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Moore, Jane Veronica (2013)
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: PR, GV
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792, in Janet Todd and Marilyn Butler, eds., The Works of Mary Wollstonecraft (7 vols, London, 1989), v. 114. Hereafter abbreviated in the body of the essay as Works and identified by volume number.
    • 2. William Hazlitt, 'The Fight', in William Hazlitt, The Fight and Other Writings, ed. Tom Paulin and David Chandler (London, 2000), 140-56; 149. Hereafter identified in parentheses in the body of the essay by page number.
    • 3. The phrase is Duncan Wu's, William Hazlitt: The First Modern Man (Oxford, 2008), 51.
    • 4. Jeffrey N. Cox, 'Keats in the Cockney School', Romanticism, 2.1 (1996), 27-39; 33.
    • 5. Ibid., 36.
    • 6. Nicholas Roe graphically describes scenes that the young Keats would have witnessed during his work at Guy's in his biography of the poet, John Keats: A New Life (New Haven and London, 2012). He notes that: 'As dresser, Keats would have had to participate in operations, witnessing harrowing scenes at the operating table and being required to put right any damage inflicted', 91.
    • 7. Ibid., 285.
    • 8. The Journal of Thomas Moore, ed. Wilfred S. Dowden (7 vols, Newark, 1983), i. 96-7.
    • 9. See Jonathan Bate, John Clare. A Biography (London, 2005), 437. Bate notes that in the spring of 1840 the poet was preoccupied by thoughts of sex and boxing, two obsessions which he united in a 'cryptic fragment linking the name of Byron to Springfield, the house where Dr Allen's [the keeper of the asylum] female patients lived:
    • 10. Ibid., 415.
    • 11. Cited in ibid., 438.
    • 12. Ibid.
    • 13. Francesca Cuojati, 'John Clare: The Poetics and Politics of Taxonomy', in The Exhibit in the Text: The Museological Practices of Literature, ed. Caroline Patey and Laura Scuriatti (Bern, 2009), 29-48, 45. Cuojati interestingly weaves the example of 'flash' language into her broader argument that Clare eschewed all attempts at containment and classification, a resistance to authoritative legislature that led him to identify with gypsies and boxers alike.
    • 14. See, for example, 'The Gypsy's Camp', The Village Minstrel, and Other Poems (2 vols, London, 1821).
    • 15. Modern critical interest in Romantic-era boxing and its relation to literary writing of the period includes Kasia Boddy's exhaustive study, Boxing: A Cultural History (London, 2008), Cuojati's essay, op. cit., Gary Dyer, 'Thieves, Boxers, Sodomites, Poets: Being Flash to Byron's Don Juan', PMLA, 16.3 (May 2001), 562-78; David Higgins, 'Englishness, Effeminacy, and the New Monthly Magazine: Hazlitt's “The Fight” in Context', Romanticism, 10.2 (2004), 173-90; David Snowdon, 'Hazlitt's Prizefight Revisited: Pierce Egan and Jon Bee's Boxiana-Style Perspective', Romantic Textualities: Literature and Print Culture, 1780-1840, 20 (Winter 2011). Online: Internet (date accessed: 30/08/2012). www.romtext.org.uk/issues/rt20.pdf, 24-44; and John Strachan, 'Romanticism, Sport, and Late Georgian Poetry', in A Companion to Romantic Poetry, ed. Charles Mahoney (Oxford, 2001), 374-92.
    • 16. Thomas Moore, Tom Crib's Memorial to Congress: With a Preface, Notes, and Appendix. By one of the Fancy (London, 1819), reprinted in The Satires of Thomas Moore, ed. Jane Moore, in British Satire 1785-1840, general ed. John Strachan (5 vols, London, 2003), v. 183-227.
    • 17. See note 15 above.
    • 18. See J. C. Reid, Bucks and Bruisers: Pierce Egan and Regency England (London, 1971): 'The Prince of Wales, who became Prince Regent and later King George IV, his brothers, the Duke of York and the Duke of Clarence, later King William IV, were supporters, patrons, bettors; the presence of one or other of these at an “illegal” contest at Moulsey Hurst or Crawley Downs [boxing venues] was sufficient to deter even the most zealous of magistrates from issuing a warrant. Not only did the Prince of Wales attend fights, at least until 1788, and visit the training-rooms in London, but he cultivated the society of boxers and received them at Court. On 24 July 1821, when he was crowned King, eighteen of the leading pugilists of England, including Cribb, Spring, Belcher, Richmond, Owen, Hudson and Oliver, under the direction of “Gentleman” John Jackson, were chosen by the King to act as Ushers at Westminster Hall, which action at the same time flattered his friends of the Fancy and ensured the absence of outbreaks of rowdyism. Without such patronage and wealthy backers, it is doubtful if pugilism could have survived the constant charges from the respectable as to its brutality and the vigilant persecution from officers of the law; the presence, too, of the nobility and the aristocracy at a bout acted as something of a check on the large, heterogeneous and often pugnacious crowds' (14).
    • 19. Ibid.
    • 20. As noted by John Strachan, 'Fighting Sports and Late Georgian Periodical Culture', in The British Periodical Text, 1797-1835, ed. Simon Hull (Penrith, 2008), 143-69, 155.
    • 21. Hannah More, Strictures on the Modern System of Female Education (1799), in The Works of Hannah More (11 vols, London, 1830), v. 353.
    • 22. See, for example, her review of the epistolary novel Doncaster Races; or, the History of Miss Maitland: a Tale of Truth (1789), which is criticised for lacking authenticity and reproducing in the typical inferior novel's manner 'improbable adventures and unnatural characters' (Works, vii. 135).
    • 23. Mary Wollstonecraft, review of 'A Letter on the Practice of Boxing. Addressed to the King, Lords and Commons. By the Rev. Edward Burry. A.M. M.D. Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Kildare, 1789', Analytical Review, vol. vi, 1790, in Works, vii. 227.
    • 24. Ibid.
    • 25. David Higgins, 'Englishness, Effeminacy, and the New Monthly Magazine: Hazlitt's “The Fight” in Context', Romanticism, 10.2 (2004), 173-90, 179.
    • 26. Higgins, for instance, writes that 'Hazlitt's self-presentation in “The Fight” was a response to his obsession with Sarah Walker', ibid., 186.
    • 27. Cited in Wu, William Hazlitt, 62.
    • 28. Tom Paulin maintains that Hazlitt's 'essential theme, throughout his career, is the nature of prose style', 'Introduction' to William Hazlitt, The Fight and Other Writings, xiv.
    • 29. Gregory Dart, 'Romantic Cockneyism: Hazlitt and the Periodical Press', Romanticism, 6.2 (2000), 143-62, 148.
    • 30. I have borrowed the phrase from Kasia Boddy's Boxing: A Cultural History (London, 2008), 63.
    • 31. Jack Randall (born in London, into poverty, in 1794) was a famous Regency prize-fighter. On his retirement in 1819, he became landlord of the Hole in the Wall Tavern, in Chancery Lane. While the address is reasonably up-market, the establishment itself was far from high class - witness Hazlitt's reference to Randall's drunken brawling.
    • 32. Vivien Jones argues that modesty in Wollstonecraft's account is 'indistinguishable from the classic conduct-book opposition between acceptable and unacceptable modes of middle-class femininity: inner virtue and “use” compared with superficial display'; see 'Mary Wollstonecraft and the Literature of Advice and Instruction', in The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft, ed. Claudia L. Johnson (Cambridge, 2002), 119-40; 127. Even so, as Jones also writes, 'the Dissenting tradition' to which Wollstonecraft belonged 'pulls in a more disruptive direction' (ibid.). For example, an apparently conventional work of conduct such as James Burgh's Thoughts on Education (1747), 'whose widow Hannah', writes Jones, was particularly supportive of Wollstonecraft's project, stresses 'independence of mind over “the superficial opinion of the multitude” ' (ibid., 125, 127).
    • 33. David Snowdon reports the story of Hickman's brutality in 'Hazlitt's Prizefight Revisited: Pierce Egan and Jon Bee's Boxiana-Style Perspective', Romantic Textualities: Literature and Print Culture, 1780-1840, 20 (Winter 2011). Online: Internet (date accessed: 30/08/2012). www.romtext.org.uk/issues/rt20.pdf, 24-44, 31.
    • 34. Hickman was a renowned braggart. David Snowdon has written at length on Egan's treatment of him in 'Hazlitt's Prizefight Revisited'.
    • 35. The Complete Works of William Hazlitt, ed. P. P. Howe (21 vols, London, 1930-4), viii. 87.
    • 36. See Romantic Sociability: Social Networks and Literary Culture in Britain, 1770-1840, ed. Gillian Russell and Clara Tuite (Cambridge, 2002).
    • 37. Ibid., 5.
    • 38. William Hazlitt, 'On Going on a Journey', from Table Talk (1821), in William Hazlitt, Selected Writings, ed. Ronald Blythe (Harmondsworth, 1970), 136.
    • 39. Ibid.
    • 40. Robin Jarvis, Romantic Writing and Pedestrian Travel (Houndmills, Basingstoke, 1997), 197.
    • 41. Letters of John Keats, ed. Robert Gittings (London, 1970), 129; cited in Jarvis, ibid.
    • 42. Jarvis, ibid., 202. Jarvis notes that Robert Gittings omitted the composition from his Letters of John Keats on the grounds of taste, ibid., 232, 17n.
    • 43. Jarvis, ibid., 203.
    • 44. Ibid., 202-3.
    • 45. Gregory Dart, ' “Flash Style”: Pierce Egan and Literary London 1820-28', History Workshop Journal, 51 (2001), 181-205, 191.
    • 46. Boddy, Boxing: A Cultural History, 65.
    • 47. The Egan quotation is cited by Higgins, 'Englishness, Effeminacy, and the New Monthly Magazine', 184.
    • 48. William Godwin, Caleb Williams, ed. Maurice Hindle (Harmondsworth, 1988), 19.
    • 49. Ibid.
    • 50. Boddy's Boxing: A Cultural History underlines the point (76).
    • 51. See John Lowerson, Sport and the English Middle Classes, 1870-1914 (Manchester, 1993).
    • 52. Ibid., 170.
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