LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Sandom, Christopher J; Macdonald, David W (2015)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects:
Rewilding is an optimistic environmental agenda to reverse the loss of biodiversity and reconnect society with nature. This chapter explores Britain’s ecological history, back to the Last Interglacial before the arrival of modern humans, when the climate was similar to today, to analyse how conservationists can learn from the past to rewild the ecosystems of the present and prepare for an uncertain future. Because there is no single point in history that should or could be recreated, rewilding focuses on re-establishing naturally dynamic ecological processes that, through an appropriate sequence of species reintroductions, attempts to move the ecosystem towards a more appropriately biodiverse and functional state. A state that is self-sustaining in the present climate, and that projected for the near future. Specifically, this chapter explores a rewilding solution to conservation challenges associated with over-grazing, limited germination niche availability, and river dynamics: the reintroduction of wolves, wild boar, and beaver respectively. This sequence of reintroductions is suggested to be complimentary, each altering ecosystem dynamics to facilitate the return of the next. Evidence indicates wolves will reduce deer abundance and re-distribute browsing intensity promoting tree regeneration, particularly in riparian areas, increasing woodland availability to the more habitat-dependent wild boar and beaver. An important message behind rewilding is that a rich biodiversity with all guilds well represented, including the ones that polarize public opinion, such as large predators, are important components of ecosystem service rich and self-sustaining ecosystems, particularly in core areas.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Acs, S., Hanley, N., Dallimer, M., Gaston, K.J., Robertson, P., Wilson, P., and Armsworth, P.R. (2010). The effect of decoupling on marginal agricultural systems: implications for farm incomes, land use and upland ecology. Land Use Policy, 27, 550-563.
    • Adams, J.R., Vucetich, L.M., Hedrick, P.W., Peterson, R.O., and Vucetich, J.A. (2011). Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278, 3336-3344.
    • Akçakaya, H.R., Mills, G., and Doncaster, C.P. (2007). The role of metapopulations in conservation. pp. 64-84 In D.W. Macdonald and K. Service, eds., Key Topics in Conservation Biology. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
    • Anderson, C.B., Pastur, G., Lencinas, M.V., Wallem, P.K., Moorman, M.C., and Rosemond, A.D. (2009). Do introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis engineer differently in southern South America? An overview with implications for restoration. Mammal Review, 39, 33-52.
    • Barrett, C., Bulte, E.H., Ferraro, P., and Wunder, S. (2013). Economic instruments for nature conservation. pp. 59-73 In D.W. Macdonald and K.J. Willis, eds., Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2. Wiley.
    • Belyea, L.R. (2004). Beyond ecological filters: Feedback net - works in the assembly and restoration of community structure. pp. 115-132 In V.M. Temperton, R.J. Hobbs, T.  Nuttle, and S. Halle, eds., Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice. Island Press, Washington.
    • Benyus, J.M. (2009). Biomimicry. HarperCollins.
    • Breitenmoser U, et  al. (2010) The changing impact of predation as a source of conflict between hunters and re - introduced lynx in Switzerland. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids, eds., Macdonald D.W. and Loveridge A.J. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • British Wild Boar (2015). . Accessed Feb 2015.
    • Bull, J. W., Suttle, K.B., Gordon, A., Singh, N.J., and MilnerGulland, E. (2012). Biodiversity offsets in theory and practice. Oryx, 47 (03), 369-380.
    • Burns, F., Eaton, M.A., Gregory, R.D., et al. (2013). State of Nature report. The State of Nature partnership.
    • Butts, W.L. (2001). Beaver ponds in upstate New York as a source of anthropophilic mosquitoes. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 17, 85-86.
    • Campbell, R., Dutton, A., and Hughes, J. (2007). Economic Impacts of the Beaver. University of Oxford, Oxford.
    • Campbell, R., Harrington, A., Ross, A., and Harrington, L. (2012a). Distribution, population assessment and activities of beavers in Tayside., Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.-540.
    • Campbell, S. and Hartley, G. (2010). Wild Boar Distribution in Scotland. Science and advice for Scottish Agriculture, Edinburgh.
    • Campbell, R.D., Newman, C., Macdonald, D.W., and Rosell, F. (2013). Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber ) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography. Global Change Biology, 19(4), 1311-1324.
    • Campbell, R.D., Nouvellet, P., Newman, C., Macdonald, D.W., and Rosell, F. (2012b). The influence of mean cli - mate trends and climate variance on beaver survival and recruitment dynamics. Global Change Biology, 18, 2730-2742.
    • Collen, P. and Gibson, R. (2000). The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish‚ a review. Reviews in fish biology and fisheries , 10, 439-461.
    • Creel, S., Becker, M., Durant, S., et  al. (2013). Conserving large populations of lions-the argument for fences has holes. Ecology Letters. 16(11), 1413-e3
    • Cullingham, C. I. and Moehrenschlager, A. (2013). Temporal analysis of genetic structure to assess population dynamics of reintroduced swift foxes. Conservation Biology, 27(6), 1389-1398.
    • Deer Commission Scotland, Forestry Commission Scotland, Scottish Natural Heritage, and Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department (2004). Joint agency statement and guidance on deer fencing. .
    • Defra (2008). Feral wild boar in England: An action plan. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London.
    • Defra (2011). The natural choice: securing the value of nature. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.
    • Deinet, S., Ieronymidou, C., McRae, L., Burfield, I.J, Foppen, R.P., Collen, B., and Böhmm, M. (2013). Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species. Final report to Rewilding Europe by ZSL, Birdlife International and European Bird Census Council. London, UK:ZSL.
    • Dickman, A.J., Macdonald, E.A., and Macdonald, D.W. (2011). A review of financial instruments to pay for preda - tor conservation and encourage human‚ carnivore coexistence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 13937-13944.
    • Duffield, J.W., Neher, C.J., and Patterson, D.A. (2008). Wolf recovery in Yellowstone Park: Visitor attitudes, expenditures, and economic impacts. Yellowstone Science 16, 20-25.
    • Enserink, M. and Vogel, G. (2006). The carnivore comeback. Science, 314, 746-749.
    • Estes, J.A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J.S., et al. (2011). Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science, 333, 301-306.
    • Fischer, J., Brosi, B., Daily, G.C., et al. (2008). Should agricultural policies encourage land sparing or wildlife-friendly farming? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 6, 380-385.
    • Forestry Commission (2012). Forestry Statistics 2012- Environment-Ancient and semi-natural woodland.
    • Fritts, S.H. and Carbyn, L.N. (1995). Population viability, nature reserves, and the outlook for gray wolf conservation in North America. Restoration Ecology, 3, 26-38.
    • Fritzemeier, J., Teuffert, J., Greiser-Wilke, I., Staubach, C., Schlüter, H., and Moennig, V. (2000). Epidemiology of classical swine fever in Germany in the 1990s. Veterinary Microbiology, 77, 29-41.
    • Fuller, R. and Gough, S. (1999). Changes in sheep numbers in Britain: implications for bird populations. Biological Conservation, 91, 73-89.
    • Gill, R. and Fuller, R.J. (2007). The effects of deer browsing on woodland structure and songbirds in lowland Britain. Ibis, 149, 119-127.
    • Gill, R. and Morgan, G. (2010). The effects of varying deer density on natural regeneration in woodlands in lowland Britain. Forestry, 83, 53-63.
    • Goulding, M. (2014). . Accessed June 2014
    • Goulding, M.J., Smith, G., and Baker, S. (1998). Current Status and Potential Impact of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in the English Countryside: A Risk Assessment. Conservation Management Division C, MAFF.
    • Green, R.E., Cornell, S.J., Scharlemann, J.r.P., and Balmford, A. (2005). Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science, 307, 550-555.
    • Halley, D. and Rosell, F. (2002). The beaver's reconquest of Eurasia: status, population development and management of a conservation success. Mammal Review, 32(3), 153-178.
    • Hambler, C., Henderson, P.A., and Speight, M.R. (2011). Extinction rates, extinction-prone habitats, and indicator groups in Britain and at larger scales. Biological Conservation, 144, 713-721.
    • Harkonen, S. (1999). Forest damage caused by the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) in South Savo, Finland. Silva Fennica, 33, 247-259.
    • Harrington, L.A., Feber, R., and Macdonald, D.W. (2012). The Scottish Beaver Trial: Ecological monitoring of the European beaver Castor fiber and other riparian mammals-Second Annual Report 2011. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 510.
    • Harrington, L.A., Feber, R. and Macdonald, D.W. (2013). The Scottish Beaver Trial: Ecological monitoring of the European beaver Castor fiber and other riparian mammals-Third Annual Report 2012. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 553.
    • Hayward, M.W. and Kerley, G.I.H. (2009). Fencing for conservation: Restriction of evolutionary potential or a riposte to threatening processes? Biological Conservation, 142, 1-13.
    • Hetherington DA (2005). The feasibility of reintroducing the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx to Scotland. D. Phil Thesis (University of Aberdeen).
    • Hetherington, D.A., Lord, T.C., and Jacobi, R.M. (2006). New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21(1), 3-8.
    • Hetherington, D.A., Miller, D.R., Macleod, C.D., and Gorman, M.L. (2008). A potential habitat network for the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in Scotland. Mammal Review, 38(4), 285-303.
    • Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., Hando, J., Hopcraft, G., Loibooki, M., Mduma, S., and Sinclair, A.R. (2006). Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science, 314, 1266-1266.
    • Hobbs, R. (2009). Woodland restoration in Scotland: Ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 2857-2865.
    • Hobbs, R.J. and Huenneke, L.F. (1992). Disturbance, Diversity, and Invasion: Implications for Conservation. Conservation Biology, 6, 324-337.
    • Hodder, K. H., Buckland, P.C., Kirby, K.K., and Bullock, J.M. (2009). Can the mid-Holocene provide suitable models for rewilding the landscape in Britain? British Wildlife, 20, 4-1.
    • IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press.
    • IUCN and UNEP-WCMC (2011). The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). In UNEP-WCMC, editor., Cambridge, UK.
    • Jack, B. K., Kousky, C., and Sims, K.R.E. (2008). Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 9465-9470.
    • Jones, S., Gow, D., Lloyd Jones, A., Campbell-Palmer, R. (2013). The battle for British beavers. British Wildlife, 24, 381-392.
    • Jonker, S.A., Muth, R.M., Organ, J.F., Zwick, R.R., and Siemer, W.F. (2006). Experiences with beaver damage and attitudes of Massachusetts residents toward beaver. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34, 1009-1021.
    • Kass, G., Shaw, R., Tew, T., and Macdonald, D. (2011). Securing the future of the natural environment: using scenarios to anticipate challenges to biodiversity, landscapes and public engagement with nature. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(6), 1518-1526.
    • Keddy, P. and Weiher, E. (2001). Introduction: The scope and goals of research on assembly rules. pp. 1-22 In E. Weiher and P. Keddy, eds., Ecological Assembly Rules: Perspectives, Advances, Retreats. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • Kitchener, A. and Conroy, J. (1997). The history of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber in Scotland. Mammal Review, 27, 95-108.
    • Kotulski, Y. and König, A. (2008). Conflicts, crises and chal - lenges: wild boar in the Berlin City-a social empirical and statistical survey. Natura Croatica, 17, 233-246.
    • Lawton, J.H., Brotherton, P.N.M., Brown, V.K., et al. (2010). Making Space for Nature: a review of England's wildlife sites and ecological network. Report to Defra. .
    • Leaper, R., Massei, G., Gorman, M.L., and Aspinall, R. (1999). The feasibility of reintroducing Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) to Scotland. Mammal Review, 29, 239-259.
    • Linnell, J., Salvatori, V., and Boitani, L. (2008). Guidelines for population level management plans for large carnivores in Europe. A Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe report prepared for the European Commission.
    • Luck, G. W., Harrington, R., Harrison, P.A., et  al. (2009). Quantifying the Contribution of Organisms to the Provision of Ecosystem Services. Bioscience, 59, 223-235.
    • Macarthur, E. (2013). .
    • MacArthur, R.H. and Wilson, E.O. (1967). The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press.
    • Macdonald, D. (2009). Lessons Learnt and Plans Laid: Seven Awkward Questions for the Future of Reintroductions. In M. Hayward and M. Somers, eds., Reintroduction of TopOrder Predators. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA.
    • Macdonald, D.W., Boitani, L., Dinerstein, E., Fritz, H., and Wrangham, R. (2013). Conserving large mammals: are they a special case? In D.W. Macdonald and K.J. Willis, eds., Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2. Wiley Publications.
    • Macdonald, D. and Burnham, D. (2010). The state of Britain's mammals a focus on invasive species. People's trust for endangered species.
    • Macdonald, D.W. and Feber, R.E., eds., (2015). Wildlife Conservation on Farmland. Conflict in the Countryside . Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • Macdonald, D. and Johnson, P. (2000). Farmers and the custody of the countryside: trends in loss and conservation of non-productive habitats 1981-1998. Biological Conservation, 94, 221-234.
    • Macdonald, D., Mace, G., and Rushton, S. (2000). British mammals: is there a radical future? In A. Entwistle and N. Dunstone, eds., Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity: Has the Panda Had its Day? Cambridge University Press.
    • Macdonald, D.W. and Tattersall, F. (2001). Britain's Mammals: The Challenge for Conservation. The People's Trust for Endangered Species, Mammals Trust UK.
    • Macdonald, D. W., Tattersall, F.H., Brown, E.D., and Balharry, D. (1995). Reintroducing the European Beaver to Britain: nostalgic meddling or restoring biodiversity? Mammal Review, 25, 161-200.
    • Manning, A. D., Gordon, I.J., and Ripple, W.J. (2009). Restoring landscapes of fear with wolves in the Scottish Highlands. Biological Conservation, 142, 2314-2321.
    • Maroo, S. and Yalden, D. (2000). The Mesolithic mammal fauna of Great Britain. Mammal Review, 30, 243-248.
    • Mech, L. D. (1966). The Wolves of Isle Royale. University of Minnesota.
    • Mech, D. and Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology & Conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
    • Miljominsteriet Naturstyrelsen. (2013). Vildtforvaltningsrå- det er klar med ulveplan.
    • Mitchell, F.J.G. (2005). How open were European primeval forests? Hypothesis testing using palaeoecological data. Journal of Ecology, 93, 168-177.
    • Moehrenschlager, A., List, R., and Macdonald, D.W. (2007). Escaping intraguild predation: Mexican kit foxes survive while coyotes and golden eagles kill Canadian swift foxes. Journal of Mammalogy, 88, 1029-1039.
    • Moehrenschlager, A. and Macdonald, D.W. (2003). Movement and survival parameters of translocated and resident swift foxes Vulpes velox. Animal Conservation, 6, 199-206.
    • Moore, B.D., Sim, D.A., and Iason, G.R. (2013). The Scottish Beaver Trial: Woodland monitoring 2011. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 525.
    • Moran, D. and Hanley-Nickolls, R. (2012). The Scottish Beaver Trial: Socio-economic monitoring-First report 2011. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.482.
    • Morton, D., Rowland, C., Wood, C., Meek, L., Marston, C., Smith, G., Wadsworth, R., and Simpson, I.C. (2011). Final report for LCM2007-the new UK Land Cover Map. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Natural Environmental Research Council)
    • Müller-Schwarze, D. and Sun, L. (2003). The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer. Cornell University Press.
    • National Ecosystem Service Assessment. (2011a). The UK national ecosystem service assessment. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
    • National Ecosystem Service Assessment. (2011b). The UK national ecosystem service assessment: Woodlands. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.
    • National Parks UK. (2012). National Parks.
    • Navarro, L. and Pereira, H. (2012). Rewilding abandoned landscapes in Europe. Ecosystems, 15, 900-912.
    • Nilsen, E.B., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Schofield, L., Mysterud, A., Stenseth, N.C., and Coulson, T. (2007). Wolf reintroduction to Scotland: public attitudes and consequences for red deer management. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274, 995-1003.
    • Odden J, Linnell, J.D., and Andersen, R. (2006). Diet of Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx, in the boreal forest of southeastern Norway: the relative importance of livestock and hares at low roe deer density. Eur J Wildl Res 52(4):237-244.
    • Packer, C., Loveridge, A. Canney, S., et al. (2013). Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence. Ecology Letters, 16, 635-641.
    • Patten, C. (2009). What Next?: Surviving the Twenty-first Cen - tury. Penguin Adult.
    • Peterson, R.O. and Page, R.E. (1988). The rise and fall of Isle Royale Wolves, 1975-1986. Journal of Mammalogy, 69, 89-99.
    • Peterson, R.O., Thomas, N.J., Thurber, J.M., Vucetich, J.A., and Waite, T.A. (1998). Population limitation and the wolves of Isle Royale. Journal of Mammalogy, 79, 828-841.
    • Pollock, M.M., Naiman, R.J., and Hanley, T.A. (1998). Plant species richness in riparian wetlands-a test of biodiversity theory. Ecology, 79, 94-105.
    • Power, M. E., Tilman, D., Estes, J.A., Menge, B.A., Bond, W.J., Mills, L.S., Daily, G., Castilla, J.C., Lubchenco, J., and Paine, R.T. (1996). Challenges in the Quest for Keystones. Bioscience, 46, 609-620.
    • Richardson, P. (2013). Wolf-watching in Spain. Financial Times. March 2013,
    • Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. (2012). Trophic cascades in Yellowstone: The first 15 years after wolf reintroduction. Biological Conservation, 145, 205-213.
    • Robinson, R. (2009). Invasive and problem ferns: a European perspective. International Urban Ecology, 4, 83-91.
    • Rolauffs, P., Hering, D., and Lohse, S. (2001). Composition, invertebrate community and productivity of a beaver dam in comparison to other stream habitat types. Hydrobiologia, 459, 201-212.
    • Rosell, F., Bozsér, O., Collen, P., and Parker H. (2005). Ecological impact of beavers Castor fiber and Castor canadensis and their ability to modify ecosystems. Mammal Review, 35, 248-276.
    • Rosell, F., Rosef, O., and Parker, H. (2001). Investigations of waterborne pathogens in Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber ) from Telemark County, southeast Norway. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 42, 479-482.
    • Sandom, C.J., Bull, J., Canney, S., and Macdonald, D. (2012). Exploring the value of wolves (Canis lupus) in landscapescale fenced reserves for ecological restoration in the Scottish Highlands. pp. 245-276 In M. Somers and M. Hayward, eds., Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential or a Riposte to Threatening Processes? Springer, New York.
    • Sandom, C., Dalby, L., Fløjgaard, C., et al. (2013a). Mammal predator and prey species richness are strongly linked at macroscales. Ecology, 94, 1112-1122.
    • Sandom, C.J., Donlan, C.J., Svenning, J.C., and Hansen, D.M. (2013b). Rewilding. In D.W. Macdonald and K.J. Willis, eds., Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
    • Sandom, C., Ejrnaes, R., Hansen, M.D.D., and Svenning, J.-C. (2014b). High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(11), 4162-4167.
    • Sandom, C., Faurby, S., Sandel, B., and Svenning, J.-C. (2014a) Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281(1787).
    • Sandom, C.J., Hughes, J., and Macdonald, D.W. (2013c). Rewilding the Scottish Highlands: do wild boar, Sus scrofa, use a suitable foraging strategy to be effective ecosystem engineers? Restoration Ecology, 21, 336-343.
    • Sandom, C. J., Hughes, J., and Macdonald, D.W. (2013d). Rooting for rewilding: quantifying wild boar's Sus scrofa rooting rate in the Scottish Highlands. Restoration Ecology, 21, 329-335.
    • Schley, L., Dufrêne, M., Krier, A., and Frantz, A. (2008). Patterns of crop damage by wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Luxembourg over a 10-year period. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 54, 589-599.
    • Schley, L. and Roper, T.J. (2003). Diet of wild boar Sus scrofa in Western Europe, with particular reference to consumption of agricultural crops. Mammal Review, 33, 43-56.
    • SER (2004). The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Society for the Ecological Restoration International.
    • Sims, N. (2005). The ecological impacts of wild boar rooting in East Sussex. D. Phil.Thesis University of Sussex.
    • Skewes, O., Gonzalez, F., Olave, R., Ávila, A., Vargas, V., Paulsen, P., and König, H.E. (2006). Abundance and distribution of American beaver, Castor canadensis (Kuhl 1820), in Tierra del Fuego and Navarino islands, Chile. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 52, 292-296.
    • Smith, D.W., Peterson, R.O., and Houston, D.B. (2003). Yellowstone after wolves. Bioscience, 53, 330-340.
    • Soulé, M.E. and Noss, R.F. (1998). Rewilding and biodiversity: Complementary goals for continental conservation. Wild Earth, 8.
    • South, A., Rushton, S., Macdonald, D. and Fuller, R. (2001). Reintroduction of the European beaver (Castor fiber ) to Norfolk, UK: a preliminary modelling analysis. Journal of Zoology, 254, 473-479.
    • Stahl, P., Vandel, J., Herrenschmidt, V., and Migot, P. (2001a). The effect of removing lynx in reducing attacks on sheep in the French Jura Mountains. Biological Conservation, 101, 15-22.
    • Stahl, P., Vandel, J.M., Rutte, S., Coat, L., Coat, Y., and Balestra, L. (2002). Factors affecting lynx predation on sheep in the French Jura. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 204-216.
    • Svenning, J.-C. (2002). A review of natural vegetation openness in north-western Europe. Biological Conservation, 104, 133-148.
    • Sykes, N. (2004). The introduction of fallow deer to Britain: a zooarchaeological perspective. Environmental Archaeology, 9, 75-83.
    • Tallis, H., Kareiva, P., Marvier, M., and Chang, A. (2008). An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 9457-9464.
    • Tattersall, F. and Macdonald, D. (1995). A Review of the Direct and Indirect Costs of Re-introducing the European Beaver (Castor fiber ) to Scotland. Report, Contract No. SNH/110/95 IBB. WildCRU, Oxford.
    • TEEB (2010). The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB).
    • Terborgh, J. and Estes, J.A., eds. (2010). Trophic Cascades: Predators, Prey, and Changing Dynamics of Nature. Island Press, Washington DC.
    • Thomsen, L.R., Campbell, R.D., and Rosell, F. (2007). Tooluse in a display behaviour by Eurasian beavers (Castor ifber ). Animal Cognition, 10, 477-482.
    • Vera, F.W.M. (2000). Grazing Ecology and Forest History. CABI Pub., New York.
    • Vera, F. (2009). Large-scale nature development-the Oostvaardersplassen. British Wildlife, 20, 28-36.
    • Vucetich, J. A., Nelson, M.P., and Peterson, R.O. (2012). Should Isle Royale wolves be reintroduced? A case study on wilderness management in a changing world. Pages 126-147 In George Wright Forum.
    • Vucetich, J.A. and Peterson, R.O. (2004). The inuflence of topdown, bottom-up and abiotic factors on the moose (Alces alces) population of Isle Royale. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 271, 183-189.
    • Ward, A.I. (2005). Expanding ranges of wild and feral deer in Great Britain. Mammal Review, 35, 165-173.
    • Warren, C R. (2009). Managing Scotland's Environment. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Westbrook, C., Cooper, D., and Baker, B. (2011). Beaver assisted river valley formation. River Research and Applications, 27, 247-256.
    • Whitehouse, N. J. and Smith, D. (2010). How fragmented was the British Holocene wildwood? Perspectives on the 'Vera' grazing debate from the fossil beetle record. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 539-553.
    • Willby, N.J., Casas Mulet, R. and Perfect, C. (2011).The Scottish Beaver Trial: Monitoring and further baseline survey of the aquatic and semi-aquatic macrophytes of the lochs 2009. Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No. 455.
    • Widstrand, S. (2013). Is there really any money in wildlife watching?-a global and European perspective. In Wild10. Rewilding Europe, Salamanca.
    • Wright, J. P., Jones, C.G., and Flecker, A.S. (2002). An ecosystem engineer, the beaver, increases species richness at the landscape scale. Oecologia, 132, 96-101.
    • Yalden, D. (1999). The History of British Mammals. Academic Press, London.
    • Yalden, D. and Barrett, P. (1999). The History of British Mammals. T & A D Poyser.
    • Zhou, Y., Newman, C., Chen, J., Xie, Z., and Macdonald, D.W. (2013). Anomalous, extreme weather disrupts obligate seed dispersal mutualism: snow in a subtropical forest ecosystem. Global Change Biology, 19, 2867-2877.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article