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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hudson, Valerie M; den Boer, Andrea
Publisher: MIT Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: JZ
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 4. Ansley Coale, “Excess Female Mortality and the Balance of the Sexes in the Population: An Estimate of the Number of 'Missing Females,'” Population and Development Review, Vol. 17, No. 3 (September 1991), p. 518.
    • 5. Amartya Sen, “More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing,” New York Review of Books, December 20, 1990, pp. 61-66.
    • 6. Chai Bin Park and Nam-Hoon Cho, “Consequences of Son Preference in a Low-Fertility Society: Imbalance of the Sex Ratio at Birth in Korea,” Population and Development Review, Vol. 21, No. 1 (March 1995), p. 66, Table 6.
    • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o p x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 se i,a t n h s s e 1994.10.1-1995.9.30; State Statistical Bureau of China (SSB) (1.04 percent sample) October 1, 1995, SSB (1.04 percent sample) April 1, 1995, SSB (1.04 percent sample) 1999, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Anecdotal reports for particular regions/towns 7. Ibid., p. 79.
    • 8. Zeng Yi, Tu Ping, Gu Baochang, Xu Yi, Li Bohua, and Li Youngping, “Causes and Implications of the Recent Increase in the Reported Sex Ratio at Birth in China,” Population and Development Review, Vol. 19, No. 2 (June 1993), p. 296.
    • 18. This account of the Nien is adapted from the work of Elizabeth Perry, speciªcally Perry, Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1980).
    • 19. Ibid., p. 51. For purposes of comparison, the sex ratio in Dodge City, Kansas, in 1880 was “only” 124. Courtwright, Violent Land, p. 58.
    • 20. David Ownby, “Approximations of Chinese Bandits: Perverse Rebels or Frustrated Bachelors?” in Jeffrey Wasserstrom and Usam Brownell, eds., Chinese Masculinities/Femininities (Berkeley: University of California Press, forthcoming), p. 20 (emphasis added). See also David Ownby, Brotherhoods and Secret Societies in Early and Mid-Qing China (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996).
    • 21. Ownby, “Approximations of Chinese Bandits,” p. 19.
    • 22. “6.3 Brides,” Economist, December 19, 1998, p. 57. See also James Z. Lee and Wang Feng, One Quarter of Humanity: Malthusian Mythology and Chinese Realities, 1700-2000 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999).
    • 23. Ownby, Brotherhoods and Secret Societies in Early and Mid-Qing China.
    • 24. Daniel Little, Understanding Peasant China: Case Studies in the Philosophy of Social Science (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1989), p. 172.
    • 25. Chen Shengshao, Wensulu 1827, as quoted in Ownby, “Approximations of Chinese Bandits,” p. 19.
    • 26. Chen Shengshao, Wensulu 1827, as quoted in Ownby, “Approximations of Chinese Bandits,” p. 22.
    • 27. Ownby, “Approximations of Chinese Bandits,” p. 20.
    • 28. Ibid.
    • 29. James L. Watson, “Self-Defense Corps, Violence, and the Bachelor Subculture in South China: Two Case Studies,” proceedings of the Second International Conference on Sinology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Republic of China, June 1989, p. 216.
    • 30. Ownby, “Approximations of Chinese Bandits,” p. 22.
    • 31. Watson, “Self-Defense Corps,” p. 213.
    • 32. See James Tong, “Rational Outlaws: Rebels and Bandits in the Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644,” in Michael Taylor, ed., Rationality and Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
    • 33. Perry, Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, p. 102.
    • 34. Kung-ch'uan Hsiao, Rural China: Imperial Control in the Nineteenth Century (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967), p. 458.
    • 35. Li Ji, “Discussions on the Gender Imbalance in China and the Entailed Social Problems,” Foreign Affairs College, Beijing, 1999, p. 11.
    • 36. Perry, Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, p. 127.
    • 37. See Meng Ren, “Confronting Three Populations of 80 Million,” Inside China Mainland, Vol. 19, No. 1 (January 1997), pp. 78-81.
    • 44. Mary M. Anderson, Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China (Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1990), p. 162.
    • 45. Ibid., p. 226.
    • 46. David M. Robinson, “The Management of Violence in the Mid-Ming Capital Region,” Colgate University, 1998.
    • 47. Quoted in Ownby, Brotherhoods and Secret Societies in Early and Mid-Qing China, p. 20. See Watson, “Self-Defense Corps.”
    • 48. Fei-ling Davis, Primitive Revolutionaries of China: A Study of Secret Societies in the Late Nineteenth Century (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1977), p. 90.
    • 49. Joseph Esherick, The Origins of the Boxer Uprising (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), p. 223.
    • 50. Quoted in ibid., p. 46.
    • 61. Boone, “Parental Investment and Family Structure,” p. 859.
    • 62. Mesquida and Weiner, “Human Collective Aggression,” p. 257.
    • 63. Wright, The Moral Animal, pp. 98-101.
    • 64. It is hard to concur with William T. Divale and Marvin Harris that “warfare perpetuate[s] and propagate[s] itself because it [is] an effective method for sustaining the material and ideological restrictions on the rearing of female infants.” Nevertheless, we understand how their analysis of 448 populations could result in the conclusion that “we are most likely to ªnd unbalanced sex ratios when warfare is present.” See Divale and Harris, “Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex,” American Anthropologist, Vol. 78, No. 3 (September 1976), pp. 531, 528.
    • 65. Laura Betzig, Despotism and Differential Reproduction: A Darwinian View of History (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1986), p. 94.
    • 71. Ping Zhang, “Issues and Characteristics of the Unmarried Population,” Chinese Journal of Population Science, Vol. 2, No. 1 (1990), pp. 87-97. Ping's ªgure of 94 percent is a little low, because he only examines single persons aged 28-49. His ªgures are also from 1987. Reasonable adjustments to his ªgures based on our own demographic statistics yield a percentage of about 97 percent.
    • 72. Ibid.
    • 73. Ibid.
    • 74. Ye Wenzhen and Lin Qingguo, “The Reasons and Countermeasures for Demographic Phenomena in China,” Chinese Demography, Vol. 4 (1998), as quoted in Ren Feng, “Bare Branches among Rural Migrant Laborers in China: Causes, Social Implications, and Policy Proposals,” Foreign Affairs College, Beijing, May 24, 1999, p. 12.
    • 75. Age data are from “HIV/AIDS-What the Chinese Experts Say,” http://www.usembassychina.org.cn/english/sandt/webaids3.htm (accessed July 10, 1998). Sex data are from Zhao Yi, The Population, Resources, Environment, Agriculture, and Continuous Development of 21st-Century China (Shan Xi: Economic Publishing House, 1997), p. 144; Zang Xiaohui, Wu Zhingang, and Chen Liangbiao, “Age Difference among the Rural Labor Force in Interregional Migration,” Population Science of China, Vol. 9, No. 3 (1997), pp. 193-202; and Bruce Gilley, “Irresistible Force,” Far Eastern Economic Review, April 4, 1996, pp. 18-22. Another revealing statistic is that approximately 82 percent of men remaining unmarried between the ages of 30 and 44 are registered residents of rural 83. Meng, “Confronting Three Populations of 80 Million,” p. 80.
    • 84. Tan Li, “ The Population Flow into Big Cities,” Beijing Review, July 18-24, 1994, p. 17.
    • 85. Duan Chengyang, “Floating Population and Its Effects on Rural and Urban Socioeconomic Development,” Population Research, Vol. 22, No. 4 (1998), as quoted in Ren, “Bare Branches among Rural Migrant Laborers in China,” p. 16.
    • 86. Linda Wong, “China's Urban Migrants-The Public Policy Challenge,” Paciªc Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3 (Autumn 1994), p. 340.
    • 87. Zhang Haiyang, “On Flowing Population in Qiqiha'er: Current Conditions and Management,” Plan Study, n.s. 5 (1997), p. 23.
    • 88. Yingyi Situ and Liu Weizheng, “Transient Population, Crime, and Solution: The Chinese Experience,” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Vol. 40, No. 4 (December 1996), p. 295.
    • 89. Meng, “Confronting Three Populations of 80 Million,” p. 78.
    • 90. Paul Eckert, “China's Monumental Leap,” Reuters, November 21, 1999, http://www.desnews. com/cgi-bin/libstory-state?dn99&9911220265.
    • 91. Ibid.
    • 92. Erik Eckholm, “One Giant Step for Mr. Jiang's China,” New York Times, November 21, 1999, sec. 4, p. 4.
    • 98. Robinson, “The Management of Violence,” p. 35.
    • 99. Census of India, 1991, Series 1, Part 2-B(i), Primary Census Abstract General Population, Vol. 1.
    • 100. Farzand Ahmed and Subhash Mishra, “Stooping to Conquer,” India Today International, November 10, 1997, p. 22.
    • 101. Samar Halarnkar, Sayantan Chakravarty, and Smruti Koppikar, “Fear in the City,” India Today International, October 6, 1997, p. 14.
    • 102. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999), p. 200.
    • 103. Philip Oldenburg, “Sex Ratio, Son Preference, and Violence in India: A Research Note,” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 27, Nos. 49 and 50 (1992), pp. 2657-2662.
    • 104. Jean Dreze and Reetika Khera, “Crime, Gender, and Society in India: Insights from Homicide Data,” Population and Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 2 (June 2000), p. 342.
    • 105. Ibid., p. 347.
    • 106. Francis Fukuyama, “Women and the Evolution of World Politics,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 77, No. 5 (September/October 1998), pp. 24-40.
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