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McIntyre, Lesley; Harrison, Ian (2016)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: K100, K900
Complex design challenges exist in designing for a dynamic and ageing world. Designing for older adults is a timely and important issue. Understanding user requirements is vital and the appropriate exchange of this knowledge is crucial in the pursuit of supportive, sustainable buildings and the longevity of built-environment design.\ud \ud Capturing reflections from Built Environment Professionals (BEPs) in the UK, this paper investigates the practitioners’ viewpoint on knowledge exchange by specifically focusing on the scenario of designing for the requirements of older people. Thematic analysis of BEP conversations (n=10) and the results from a questionnaire (N=35) are presented.\ud \ud Findings uncover recommendations towards the enhancement of knowledge exchange. They highlight the fundamentals of good communication, the desire for structured knowledge, the value of contextual guidance, the importance of a visual format for BEPs, and the need for forms of guidance to support client motivations.\ud \ud The design process can be enabled by equipping practitioners with information about user requirements. Interestingly, it was also found that BEPs find value in direct user-engagement although further support tools for these engagements with building users was desired.\ud \ud Appropriate exchange of knowledge is essential for effective ‘real-world’ design impact. These findings, built from the scenario of designing for older adults, also apply to the broader context of all guidance used by Built Environment Professionals.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 7 In Use 15 Notes
    • 1. Equality Act, 2010 C.15 (2010).
    • 2. Adrian Cave, Inclusive Accessible Design: Legislation Maze Series (London: RIBA Publishing, 2007).
    • 3. Donald Watson, 'Improving Practice Through Knowledge and Research', in arq: Architectural Research Quarterly, 3:1 (1999), 9-14. Available online: [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 4. Ellen Collins, 'Architects and Research-Based Knowledge: A Literature Review' (London: RIBA Publishing, 2014). Online: [accessed 1 November 2015].
    • 5. David Bartholomew, 'Sharing Knowledge' (2005), p. 1. Available online: [accessed 28 October 2015].
    • 6. Simy Joy and David A. Kolb, 'Are There Cultural Differences in Learning Style?', in International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33:1 (2009), 69-85. Available online: [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 7. Research Councils UK, 'Pathways to Impact - Research Councils UK' (2014), available online: [accessed 9 November 2015].
    • 8. Ellen Collins, 'Architects and Research-Based Knowledge'.
    • 9. Examples of such guidance can be sourced from: Housing LIN, which offers a wealth of resources and ideas related to housing design for older people and the HCA - Housing our Ageing Population: Panel for Innovation, HAPPI Report (2009).
    • 10. Chris Parker, Sarah Barnes, Kevin Mckee, Kevin Morgan, Judith Torrington, Peter Tregenza, 'Quality of Life and Building Design in Residential and Nursing Homes for Older People', in Ageing and Society, 24:6 (1999), 941-62. Available online: [accessed 20 June 2016]; R. Fleming, B. Goodenough, L. F. Low, L. Chenoweth, H. Brodaty, 'The Relationship Between the Quality of the Built Environment and the Quality of Life of People with Dementia in Residential Care', in Dementia (2014), available online: [accessed 20 June 2016] and A. Joseph, Y. S. Choi and X. Quan, 'Impact of the Physical Environment of Residential Health, Care, and Support Facilities (RHCSF) on Staff and Residents: a Systematic Review of the Literature', in Environment and Behavior (2015), online: http://dx. doi.org/10.1177/0013916515597027 [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 11. Sarah Barnes, 'The Design of Caring Environments and the Quality of Life of Older People', in Ageing and Society, 22:6 (2002), 775-89.
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    • 14. Examples of such projects include 'Dwell' as described in the 'The Dwell Dialogue Newsletter', Issue 2 (2015), available online: [accessed 12 May 2016] and the 'Open Space' project a component of which is described in this academic paper: C. Ward Thompson, 'Activity, Exercise and the Planning and Design of Outdoor Spaces', in Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34 (2013), 79-96. Available online: [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 15. Marc Steen, Menno Manschot, Nicole De Koning, 'Benefits of Co-Design in Service Design Projects', in International Journal of Design, 5:2 (2011), 53-60.
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    • 17. Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977); Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. xv-552.
    • 18. Herman Hertzberger, Architecture for People (A+U: Architecture and Urbanism, 1977).
    • 19. Joshua Prince-Ramus, AGency 10.15.2014, School of Architecture, Georgia Tech. Online video recording, YouTube (15 October 2014), available online: [accessed 15 November 2015].
    • 20. Bjarke Ingels, Yes Is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution (TASCHEN GmbH, 2009).
    • 21. RIBA, 'RIBA Plan of Work 2013 Overview', ed. by D. Sinclair (London, 2013), available online: [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 22. David Bartholomew, 'Sharing Knowledge', p. 1.
    • 23. David Bartholomew, 'Sharing Knowledge'.
    • 24. Yun Gao and Kevin Orr, 'Architectural Students' Year-Out Training Experience in Architectural Offices in the UK', in arq: Architectural Research Quarterly, 19:2 (2015), 175-82. Available online: [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 25. Ellen Collins, 'Architects and Research-Based Knowledge'.
    • 26. Research Councils UK, 'Pathways to Impact'.
    • 27. Rem Koolhaas, Bruce Mau, Jennifer Sigler and Hans Werlemann, Small, Medium, Large, Extra-large: Office for Metropolitan Architecture, (New York: Monacelli Press, 1998)
    • 28. Bjarke Ingels, Yes Is More.
    • 29. Inge Mette Kirkeby, 'Knowledge in the Making'.
    • 30. Paul Newland, James A Powell, Chris Creed, 'Understanding Architectural Designers' Selective Information Handling', in Design Studies, 8:1 (1987), 2-16. Available online: [accessed 20 June 2016].
    • 31. David Bartholomew, 'Sharing Knowledge'.
    • 32. Paul Newland, James A. Powell, Chris Creed, 'Understanding Architectural Designers' Selective Information Handling'.
    • 33. Charles Hamilton Burnette, The Architect's Access to Information: Constraints on the Architect's Capacity to Seek, Obtain, Translate and Apply Information (AIA Research arq . vol 20 . no 3 . 2016 Corporation, 1979).
    • 34. Margaret Mackinder and Heather Marvin, Design Decision Making in Architectural Practice: The Roles of Information, Experience and Other Influences During the Design Process (University of York Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, 1982).
    • 35. Charles Hamilton Burnette, The Architect's Access to Information.
    • 36. David Bartholomew, 'Sharing Knowledge'.
    • 37. Ellen Collins, 'Architects and Research-Based Knowledge'.
    • 38. Callum Lee, Amy Nettley, Matthieu Prin, Paul Owens, 'How Architects Use Research', ed. by Anne Dye (London: RIBA, 2014).
    • 39. Ellen Collins, 'Architects and Research-Based Knowledge'.
    • 40. Inge Mette Kirkeby, 'Knowledge in the Making'.
    • 41. Research Councils UK, 'Pathways to Impact'.
    • 42. Ellen Collins, 'Architects and Research-Based Knowledge', p. 4.
    • 43. Ibid., p. 3.
    • 44. Robert G Burgess, 'Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual', in Contemporary Social Research Series (London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1982).
    • 45. Colin Robson, Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researchers, 2nd Edition (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002).
    • 46. Robert G Burgess, 'Field Research'.
    • 47. Colin Robson, Real World Research.
    • 48. Juliet Corbin and Anselm Strauss, 'Grounded Theory Research: Procedures, Canons, and Evaluative Criteria', in Qualitative Sociology, 13:1 (1990).
    • 49. Colin Robson, Real World Research.
    • 50. N. B. Robbins and R. M. Heiberger, 'Plotting Likert and Other Rating Scales', in Proceedings of the 2011 Joint Statistical Meetings (2011).
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