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Multiphase variable-speed drives and generation systems (systems with more than three phases) have become one of the mainstream research areas during the last decade. The main driving forces are the specific applications, predominantly related to the green agenda, such as electric and hybrid electric vehicles, locomotive traction, ship propulsion, ‘more-electric’ aircraft, remote offshore wind farms for electric energy generation, and general high-power industrial applications. As a result, produced body of significant work is substantial, making it impossible to review all the major developments in a single paper. This paper therefore surveys the recent progress in two specific areas associated with multiphase systems, namely power electronic supply control and innovative ways of using the additional degrees of freedom in multiphase machines for various non-traditional purposes.
E. Levi, “Multiphase electric machines for variable-speed applications,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1893-1909, 2008.
A. Iqbal, S. Moinuddin, M. R. Khan, S.M. Ahmed, and H. AbuRub, “A novel three-phase to five-phase transformation using a special transformer connection,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 1637-1644, 2010.
Massoud, “A static three-phase to five-phase transformer based on Scott connection,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 110, May 2014, pp. 84-93.
S. Moinoddin, A. Iqbal, H. Abu-Rub, M.R. Khan, and S.M. Ahmed, “Three-phase to seven-phase power converting transformer,” IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 757-766, 2012.
D. Dujic, G. Grandi, M. Jones, and E. Levi, “A space vector PWM scheme for multi-frequency output voltage generation with multiphase voltage source inverters,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1943-1955, 2008.
[7] D. Casadei, D. Dujić, E. Levi, G. Serra, A. Tani, and L. Zarri, “General modulation strategy for seven-phase inverters with independent control of multiple voltage space vectors,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1921-1932, 2008.
[8] A. Lega, M. Mengoni, G. Serra, A. Tani, and L. Zarri, “Space vector modulation for multiphase inverters based on a space partitioning algorithm,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 4119-4131, 2009.
[9] E. Levi, D. Dujic, M. Jones, and G. Grandi, “Analytical determination of DC-bus utilization limits in multi-phase VSI supplied AC drives,” IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 433-443, 2008.
[10] O. Lopez, J. Alvarez, J. Doval-Gandoy, and F. D. Freijedo, “Multilevel multiphase space vector PWM algorithm,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1933-1942, 2008.
[11] O. Lopez, J. Alvarez, J. Doval-Gandoy, and F. D. Freijedo, “Multilevel multiphase space vector PWM algorithm with switching state redundancy,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 792-804, 2009.
[12] O. Lopez, D. Dujic, M. Jones, F. D. Freijedo, J. Doval-Gandoy, and E. Levi, “Multidimensional two-level multiphase space vector PWM algorithm and its comparison with multifrequency space vector PWM method,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 465-475, 2011.
[13] G. Carrasco and C. A. Silva, “Space vector PWM method for fivephase two-level VSI with minimum harmonic injection in the overmodulation region,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 2042-2053, 2013.
[14] J. Prieto, F. Barrero, M. J. Duran, S. M. Toral, and M. A. Perales, “SVM procedure for n-phase VSI with low harmonic distortion in the overmodulation region,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 92-97, 2014.
[15] M. J. Duran, J. Prieto, and F. Barrero, “Space vector PWM with reduced common-mode voltage for five-phase induction motor drives operating in overmodulation zone,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 4030-4040, 2013.
[16] M. J. Duran, J. Prieto, F. Barrero, J. A. Riveros, and H. Guzman, “Space-vector PWM with reduced common-mode voltage for fivephase induction motor drives,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 4159-4168, 2013.
[17] M. Pulvirenti, G. Scarcella, G. Scelba, and M. Cacciato, “Space vector modulation technique for common mode currents reduction in six phase AC drives,” in Proc. European Power Electronics and Applications Conf. EPE, Lille, France, CD-ROM, 2013.
[18] M. J. Duran, J. A. Riveros, F. Barrero, H. Guzman, and J. Prieto, “Reduction of common-mode voltage in five-phase induction motor drives using predictive control techniques,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2059-2067, 2012.
[19] A. Iqbal and S. Moinuddin, “Comprehensive relationship between carrier based PWM and space vector PWM in a five-phase VSI,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 2379-2390, 2009.
[20] S. Karugaba and O. Ojo, “A carrier-based PWM modulation technique for balanced and unbalanced reference voltages in multiphase voltage-source inverters,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2102-2109, 2012.
[21] L. Zarri, M. Mengoni, A. Tani, G. Serra, and D. Casadei, “Minimization of the power losses in IGBT multiphase inverters with carrier-based pulsewidth modulation,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3695-3706, 2010.
[23] D. Yazdani, S. Khajehoddin, A. Bakhshai, and G. Joos, “Full utilization of the inverter in split-phase drives by means of a dual three-phase space vector classification algorithm,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 120-129, 2009.
7, no. 2, pp. 376-389, 2014.
P. Zheng, P. Wang, Y. Sui, C. Tong, F. Wu, and T. Li, “Near -fivevector SVPWM algorithm for five-phase six-leg inverters under unbalanced load conditions,” Journal of Power Electronics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 61-73, 2014.
IEEE Int. Symp. on Industrial Electronics ISIE, Gdansk, Poland, pp. 283-288, 2011.
C. Jacobina, I. S. de Freitas, C. R. da Silva, M. B. de Rossiter Correa, and E. C. da Silva, “Reduced switch-count six-phase ac motor drive systems without input reactor,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 2024-2032, 2008.
E. Levi, N. Bodo, O. Dordevic, and M. Jones, “Recent advances in power electronic converter control for multiphase drive systems,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Electrical Machines Design, Control and Diagnosis WEMDCD, Paris, France, pp. 156-165, 2013.
O. Dordevic, M. Jones, and E. Levi, “A comparison of carrierbased and space vector PWM techniques for three-level five-phase voltage source inverters,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Informatics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 609-619, 2013.
S. Karugaba, O. Ojo, and M. Abreham, “Carrier based PWM scheme for a three-level diode-clamped five-phase voltage source inverter ensuring capacitor voltage balancing,” in Proc. IEEE Applied Power Elec. Conf. APEC, Orlanod, FL, pp. 1194-1201, 2011.
O. Lopez, E. Levi, F. Freijedo, and J. Doval-Gandoy, “Number of switching state vectors and space vectors in multilevel multiphase converters,” Electronics Letters, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 524-525, 2009.
L. Gao and J. E. Fletcher, “A space vector switching strategy for three-level five-phase inverter drives,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2332-2343, 2010.
28, no. 2, pp. 637-649, 2013.
J. Álvarez, O. López, F. D. Freijedo, and J. Doval-Gandoy, “Digital parameterizable VHDL module for multilevel multiphase space vector PWM”, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no.
9, pp. 3946-3957, 2011.
Vazquez, J. Alvarez, and F. D. Freijedo, “Multilevel multiphase feedforward space-vector modulation technique,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2066-2075, 2010.
57, no. 7, pp. 2473-2482, 2010.
J. S. Hu, K. Y. Chen, T. Y. Shen, and C. H. Tang, “Analytical solutions of multilevel space-vector PWM for multiphase voltage source inverters,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1489-1502, 2011.
K. Y. Chen and J. S. Hu, “A filtered SVPWM for multiphase voltage source inverters considering finite pulse-width resolution,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 3107-3118, 2012.
C. Govindaraju, “Efficient sequential switching hybrid modulation techniques for multiphase multilevel inverters,” IET Power Electronics, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 557-569, 2011.
T. Cheng and J. E. Fletcher, “A three-level five-phase inverter with coupled inductors and DC flux cancellation,” in Proc. IEEE ECCE Asia Downunder - ECCE Asia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 607-612, 2013.
H. Liu, G. Wang, and H. Yu, “Simplified circuit and modulation scheme for five-phase three-level voltage source inverter,” Electronics Letters, vol. 49, no. 22, pp. 1404-1405, 2013.
G. Grandi, A. Tani, P. Sanjeevikumar, and D. Ostojic, “Multi-phase multi-level AC motor drive based on four three-phase two-level inverters,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion SPEEDAM, Pisa, Italy, pp. 1768, 1775, 2010.
V. Oleschuk and G. Grandi, “Six-phase motor drive supplied by four voltage source inverters with synchronized space-vector PWM,” Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 445- 458, 2011.
G. Grandi, Y. Gritli, F. Filippetti, and C. Rossi, “Fault-tolerant operating analysis of a quad-inverter multiphase multilevel AC motor drive,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. on Diagnostics for Electric Machines, Power Electronics & Drives SDEMPED, Bologna, Italy, pp. 126-132, 2011.
N. Bodo, E. Levi, and M. Jones, “Investigation of carrier-based PWM techniques for a five-phase open-end winding drive topology,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 5, pp.
M. Jones, F. Patkar, E. Levi, “Carrier-based pulse-width modulation techniques for asymmetrical six-phase open-end winding drives,” IET Electric Power Applications, vol. 7, no. 6, pp.
E. Levi, I. N. W. Satiawan, N. Bodo, and M. Jones, “A space vector modulation scheme for multi-level open-end winding five-phase drives,” IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1- 10, 2012.
M. Jones, N. Satiawan, N. Bodo, and E. Levi, “A dual five-phase space vector modulation algorithm based on the decomposition method,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 48, no. 6, pp.
N. Bodo, M. Jones, and E. Levi, “A space vector PWM with common-mode-voltage elimination for open-end winding fivephase drives with a single dc supply,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2197-2207, 2014.
S. Karugaba, A. Muetze, and O. Ojo, “On the common-mode voltage in multilevel multiphase single- and double-ended diodeclamped voltage-source inverter systems,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2079-2091, 2012.
on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 5213-5221, 2014.
Harnefors, E. Levi, L. Parsa, and B.Fahimi, “Trends in electrical machines control,” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 43-55, 2014.
Soc. Annual Conf. IECON, Vienna, Austria, pp. 5189-5194, 2013.
C. B. Jacobina, V. F. M. B. Melo, N. Rocha, and E. R. C. da Silva, “Six-phase machine conversion system with three-phase and singlephase series converters,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 3846 - 3856, 2014.
S. Halasz, “Discontinuous modulation of multiphase inverter-fed AC motors,” in Proc. European Power Electronics and Applications Conf. EPE, Barcelona, Spain, Paper 0569, 2009.
S. Halasz, “Overmodulation region of multi-phase inverters,” in Proc. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conf. EPE-PEMC, Poznan, Poland, pp. 682-689, 2008.
D. Dujic, M. Jones, and E. Levi, “Analysis of output current ripple RMS in multi-phase drives using space vector approach,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1926-1938, 2009.
M. Jones, D. Dujic, E. Levi, J. Prieto, and F. Barrero, “Switching ripple characteristics of space vector PWM schemes for five-phase two-level voltage source inverters - Part 2: Current ripple,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2799-2808, 2011.
D. Dujic, M. Jones, E. Levi, J. Prieto, and F. Barrero, “Switching ripple characteristics of space vector PWM schemes for five-phase two-level voltage source inverters - Part 1: Flux harmonic distortion factors,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 2789-2798, 2011.
J. Prieto, M. Jones, F. Barrero, E. Levi, and S. Toral, “Comparative analysis of discontinuous and continuous PWM techniques in VSIfed five-phase induction motor,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 5324-5335, 2011.
IECON, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 3565-3570, 2011.
P. A. Dahono, Deni, and E. G. Supriatna, “Output current-ripple analysis of five-phase PWM inverters,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 2022-2029, 2009.
on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1838-1849, 2010.
J. Prieto, F. Barrero, S. Toral, M. Jones, and E. Levi, “Analytical evaluation of switching characteristics in five-phase drives with discontinuous space vector pulse width modulation techniques,” EPE Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 24-33, 2013.
J. Loncarski, O. Dordevic and G. Grandi, “Experimental verification of current ripple amplitude in five-phase PWM VSIs,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Elec. Soc. Annual Conf. IECON, Vienna, Austria, pp. 5183-5188, 2013.
D. Jiang and F. Wang, “A general current ripple prediction method for the multiphase voltage source converter,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2643-2648, 2014.
P. A. Dahono, Deni, C. P. Akbarifutra, A. Rizqiawan, “Input ripple analysis of five-phase pulse width modulated inverters,” IET Power Electronics, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 716-723, 2010.
A. Ruderman, B. Reznikov, and S. Busquets-Monge, “Asymptotic time domain evaluation of a multilevel multiphase PWM converter voltage quality,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no.
5, pp. 1999-2009, 2013.
O. Dordevic, M. Jones, and E. Levi, “Analytical formulae for phase voltage RMS squared and THD in PWM multiphase systems,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1645-1656, 2015.
P. Tenti, L. Malesani, and L. Rossetto, “Optimum control of Ninput K-output matrix converters,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 707-713, 1992.
S. M. Ahmed, A. Iqbal, H. Abu-Rub, J. Rodriguez, C. A. Rojas, and M. Saleh, “Simple carrier-based PWM technique for a three-tonine-phase direct AC-AC converter,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 5014-5023, 2011.
A. Iqbal, S. M. Ahmed, H. Abu-Rub, and M. R. Khan, “Carrierbased PWM scheme for a novel three to five phase matrix converter,” in Proc. Power Conv. Int. Motion Conf. PCIM, Nuremberg, Germany, pp. 998-1003, 2010.
on Industry Applications, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 697-707, 2012.
R. W. G. Bucknall and K. M. Ciaramella, “On the conceptual design and performance of a matrix converter for marine electric propulsion,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 6, pp.
S. M. Ahmed, A. Iqbal, and H. Abu-Rub, “Generalized duty-ratiobased pulsewidth modulation technique for a three-to-k phase matrix converter,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 3925-3937, 2011.
S. M. Dabour, A. E.-W. Hassan, and E. M. Rashad, “Analysis and implementation of space vector modulated five-phase matrix converter,” Int. J. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 63, pp. 740-746, 2014.
A. Iqbal, R. Alammari, H. Abu-Rub, and S. M. Ahmed, “PWM scheme for dual matrix converters based five-phase open-end winding drive,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Industrial Technology ICIT, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 1686-1690, 2013.
O. Ojo, M. Abreham, S. Karugaba, and O. A. Komolafe, “Carrierbased modulation of non-square multi-phase AC-AC matrix converters,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Ind. Elec. ISIE, Bari, Italy, pp. 2141-2146, 2010.
M. Chai, R. Dutta, and J. E. Fletcher, “Space vector PWM for fiveto-three phase conventional matrix converter with d2-q2 vector elimination,” in Proc. IEEE ECCE Asia Downunder - ECCE Asia, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1328-1333, 2013.
A. Beguin and A. Rufer, “Poly-phased matrix converter - a 27 input phases to 3 output phases experimental set-up running with hard and soft commutation,” in Proc. European Power Electronics and Applications Conf. EPE, Birmingham, UK, CD-ROM, 2011.
M. Jones, D. Dujic, E. Levi, S. N. Vukosavic, “Dead-time effects in voltage source inverter fed multi-phase ac motor drives and their compensation,” in Proc. European on Power Electronics and Applications Conf. EPE, Barcelona, Spain, CD-ROM paper 0001, 2009.
G. Grandi and J. Loncarski, “Analysis of dead-time effects in multiphase voltage source inverters,” in Proc. IET Int. Conf. on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives PEMD, Bristol, UK, CD-ROM, 2012.
A. S. Abdel-Khalik, M. I. Masoud, and B. W. Williams, “Performance evaluation of eleven-phase induction machine using selective harmonic elimination,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives POWERENG, Torremolinos, Spain, CD-ROM, 2011.
on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion SPEEDAM, Ischia, Italy, pp. 854-859, 2008.
J. Dai, S. W. Nam, M. Pande, and G. Esmaeili, “Medium voltage current source converter drives for marine propulsion system using a dual-winding synchronous machine,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 3971-3976, 2014.
M. Massoud, “Sinusoidal PWM modulation technique of five-phase current-source-converters with controlled modulation index,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Industrial Electronics ISIE, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 655-660, 2014.
Markadeh, “Space-vector pulse-width modulation of a Z-source six-phase inverter with neural network classification,” IET Power Electronics, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1956-1967, 2012.
J. Wen and K. M. Smedley, “Hexagram inverter for mediumvoltage six-phase variable-speed drives,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2473-2481, 2008.
E. Levi, M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and H. A. Toliyat, “Steady state modelling of series-connected five-phase and six-phase twomotor drives,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1559-1568, 2008.
M. B. de Rossiter Correa, C. R. da Silva, H. Razik, C. B. Jacobina, and E. R. C. da Silva, “Independent voltage control for seriesconnected six- and three-phase induction machines,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1286-1293, 2009.
[98] N. R. Abjadi, J. Soltani, and G. R. A. Markadeh, “A two-frequency quasi six-phase voltage source inverter based on space vector PWM,” EPE Journal, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 5-13, 2010.
[100] T. Wang, F. Fang, X. Wu, and X. Jiang, “Novel filter for stator harmonic currents reduction in six-step converter fed multiphase induction motor drives,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 498-506, 2013.
[101] M. Mengoni, A. Tani, L. Zarri, G. Serra, and D. Casadei, “Position control of a multi-motor drive based on series-connected five-phase tubular PM actuators,” IEEE Trans on Industry Applications, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2048-2058, 2012.
[103] M. Jones, S. N. Vukosavic, and E. Levi, “Parallel-connected multiphase multi-drive systems with single inverter supply,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 2047-2057, 2009.
[104] H. S. Che, E. Levi, M. Jones, M. J. Duran, W. P. Hew, and N. A. Rahim, “Operation of a six-phase induction machine using seriesconnected machine-side converters,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 164-176, 2014.
[105] S. Haghbin, S. Lundmark, M. Alakula, and O. Carlson, “Gridconnected integrated battery chargers in vehicle applications: review and new solution,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 459-473, 2013.
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[112] S. Haghbin, T. Thiringer, and O. Carlson, “An integrated splitphase dual-inverter permanent magnet motor drive and battery charger for grid-connected electric or hybrid vehicles,” in Proc. Int. Conf. on Electrical Machines ICEM, Marseille, France, pp. 1939- 1945, 2012.
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[116] I. Subotic, N. Bodo, E. Levi, M. Jones, and V. Levi, “Isolated chargers for EVs incorporating six-phase machines,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, accepted, d.o.i. 10.1109/TIE.2015.2412516.
[118] I. Subotic, N. Bodo, and E. Levi, “An EV drive-train with integrated fast charging capability,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, accepted.
[119] S. Kouro, M. Malinowski, K. Gopakumar, J. Pou, L. G. Franquelo, B. Wu, J. Rodriguez, M. a. Perez, and J. I. Leon, “Recent advances and industrial applications of multilevel converters,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, 2010, pp. 2553-2580.
Emil Levi (S'89, M'92, SM'99, F'09) received his MSc and the PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1986 and 1990, respectively. From 1982 till 1992 he was with the Dept. of Elec. Engineering, University of Novi Sad. He joined Liverpool John Moores University, UK in May 1992 and is since September 2000 Professor of Electric Machines and Drives. He served as a CoEditor-i n-Chief of the IEE E T rans. on Industrial Electronics in the 2009-2013 period and is currently Editor-in-Chief of the IET Electric Power Applications a nd a n E d i t or o f t h e I E E E T r a n s . o n E n er gy Conversion. He is the recipient of the Cyril Veinott award of the IEEE Power and Energy Society for 2009 and the Best Paper award of the IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics for 2008. In 2014 he received the “Outstanding Achievement Award” from the European Power Electronics (EPE) Association.