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Bhutani, G.; Bostock, J.; Bromley, H.; Chowan, H.; de la Motte, A.; Dick, P.; Dunn, P.; Hajioff, S.; Manifold, I.; Maxwell, G.; Middleton, T.; Milliard, J.; Oliver, S.; Trender, H.; Van Woerden, H.; Wee, B.; Whitehead, K.; Whitmarsh, A.; Worsley, J.; Zermamsky, A.; Ashton, C.; Francis, C.; Lim, W. S.; Mansfield, H.; Maufe, P.; More, M.; Poundsfound, J.; Woodhead, M.; NICE Advisory Committee; Quality Standards Project Team (2016)
Publisher: NICE
Languages: English
Types: Other

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: respiratory tract diseases
Introduction\ud This quality standard covers adults (18 years and older) with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia. For more information see the pneumonia topic overview.\ud \ud Why this quality standard is needed\ud Pneumonia is an infection of the lung tissue. When a person has pneumonia the air sacs in their lungs become filled with microorganisms, fluid and inflammatory cells and their lungs are not able to work properly. Diagnosis of pneumonia is based on symptoms and signs of an acute lower respiratory tract infection, and can be confirmed by a chest X-ray showing new shadowing that is not due to any other cause (such as pulmonary oedema or infarction). The NICE guideline on pneumonia classifies pneumonia depending on the source of the infection as community acquired or hospital-acquired, which need different management strategies. \ud \ud Every year between 0.5% and 1% of adults in the UK will have community-acquired pneumonia. It is diagnosed in 5–12% of adults who present to GPs with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection, and 22–42% of these are admitted to hospital, where the mortality rate is between 5% and 14%. Between 1.2% and 10% of adults admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia are managed in an intensive care unit, and for these patients the risk of dying is over 30%. More than half of pneumonia-related deaths occur in people older than 84 years.\ud \ud At any time, 1.5% of hospital patients in England have a hospital-acquired respiratory infection, more than half of which are hospital-acquired pneumonia and are not associated with intubation. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is estimated to increase a hospital stay by about 8 days and has a reported mortality rate ranging from 30–70%. There are variations in clinical management and outcomes across the UK.
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