Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Sammons, Helen M.; Choonara, Imti (2016)
Publisher: MDPI
Journal: Children
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: drug toxicity, children, RJ1-570, Review, drug metabolism, Pediatrics, rational drug use
Drug toxicity is, unfortunately, a significant problem in children both in the hospital and in the community. Drug toxicity in children is different to that seen in adults. At least one in 500 children will experience an adverse drug reaction each year. For children in hospital, the risk is far greater (one in ten). Additionally, different and sometimes unique adverse drug reactions are seen in the paediatric age groups. Some of the major cases of drug toxicity historically have occurred in neonates. It is important that we understand the mechanism of action of adverse drug reactions. Greater understanding alongside rational prescribing should hopefully reduce drug toxicity in children in the future.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Edwards, I.R.; Aronson, J.K. Adverse drug reactions: Definitions, diagnosis and management. Lancet 2000, 356, 1255-1259. [CrossRef]
    • 2. Bárzaga Arencibia, Z.; López Leyva, A.; Mejías Peña, Y.; González Reyes, A.R.; Fernández Manzano, E.; Choonara, I. Pharmacovigilance in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2012, 68, 1079-1084. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 3. Smyth, R.M.; Gargon, E.; Kirkham, J.; Cresswell, L.; Golder, S.; Smyth, R.; Williamson, P. Adverse drug reactions in children-A systematic review. PLoS ONE 2012, 7, e24061. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 4. Choonara, I. Percutaneous drug absorption and administration. Arch. Dis. Child. 1994, 71, F73-F74. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 5. Rayner, W. Cyanosis in newly born children caused by aniline marking ink. Br. Med. J. 1886, 1, 294. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 6. Martin-Bouyer, G.; Lebreton, R.; Toga, M.; Stolley, P.D.; Lockhart, J. Outbreak of accidental hexachlorophene poisoning in France. Lancet 1982, 319, 91-95. [CrossRef]
    • 7. Pinsker, J.E.; McBayne, K.; Edwards, M.; Jensen, K.; Crudo, D.F.; Bauer, A.J. Transient hypothyroidism in premature infants after short-term topical iodine exposure: An avoidable risk? Pediatr. Neonatol. 2013, 54, 128-131. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 8. Giménez, E.R.; Vallejo, N.E.; Roy, E.; Lis, M.; Izurieta, E.M.; Rossi, S.; Capuccio, M. Percutaneous alcohol intoxication. Clin. Toxicol. 1968, 1, 39-48.
    • 9. Woolf, A.; Burkhart, K.; Caraccio, T.; Litovitz, T. Childhood poisoning involving transdermal nicotine patches. Pediatrics 1997, 99, e4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 10. Silverman, W.A.; Andersen, D.H.; Blanc, W.A.; Crozier, D.N. A difference in mortality rate and incidence of kernicterus among premature infants allotted to two prophylactic antibacterial regimens. Pediatrics 1956, 18, 614-621.
    • 11. Dunn, P.M. The possible relationship between the maternal administration of sulphamethoxypyridazine and hyperbilirubinaemia in the newborn. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Br. Commonw. 1964, 71, 128-131. [CrossRef]
    • 12. Sutherland, J.M. Fatal cardiovascular collapse of infants receiving large amounts of chloramphenicol. AMA J. Dis. Child. 1959, 97, 761-767. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 13. Weiss, C.F.; Glazko, A.J.; Weston, J.K. Chloramphenicol in the newborn infant-A physiologic explanation of its toxicity when given in excessive doses. N. Engl. J. Med. 1960, 262, 787-794. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 14. Kearns, G.L.; Abdel-Rahman, S.M.; Alander, S.W.; Blowey, D.L.; Leeder, J.S.; Kauffman, R.E. Developmental pharmacology-Drug disposition, action, and therapy in infants and children. N. Engl. J. Med. 2003, 349, 1157-1167. [PubMed]
    • 15. De Wildt, S.N.; Tibboel, D.; Leeder, J.S. Drug metabolism for the paediatrician. Arch. Dis. Child. 2014, 99, 1137-1142. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 16. Geiling, E.M.K.; Cannon, P.R. Pathological effects of elixir of sulphanilamide (diethylene glycol) poisoning. JAMA 1938, 111, 919-926. [CrossRef]
    • 17. Alkahtani, S.; Sammons, H.; Choonara, I. Epidemics of acute renal failure in children (diethylene glycol toxicity). Arch. Dis. Child. 2010, 95, 1062-1064. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 18. Gershanik, J.; Boecler, B.; Ensley, H.; McCloskey, S.; George, W. The gasping syndrome and benzyl alcohol poisoning. N. Engl. J. Med. 1982, 307, 1384-1388. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 19. Bodenstein, C.J. Intravenous vitamin E and deaths in the intensive care unit. Pediatrics 1984, 73, 733. [PubMed]
    • 20. Phelps, D.L. E-ferol: What happened and what now? Pediatrics 1984, 74, 1114-1116. [PubMed]
    • 21. Nellis, G.; Metsvaht, T.; Varendi, H.; Toompere, K.; Lass, J.; Mesek, I.; Nunn, A.J.; Turner, M.A. Potentially harmful excipients in neonatal medicines: A pan-European observational study. Arch. Dis. Child. 2015, 100, 694-699. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 22. World Health Organization. Ceftriaxone: Fatal outcome with calcium-containing solutions. WHO Drug Inf. 2008, 22, 193-194.
    • 23. Bradley, J.S.; Wassel, R.T.; Lee, L.; Nambiar, S. Intravenous ceftiaxone and calcium in the neonate: Assessing the risk for cardiopulmonary adverse events. Pediatrics 2009, 123, e609-e613. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 24. Hiller, A.; Olkkola, K.T.; Isohanni, P.; Saarnivaara, L. Unconsciousness associated with midazolam and erythromycin. Br. J. Anaesth. 1990, 65, 826-828. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 25. Novak, P.H.; Ekins-Daukes, S.; Simpson, C.R.; Milne, R.M.; Helms, P.; McLay, J.S. Acute drug prescribing to children on chronic antiepilepsy therapy and the potential for adverse drug interactions in primary care. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2004, 59, 712-717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 26. Egunsola, O.; Choonara, I.; Sammons, H.M. Safety of lamotrigine in paediatrics: A systematic review. BMJ Open 2015, 5, e07711. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 27. Star, K.; Edwards, I.R.; Choonara, I. Valproic Acid and Fatalities in children-A review of individual case safety reports in VigiBase. PLoS ONE 2014, 9, e108970. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 28. Turner, S.; Nunn, A.J.; Fielding, K.; Choonara, I. Adverse drug reactions to unlicensed and off-label drugs on paediatric wards: A prospective study. Acta Paediatr. 1999, 88, 965-968. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 29. Buvanendran, A.; Kroin, J.S. Multimodal analgesia for controlling acute postoperative pain. Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol. 2009, 22, 588-593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 30. Dreifuss, F.E.; Santilli, N.; Langer, D.H.; Sweeney, K.P.; Moline, K.A.; Menander, K.B. Valporic acid hepatic fatalities: A retrospective review. Neurology 1987, 37, 379-385. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 31. Giles, H. McC. Encephalopathy and fatty degeneration of the viscera. Lancet 1965, 1, 1075. [CrossRef]
    • 32. Starko, K.M.; Ray, G.; Dominguez, L.B.; Stromberg, W.; Woodall, D.F. Reye's syndrome and salicylate use. Pediatrics 1980, 66, 859-864. [PubMed]
    • 33. Davis, D.L.; Buffler, P. Reduction of deaths after drug labelling for risk of Reye's syndrome. Lancet 1992, 340, 1042. [CrossRef]
    • 34. Clarkson, A.; Choonara, I. Surveillance for fatal suspected adverse drug reactions in the UK. Arch. Dis. Child. 2002, 87, 462-467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 35. Parke, T.J.; Stevens, J.E.; Rice, A.S.; Greenaway, C.L.; Bray, R.J.; Smith, P.J.; Waldmann, C.S.; Verghese, C. Metabolic acidosis and fetal myocardial failure after propofol infusion in children: Five case reports. BMJ 1992, 305, 613-616. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 36. Bray, R.J. Propofol infusion syndrome in children. Paeduatr. Anaesth. 1998, 8, 491-499. [CrossRef]
    • 37. Wilton, L.V.; Stephens, M.D.B.; Mann, R.D. Visual field defect associated with vigabatrin: Observational cohort study. BMJ 1999, 319, 1165-1166. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 38. Zhang, L.; Priestsch, S.O.M.; Ducharme, F.M. Inhaled corticosteroids in children with persistant asthma: Effects on growth (Review). Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2014, 9, 829-930.
    • 39. Halliday, H.L. Postnatal dexamethasone: What is the real cost-benefit ratio? Acta Paediatr. 2003, 92, 888-889. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 40. Yeh, T.F.; Jin, Y.J.; Huang, C.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, H.C.; Hsieh, W.S.; Lien, Y.J. Early dexamethasone therapy in preterm infants: A follow-up study. Pediatrics 1998, 101, e7. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 41. Committee on Fetus and Newborn. Postnatal corticosteroids to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics 2010, 126, 800-808.
    • 42. SanFilippo, A. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis related to ingestion of erythromycin estolate: A report of five cases. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1976, 11, 177-180. [CrossRef]
    • 43. Honein, M.A.; Paulozzi, L.J.; Himelright, I.M.; Lee, B.; Cragan, J.D.; Patterson, L.; Correa, A.; Hall, S.; Erickson, J.D. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after pertussis prophylaxis with erythromycin: A case review and cohort study. Lancet 1999, 354, 2101-2105. [CrossRef]
    • 44. Eberly, M.D.; Eide, M.B.; Thompson, J.L.; Nylund, C.M. Azithromycin in early infancy and pyloric stenosis. Pediatrics 2015, 135, 483-488. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 45. Smith, C.; Egunsola, O.; Choornara, I.; Kotecha, S.; Jacqz-Aigrain, E.; Sammons, H. Use and safety of azithromycin in neonates: A systematic review. BMJ Open 2015, 5, e008194. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 46. Choonara, I. Rational prescribing is important in all settings. Arch. Dis. Child. 2013, 98, 720. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 47. Bénard-Laribière, A.; Jové, J.; Lassalle, R.; Robinson, P.; Droz-Perroteau, C.; Noize, P. Drug use in French children: A population-based study. Arch. Dis. Child. 2015, 100, 960-965.
    • 48. Bozic, B.; Baicetic, M. Use of antibiotics in paediatric primary care settings in Serbia. Arch. Dis. Child. 2015, 100, 966-969. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 49. Puntis, J.W. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in young babies: Who should be treated? Arch. Dis. Child. 2015, 100, 1-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 50. Rieder, M. Do we prescribe medicines rationally? Arch. Dis. Child. 2015, 100, 958-959. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    • 51. Dart, R.C.; Paul, I.M.; Bond, G.R.; Manoguerra, A.S.; Palmer, R.B.; Kauffman, R.E.; Banner, W.; Green, J.L.; Rumack, B.H. Pediatric fatalities associated with over the counter (non-prescription) cough and cold medications. Ann. Emerg. Med. 2009, 53, 411-417. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article