 344-361. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK.
    • Sumaila, U.R., Alder, J., Keith, H., 2006. Global scope and economics of illegal fishing. Marine Policy 30, 696-703.
    • Sutinen, J.G., Gauvin, J.R., 1989. An econometric study of regulatory enforcement and compliance in the commercial inshore lobster fishery of Massachusetts, In RightsBased Fishing. ed. P.A. Neher, Arnason, R. and Mollet, N. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.
    • Sutinen, J.G., Kuperan, K., 1999. A socio-economic theory of regulatory compliance. International Journal of Social Economics 26, 174 - 193.
    • Taipei Times, 2013. Formosan leopard extinct: Zoologists, In Taipei Times (Staff writer with CNA). The Taipei Times, Taiwan.
    • The White House, 2013. Fact Sheet: U.S. efforts to combat wildlife trafficking. Office of the Press Secretary,Washington DC (accessed January 2013).
    • Treves, A., Karanth, K.U., 2003. Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology 17, 1491-1499.
    • Tyler, T.R., 2006. Why People Obey the Law. Princeton University Press.
    • van den Hout, A., van der Heijden, P.G.M., Gilchrist, R., 2007. The logistic regression model with response variables subject to randomized response. Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 51, 6060-6069.
    • Van Gelder, J.-L., 2012. Beyond rational choice: The hot/cool perspective of criminal decision making. Psychology, Crime & Law 19, 745-763.
    • Vining, J., Ebreo, A., 2002. Chapter 35 Emerging theoretical and methodological perspectives on conservation behavior, In New Handbook of Environmental Psychology. eds R. Bechtel, A. Churchman. Wiley, New York.
    • Wang, H., Fuller, T., 2003. Food habits of four sympatric carnivores in southeastern China. Mammalia 67, 513-519.
    • Wang, Y., 1986. A study on the utilization of wild animal in Taiwan (I), In Council of Agriculture Ecol. Res., p. 62, Taiwan. (in Chinese).
    • Warner, S.L., 1965. Randomized response: A survey technique for eliminating evasive answer bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association 60, 63-69.
    • Wenzel, M., 2004. The social side of sanctions: Personal and social norms as moderators of deterrence. Law and Human Behavior 28, 547.
    • Williams, S.J., Jones, J.P.G., Clubbe, C., Gibbons, J.M., 2012. Training programmes can change behaviour and encourage the cultivation of over-harvested plant species. PLoS ONE 7, e33012.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article