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Alghareeb, Khaled; Nadella, Vinod; Bland, Charlotte E.; Devitt, Andrew
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
Subjects:
Apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes is a vital part of programmed cell death that prevents dying cells from undergoing necrosis which may lead to inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Apoptotic cells (AC) are removed by phagocytes, in a process that involves 'find me' and 'eat me' signals that facilitate the synapsing and engulfment of cell corpses. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are shed during apoptosis and promote phagocyte recruitment. Binding of AC is achieved by multiple ligand-receptor interactions. One interesting AC associated ligand is ICAM-3, a highly glycosylated adhesion molecule of the IgSF family, expressed on human leukocytes. On viable cells ICAM-3 participates in initiating immune responses, whereas on AC we show it attracts phagocytes through EV and aids in the binding of AC to the phagocytes. This project aims to characterize the role of ICAM-3 and EV in the clearance of AC and to identify the mechanisms that underlie their function in apoptotic cell clearance. Human B cells induced to apoptosis by UV irradiation were observed during their progression from viable to apoptotic via flow cytometry. The involvement of ICAM-3 in mediating interaction between AC and MØ was assessed. The ability of ICAM3 on EV to mediate chemoattraction was observed using chemotaxis assays. Additionally the anti-inflammatory effect was assessed using LPS-induced TNF-α production that suggested it may have anti-inflammatory effects. Future work in this project will assess the role of ICAM3 on EV from different phases of apoptosis to exert functional effects both in vitro and in vivo.
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