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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Derclaye, Estelle (2007)
Publisher: Edward Elgar
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects:
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    • 1 Lecturer in Law, University of Nottingham.
    • 2 Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases, OJ L77/20, 27.03.1996 ('the Directive').
    • 3 Two other types also exist. There is a posteriori over-protection if the intellectual property protection has expired but the database can still be protected against parasitism and there is negative over-protection when no intellectual property protection is available at all but the action for parasitism is. These are examined in the author's thesis (2008), The Legal Protection of Databases: A Comparative Analysis, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar.
    • 4 The terms, the 'theory of parasitism', 'tort of parasitism' and 'parasitism' will be used interchangeably. Parasitism is also commonly known as slavish imitation, slavish copying or misappropriation depending on the country. For the purposes of this
    • 12 W. Cornish (1974), 'Unfair competition and the consumer in England', IIC 73, at 74; Dworkin above fn. 10, at 242; F. Beier (1985), 'The law of unfair competition in the European Community, its development and present status', IIC 139, at 156; Robertson and Horton, above fn. 9, at 568.
    • 13 The only exception is misleading advertising which the United Kingdom had to implement due to the relevant European Directives, see supra.
    • 14 See below section 2.2.1.
    • 15 Burns above fn. 10, p. 311; Robertson and Horton above fn. 9, p. 568.
    • 16 Burns above fn. 10, p. 311; Cornish, William and David Llewelyn (2003), Intellectual Property: Patents, Copyright, Trade Marks and Allied Rights, 5th edn, London: Sweet & Maxwell, p. 18, nn. 1-22. Courts believe this power belongs exclusively to Parliament.
    • 17 G. Dworkin (2004), 'Unfair competition: is it time for European harmonisation?', in D. Vaver and L. Bently (eds), Intellectual Property in the New Millennium: Essays in Honour of William R. Cornish, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 175, at 177.
    • 18 An attempt to establish a general tort of unfair competition and misappropriation was killed off by the Privy Council in the Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd v Pub Squash Pty Ltd [1981] 1 All ER 213, commented on by G. Dworkin (1981), 'Passing off and unfair competition and opportunity missed', MLR, 564, pp. 566-7. The defendant had reaped where she had not sown but there was no misrepresentation. The court stuck to the strict conditions of passing off and the claimant lost. The Privy Council (per Lord Scarman) refused to create a tort of misappropriation because it encountered criticism in the United States and Australia. Lord Scarman also emphasised the need to preserve the freedom to compete: 'A defendant, however, does no wrong by entering a market created by another and there competing with its creator. The line may be difficult to draw; but unless it is drawn, competition will be stifled.'
    • 19 J. Adams (1992), 'Unfair competition: why a need is unmet', EIPR 259, at 260.
    • 20 Robertson and Horton, above fn. 9, at 569; Adams, above fn. 19, at 259; Beier, above fn. 12, at 156; S. Byrt (2003), 'Le passing-off au Royaume-Uni: des leçons a tirer?', 213 RIPIA 55, n. 213. Comment, Proprie´te´ industrielle, November 2003, 29; Golaz, above fn. 25, p. 64; M.-L. Izorche, 'Concurrence de´loyale et parasitisme e´conomique', in Y. Serra (2001), La concurrence de´loyale, Permanence et devenir, Paris: Dalloz, 27, at 31-2.
    • 36 Cass. 22.05.2002, case no. 99-21579, available on www.legifrance.gouv.fr, cited by J. Passa (2003), 'Responsabilité civile - concurrence', Prop. Int. 84, at 85.
    • 37 Cass. com., 22.10.1985, Bull. Civ. IV, no. 245. See also J. Passa, 'Responsabilité civile - distribution' [2002] Prop. Int. 100.
    • 38 Cass. com., 16.01.2001 [2001] CCC, com. 59, comment of Malaurie-Vignal, cited by J. Passa, above fn. 37, at 100.
    • 39 See e.g. P. Le Tourneau (2001), 'Le bon vent du parasitime', CCC, January, For more detail, see e.g. Buydens, above fn. 22; Puttemans, above fn. 24.
    • Strowel and Triaille, above fn. 30, p. 26.
    • M.B. 29.08.1991; in force 29.02.1992 (Act on commercial practices and on information and the protection of the consumer). Buydens above fn. 22, p. 678.
    • 53 Puttemans above fn. 24, at 234; Buydens, above fn. 22, at 678; Buydens, above fn. 25, at 188.
    • 54 See for instance, Cass. 04.11.1954, Ing.-Cons., 1954.249; Prés. Trib. Com. Brussels, 03.06.1970, JCB 1971, III, 413, note De Gryse; Trib. Com. Courtrai 30.03.1987, Pratiques Commerciales, 1987.I.291; CA Antwerp, 30.05.1988, Rev. Dr. Com. Belge, 1988.949; CA Brussels, 24.08.1995, unreported, cited by Van Bunnen, Journal des Tribunaux, 1997, p. 62; Prés. Trib. Com. Namur, 22.05.1996, Journal des
    • 70 Belgacom v Kapitol Trading, Prés. Com. Brussels., 19.07.1995, Ann. Prat. Comm. 1995, p. 788, comment Byl; R.D.C., 1996, p. 747. See also Puttemans, above fn. 24 at p. 442; Strowel, Alain and Estelle Derclaye (2001), Droit d'auteur et nume´rique: logiciels, bases de données et multimedia, droit belge, europe´en et compare´, Bruxelles: Bruylant, p. 340, n. 388.
    • 71 See Prés. Trib. Com. Courtrai, 06.09.1996, R.D.C., 1997, p. 47, comment by De Vuyst and p. 442, Puttemans, above fn. 24.
    • 72 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 442.
    • 73 The legislator also believes that the theory of parasitism is unclear. See Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 445, fn. 2009, citing Expose´ des Motifs, Doc. Parl., Ch., 1997-8, no. 1535/1-1536/1, p. 6.
    • 74 Passa, above fn. 22, p. 73; Golaz, above fn. 25, p. 84.
    • 80 TGI Paris, 06.12.1988 [1989] RDPI, no. 23-4, p. 72.
    • 81 Passa, above fn. 22, at pp. 73 ff.
    • 82 Ibid.; Bertrand, above fn. 25, at p. 154; P.-Y. Gautier (2001), Proprie´te´ litte´raire et artistique, 4th edn., Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, p. 186, n. 114; Mallet-Poujol, above fn. 77.
    • 83 X. Desjeux (1992), 'La reprise de la prestation d'autrui: l'ide´e commerciale et l'investissement économique (esquisse d'un projet de loi)', Gaz. Pal., Doctr. 973, at 976.
    • E.g. Cass. com, 30.11.1966, Bull., no. 460, Bull. civ., III, 407; Cass. 02.01.1969 [1969] RIPIA 13, cited by Desjeux above fn. 77, at p. 240; Cass. com, 25.10.1977 [1978] D., IR, p. 164; Bull. Civ. IV, 245; Malaurie-Vignal 1996, p. 178; CA Paris, 20.12.1989 [1991] D., somm., p. 91, comment Colombet; CA Paris, 01.10.1992 [1993] PIBD 535, III, 35, cited by Schmidt-Szalewski above fn. 8, at pp. 462-3; CA Paris, 07.04.1993 [1993] PIBD 548, III, 462; CA Paris, 21.06.1994 [1994] PIBD III, 583; CA Versailles, 05.04.2001 [2002] PIBD 734, III, 38 cited by J. Passa (2002), 'Responsabilite´ civile - distribution', Prop. Int. 81. For more decisions, see Passa, above fn. 22, at pp. 249, 274-5; ibid., (2002), 'Responsabilite´ civile - distribution', Prop. Int. 81; Golaz, above fn. 25, p. 106 fn. 268-72; p. 241, fn. 872.
    • 85 Comite´ national olympique et sportif français v Groupement d'achat des centres Leclerc, Cass. com., 11.03.2003 [2003] CCC, August-Sept. 2003, p. 24 (imitation of a trade mark is a fact distinct from trade mark infringement); Cass. 08.07.2003 [2003] PIBD 773, III, 519, cited by De Candé, above fn. 25, at p. 496.
    • 86 CA Paris, 31.10.1991 [1992] Ann. Prop. Ind., p. 213; CA Paris, 05.11.1992 [1993] RDPI, no. 47, p. 50; CA Paris, 20.09.1995 [1996] Gaz. Pal., 1, somm. 166; CA Paris, 20.03.1996 [1996] PIBD III, 419; [1996] RDPI, no. 65, p. 62; CA Paris, 22.05.1996 [1996] Gaz. Pal., 2 somm. 508; CA Paris, 03.07.1996 [1996] Gaz. Pal., 2 somm. 504; CA Paris, 12.12.2001 [2002] PIBD, 740, III, 196, cited by Passa, above fn. 83.
    • 87 T. Com. Paris, 18.06.1999, D., 2000, no. 5, p. 105.
    • 88 TGI Paris, 22.06.1999 [1999] PIBD, 686, III, 494.
    • 89 Interestingly, the court qualified the same acts, but occurring before 01.01.1998, of parasitic. This clearly shows that the sui generis right has replaced parasitism for databases. See below, this section.
    • 90 Groupe Miller Freeman v Neptune Verlag, TGI Paris, 31.01.2001, available on www.legalis.net.
    • 91 Construct Data Verlag v Reed Expositions France, CA Paris, 20.03.2002 [2002] PIBD, 746, III, 331-4.
    • 92 TGI Paris, 05.09.2001 [2001] Legipresse, no. 187, Dec., pp. 219-21, comment by Tellier-Loniewski.
    • 101 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 228; Puttemans, above fn. 99, at p. 236.
    • 102 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 441 and fn. 1995. See art. 1481, al. 1 and 569 al. 1, 7°, of the Civil Procedure Code.
    • 103 A. Delcorde (1995), 'Droits intellectuels et pratiques du commerce', in Liber Amicorum A. de Caluwé, Bruxelles: Bruylant, p. 111; D. Dessard (1997), 'L'action en cessation et les droits de proprie´te´ intellectuelle', in Gillardin, J. and D. Putzeys, Les pratiques du commerce, Autour et alentour, Bruxelles: Publications des FUSL p. 149. Art. 14.5 provides 'acts which would only constitute infringement of a design may not be subject to an action under the legislation against unfair competition'. Art. 12.A provides 'regardless of the nature of the action instituted, no one may judicially claim protection for a symbol which is considered a mark within the meaning of article 1 unless she has filed it in due form and where applicable, has had the registration renewed'.
    • 104 Delcorde above fn. 103, at p. 112.
    • 105 Ibid., at pp. 112-13. In 1995, in U v Delvaux (unreported), the tribunal correctionnel of Brussels avoided this double condemnation and considered the relevant criminal provision did not apply to infringement acts.
    • 106 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 260 who notes that before the new copyright act of 1994, courts often cumulated actions and this still occurs nowadays in the area of advertising and trade marks. Delcorde notes that, before 1995, correctionnel tribunals in Brussels were pursuing simultaneously on the basis of copyright or trade mark infringement and on the basis of unfair competition and the tribunal correctionnel of Brussels pronounced two distinct sanctions (decisions are unreported).
    • 107 Dessard, above fn. 103, at p. 150; Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 255; Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 321.
    • 108 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 329.
    • 109 Golaz, above fn. 25, at p. 93 referring to art. 73, para. 1, indent 2 of the Patent Act of 28 March 1983; Buydens, above fn. 22, at p. 709; Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 239.
    • 110 Cass. 16.03.1939, Pas., I, p. 150.
    • 111 Act of 30 June 1994 implementing in Belgian law European Directive of 14 May 1991 relating to the legal protection of computer programs, M.B. 27.07.1994, in force 06.08.1994.
    • 112 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 254.
    • 113 Ibid., at p. 255; Buydens, above fn. 22, at pp. 716 ff.
    • 114 Puttemans, above fn. 24, at p. 254.
    • 115 Except for computer programs, see above, where it is before the Court of First Instance.
    • 121 Passa, above fn. 22, at 72 (except for trade marks: the victim of a trade mark infringement can under certain conditions, act under unfair competition rather than trade mark law).
    • 122 Schmidt-Szalewski, above fn. 8, at pp. 456, 458 citing Cass. com., 23.05.1973, Bull.civ. IV, no. 182; Clauss, above fn. 78, at pp. 552-3; Passa, above fn. 22, at p. 72; Le Tourneau, above fn. 25, at p. 403; Le Tourneau, above fn. 39, at p. 5.
    • 123 Cass. com., 04.07.1978 [1979] Ann. Prop. Ind. 366, cited by Burst, above fn. 25, at pp. 2-3.
    • 124 Burst, above fn. 25, at pp. 2-3; 146; Le Tourneau, above fn. 78, at p. 311.
    • 125 Golaz, above fn. 25, at p. 87.
    • 126 Lucas, André and Henri-Jacques Lucas (2001), Traite´ de la proprie´te´ littéraire et artistique, 2nd edn., Paris: Litec, 2001, p. 636, nn. 817-2.
    • 127 Desjeux, above fn. 78, at p. 240. See e.g. TGI Paris, 19.03.1993 [1993] PIBD 548, III, 439 cited by Schmidt-Szalewski above fn. 8, p. 465 (concerned infringement of copyrighted software, the infringement action was rejected because there were not enough similarities between the two programs, but the court condemned the defendant for parasitism). In ABC Renovation v Les Maisons Barbey Maillard, CA Paris, 10.12.2003, RG no. 2003/17581 cited by Passa, above fn. 41, at 683 ff., the Paris Court of Appeal allowed a claim exclusively based on parasitism and held the defendant liable on this count only although the subject-matter (a catalogue of drawings) was protected by copyright.
    • 128 Glock France v Becheret, Cass. com., 30.01.2001 [2001] D., no. 24, p. 1939, comment by Le Tourneau; Bull. Civ. IV, 27; JCP G, I, 340, no. 29, comment by Viney; [2002] Prop. Int., p. 101, comment by Passa.
    • 129 Encyclope´die Douanière v Conex et Agence fiscale, T. Comm. Valenciennes, 20.01.1998 [1998] Expertises 196.
    • 130 Le Serveur Administratif v Editions Législatives, TGI Lyon, 28.12.1998 [1999] RIDA, no. 181, p. 325; [1999] RTD Com. 52(4), pp. 866-9, comment by Françon, aff'd CA Lyon, 22.06.2000 [2001] Expertises 74-8; [2001] Prop. Int. 54-5, comment Sirinelli.
    • 131 P. B. Hugenholtz (2001), 'The new database right: early case law from Europe', 9th Annual Conference on International Intellectual Property Law and Policy, Fordham School of Law, 1, at 7; Sirinelli, comment on Le Serveur Administratif v Editions Legislatives, CA Lyon, 22.06.2000 [2001] Prop. Int. 54-5.
    • 132 Cadremploi v Keljob, TGI Paris (ref.), 08.01.2001 [2001] PIBD, 721, III, 294-6; CCE, May 2001, p. 27.
    • 133 However, in the appeal, despite Cadremploi's database being protected by the sui generis right, Keljob was held not to infringe and there was no parasitism. Keljob v Cadremploi, CA Paris, 25.05.2001 [2001] PIBD, 726, III, 455-7; CCE, July-August 2001, pp. 27-9.
    • 134 Jean-Louis H. v Net Fly - Strategies Networks, CA Aix-en-Provence, 17.04.2002, Juris-Data no. 2002-179519; [2002] JCP G, IV, 3038; J. Passa (2002), 'Responsabilite´ civile - concurrence', Prop. Int. 103, at 107.
    • 135 News Invest v PR Line, CA Versailles, 11.04.2002, CCE, July/August 2002, pp. 20-2, Comm. 98, comment Caron, also available on www.legalis.net; Passa, above fn. 33, at p. 107 (approving the decision because another reasoning would destroy the balance and coherence of the act implementing the Directive in France and would excessively limit freedom of commerce and the public domain).
    • 136 Dessard, above fn. 103, at p. 150.
    • 137 See above section 3.1.2.
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