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Boucher, David (2001)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: CT, B1
In this article I intend to give more attention to Pufendorf's ideas than has been the custom among international relations theorists. The main focus will be upon Pufendorf's distillation and conceptualization of the implications of Westphalia in terms of sovereignty and the integrity of states. Furthermore, his extension of the Aristotelian classification of types of state, and his attempts to go beyond Bodin's and Hobbes's theories of sovereignty, provide the vocabulary and concepts in terms of which the different international actors of the late seventeenth century could be understood. In this respect the focus is altogether different from Linklater. My emphasis upon the historical and emblematic character of the Peace of Westphalia, the personification of the state and its animation by sovereignty, which serves to facilitate Pufendorf's exploration of the idea of a system of states, and my suggestion that his ideas are not wholly redundant and may be used to explore some facets of a modern states system, serve considerably to extend Forsyth's brief analysis.
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    • 4 See, for example, Howard P. Kainz (ed.). Philosophical Perspectives on Peace (London, Macmillan, 1987); John A. Vasquez (ed.), Classics of International Relations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990); Evan Luard, Basic Texts in International Relations (London: Macmillan, 1992); and Howard Williams, Moorhead Wright and Tony Evans (eds.), A Reader in International Relations and Political Theory (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993).
    • 5 Martin Wight, Systems of States (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1977), p. 21.
    • 6 Wight, Systems of States, pp. 159 and 165.
    • 7 Terry Nardin, Law, Morality, and the Relations of States (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983), pp. 41n, 54, 58, 58n, 70, and 70n. Nardin also points out that Pufendorf was one of Kant's 'sorry comforters', p. 74.
    • 8 Nicholas Greenwood Onuf, The Republican Legacy in International Thought (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998), p. 123.
    • 9 Onuf, The Republican Legacy, p. 53.
    • 10 Pufendorf, The Law of Nature and Nations, IV, vi, p. 4.
    • 11 Andrew Linklater, Men and Citizens in the Theory of International Relations, 2nd edn. (London: Macmillan, 1990), and Murray Forsyth, Unions of States: The Theory and Practice of Confederation (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1981). In addition, Charles Beitz devotes three pages to Pufendorf in his Political Theory and International Relations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979).
    • 12 See, for example, Knud Haakonssen, 'Hugo Grotius and the History of Political Thought', Political Theory, 13 (1985); Knud Haakonssen, 'Natural Law and Moral Realism: The Scottish Synthesis', Studies in the Philosophy of the Scottish Enlightenment (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990); T. Mautner, 'Pufendorf and 18th century Scottish Philosophy', in K. A. Modéer (ed.), Samuel von Pufendorf 1632-1982 (Lund: Bloms Boktryckeri, 1986).
    • 13 See, for example, Michael Lessnoff (ed.), Social Contract Theory (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990); Stephen Buckle, Natural Law and the Theory of Property: Grotius to Hume (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991); Richard Tuck, Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), and Robert Wokler, 'Rousseau's Pufendorf: Natural Law and the Foundations of Commercial Society', History of Political Thought, XV (1994).
    • 15 Stephen Krasner, 'Sovereignty: Organised Hypocrisy'. A paper presented at Arrábida, Portugal, 10 August 1998.
    • 16 See Mervyn Frost, Ethics in International Relations: A Constitutive Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 105-5.
    • 17 David Held, Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1995), p. 77.
    • 18 Alexander B. Murphy, 'The sovereign state system as political-territorial ideal: historical and contemporary considerations' in Thomas J. Biersteker and Cynthia Weber (eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 92.
    • 19 Michael Sheehan, The Balance of Power: History and Theory (London: Routledge, 1996), p. 38.
    • 20 Hedley Bull, 'The Importance of Grotius in the Study of International Relations' in Hedley Bull, Benedict Kingsbury and Adam Roberts (eds.), Hugo Grotius and International Relations (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), pp. 75-8.
    • 21 Michael Oakeshott, On History and other essays (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983), p. 38.
    • 22 Joseph Canning, A History of Medieval Political Thought (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 168-72; and Antony Black, Political Thought in Europe 1250-1450 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 115.
    • 23 Murphy, 'The Sovereign State System as Political-Territorial Ideal', in Biersteker and Weber (eds.), State Sovereignty as Social Construct, pp. 84-5.
    • 24 Andreas Osiander, The States System of Europe, 1640-1990: Peacemaking and the Conditions of International Stability (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), p. 78.
    • 25 J. L. Holzgrefe, 'The Origins of Modern International Relations Theory', Review of International Studies, 15 (1989).
    • 26 Peter Stein, 'From Pufendorf to Adam Smith: the Natural Law Tradition in Scotland', in Europäisches Rechtsolenken in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1982), p. 667.
    • 27 Freidrich Meinecke, Machiavellism: The Doctrine of Raison d'etat and its Place in Modern History (London: Routledge, 1962), p. 230.
    • 32 Cf. Linklater, Men and Citizens, pp. 66-8.
    • 33 For the uniqueness of Pufendorf's theory of social contract see Krieger, The Politics of Discretion, pp. 120-1.
    • 34 See Ernest Barker (ed.), The Social Contract (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961), Introduction; Otto Gierke, Natural Law and the Theory of Society 1500-1800, trans. and intro. Ernest Barker (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1934); J. W. Gough, The Social Contract (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957), pp. 43-8; and Michael Oakeshott, On Human Conduct (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975), essay III.
    • 55 For arguments which recommend abandoning the idea of sovereignty, see Michael Newman, Democracy, Sovereignty and the European Union (London: Hurst, 1996), and Philip Lynch, 'Sovereignty and the European Union: Eroded, Enhanced, Fragmented', in Laura Brace and John Hoffman (eds.), Reclaiming Sovereignty (London: Cassell, 1996).
    • 56 Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal, 'Changing Citizenship in Europe', in David Cesarani and Mary Fulbrook (eds.), Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 24-5.
    • 57 Andrew Linklater, The Transformation of Political Community (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1998), pp. 198-211.
    • 58 Cited in Elspeth Guild, 'The Legal Framework of Citizenship of the European Union', in David Cesarani and Mary Fulbrook (eds.), Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe (London: Routledge, 1996), p. 41.
    • 62 See Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, 'Europe's Could-be Demos: Recasting the Debate', West European Politics, 19 (1996), pp. 787-801; Richard Münch, 'Between Nation-State, Regionalism and World Society: The European Integration Process', Journal of Common Market Studies, 34 (1996), pp. 379-402; and Rey Koslowski, 'Intra-EU Migration, Citizenship and Political Union', Journal of Common Market Studies, 32 (1994), pp. 369-402.
    • 63 R. Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 179.
    • 64 See Mark Mitchell and Dave Russell, 'Immigration, Citizenship and the Nation-State in the New Europe', in Brian Jenkins and Spyros A. Sofos (eds.), Nation and Identity in Contemporary Europe (London: Routledge).
    • 65 Andrew Geddes, 'Immigrant and Ethnic Minorities and the EU's “Democratic Deficit” ', Journal of Common Market Studies, 33 (1995), pp. 197-217.
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