LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Allen, Peter M.; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L.; Ravensbergen, Rianne H. J. C.; Myint, Joy (2016)
Publisher: Frontiers Media S.A.
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: para-sport, Psychology, visual acuity, shooting, BF1-990, vision impairment, Original Research, classification, contrast sensitivity
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would\ud reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually\ud impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the\ud study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at\ud the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate\ud six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed\ud along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment\ud and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by\ud calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing\ud this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with\ud habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate\ud the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as\ud achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance\ud with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected\ud by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses.\ud The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good,\ud with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and\ud 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria\ud for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only\ud those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some\ud who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would\ud include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include\ud those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport.\ud An impairment to CS could impact performance in the sport and might be considered\ud in determining eligibility to take part in VI competition
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Applegate, R. A., and Applegate, R. A. (1992). Set shot shooting performance and visual acuity in basketball. Optom. Vis. Sci. 79, 765-768. doi: 10.1097/00006324- 199210000-00004
    • Bourne, R. R., Rosser, D. A., Sukudom, P., Dineen, B., Laidlaw, D. A., Johnson, G. J., et al. (2003). Evaluating a new logMAR chart designed to improve visual acuity assessment in population-based surveys. Eye 17, 754-758. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6700500
    • Bulson, R. C., Ciuffreda, K. J., Hayes, J., and Ludlam, D. P. (2015). Effect of retinal defocus on basketball free throw shooting performance. Clin. Exp. Optom. 98, 330-334. doi: 10.1111/cxo.12267
    • Bulson, R. C., Ciuffreda, K. J., and Hung, G. K. (2008). The effect of retinal defocus on golf putting. Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 28, 334-344. doi: 10.1111/j.1475- 1313.2008.00575.x
    • Elliott, D. B., and Bullimore, M. A. (1993). Assessing the reliability, discriminative ability, and validity of disability glare tests. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34, 108-119.
    • Elliott, D. B., Bullimore, M. A., and Bailey, I. L. (1991). Improving the reliability of the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity test. Clin. Vis. Sci. 6, 471-475.
    • Elliott, D. B., and Hurst, M. A. (1990). Simple clinical techniques to evaluate visual function in patients with early cataract. Optom. Vis. Sci. 67, 822-825. doi: 10.1097/00006324-199011000-00006
    • Elliott, D. B., and Situ, P. (1998). Visual acuity versus letter contrast sensitivity in early cataract. Vision Res. 38, 2047-2052. doi: 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00382-9
    • Elliott, D. B., Yang, K. C. H., and Whitaker, D. (1995). Visual acuity changes throughout adulthood in normal, healthy eyes: seeing beyond 6/6. Optom. Vis. Sci. 72, 186-191. doi: 10.1097/00006324-199503000-00006
    • Erickson, G. (2007). Sports Vision: Vision Care for the Enhancement of Sports Performance. St. Louis: Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier.
    • Goodman-Deane, J., Waller, S., Collins, A. C., and Clarkson, P. J. (2013). Simulating Vision Loss: What Levels of Impairment are Actually Represented? San Diego, CA: Ergonomics and Human Factors Conference.
    • British Standards Institution (2009). BS EN ISO 8596:2009. Ophthalmic Optics. Visual Acuity Testing. Standard Optotype and its Presentation. London: British Standards Institution, 1-12.
    • International Paralympic Committee (2007). IPC Classification Code and International Standards. Bonn: International Paralympic Committee.
    • International Paralympic Committee (2014). Athletics Classification Rules and Regulations. Bonn: International Paralympic Committee.
    • Mann, D. L., Abernethy, B., and Farrow, D. (2010a). The resilience of natural interceptive actions to refractive blur. Hum. Mov. Sci. 29, 386-400. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2010.02.007
    • Mann, D. L., Abernethy, B., and Farrow, D. (2010b). Visual information underpinning skilled anticipation: the effect of blur on a coupled and uncoupled in-situ anticipatory response. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 72, 1317-1326. doi: 10.3758/APP.72.5.1317
    • Mann, D. L., Ho, N., De Souza, N. J., Watson, D. R., and Taylor, S. J. (2007). Is optimal vision required for the successful execution of an interceptive task? Hum. Mov. Sci. 26, 343-356. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2006. 12.003
    • Myint, J., Latham, K., Mann, D. L., Gomersall, P., Wilkins, A. J., and Allen, P. M. (2016). The relationship between visual function and performance in rifle shooting for athletes with vision impairment. BMJ Open Sports Exerc. Med. 2:e000080. doi: 10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000080
    • Pelli, D. G., Robson, J. G., and Wilkins, A. J. (1988). The design of a new letter chart for measuring contrast sensitivity. Clin. Vis. Sci. 2, 187-199.
    • Rae, S., Latham, K., and Katsou, M. F. (2015). Meeting the UK driving vision standards with reduced contrast sensitivity. Eye 30, 89-94. doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.188
    • Ravensbergen, H. J. C., Mann, D. L., and Kamper, S. J. (2016). Expert consensus statement to guide the evidence-based classification of paralympic athletes with vision impairment: a Delphi study. Br. J. Sports Med. 50, 368-391. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095434
    • Tweedy, S. M., Beckman, E. M., and Connick, M. J. (2014). Paralympic classification: conceptual basis, current methods, and research update. PMR 6(8 Suppl.), S11-S17. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2014.04.013
    • Tweedy, S. M., and Vanlandewijck, Y. C. (2011). International paralympic committee position stand: background and scientific principles of classification in paralympic sport. Br. J. Sports Med. 45, 259-269. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.065060
    • World Health Organization (2004). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICH-10). Geneva: World Health Organization.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.