Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
de Visser, Richard O; Smith, Jonathan A (2007)
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RA0421, H1
There is widespread concern about the health and social consequences of excessive alcohol consumption among young men. Interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm will be affected by ambivalence toward alcohol, because ambivalent attitudes are worse predictors of behaviour than are homogeneous attitudes. It is therefore important to identify aspects of alcohol consumption about which young men are not ambivalent. In-depth interviews were conducted with a socioeconomically diverse sample of 31 men, aged 18–21 living in London, UK. Ambivalence toward alcohol was widespread. None of the drinkers who were interviewed had uncomplicated positive evaluations of drinking: all mentioned compelling reasons not to drink. Most motives for drinking were also identified as reasons for not drinking if consumption became excessive. However, three motives for not drinking were not also motives for drinking: violence, alcoholism, and cost. These findings should be considered during the design of interventions to reduce the health and social consequences of excessive alcohol consumption amongst young men.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abbey, A., Smith, M. & Scott, R. (1993) The relationship between reasons for drinking alcohol and alcohol consumption: An interactional approach. Addictive Behaviours, 18, 659-670.
    • Armitage, C. (2003) Beyond attitudinal ambivalence: Effects of belief homogeneity on attitude-intention-behaviour relations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 551- 563.
    • Armitage, C. & Conner, M. (2000). The effects of ambivalence on attitude stability and pliability, prediction of behavior, and information processing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1432-1443.
    • Bassili, J. (1996). Meta-judgmental versus operative indexes of psychological attributes: The case of measures of attitude strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 637-653.
    • Beck, A., Wright, F., Newman, C. & Liese, B. (1993). Cognitive therapy of substance abuse. New York: Guilford.
    • Best, D., Rawaf, S., Rowley, J., Floyd, K., Manning, V. and Strang, J. (2001) Ethnic and gender differences in drinking and smoking among London adolescents. Ethnicity & Health, 6, 51-57.
    • Bot, S., Engels, R. & Knibbe, R. (2005) The effects of alcohol expectancies on drinking behaviour in peer groups: Observations in a naturalistic setting. Addiction, 100, 1270- 1279.
    • Brown, S., Goldman, M., Inn, A. & Anderson, L. (1980) Expectations of reinforcement from alcohol: Their domain and relation to drinking patterns. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 419-426.
    • Cameron, C., Stritzke, W. & Durkin, K. (2003) Alcohol expectancies in late childhood: An ambivalence perspective on transitions toward alcohol use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 687-698.
    • Conner, M., Povey, R., Sparks, P., James, R. & Shepherd, R. (2003) Moderating role of attitudinal ambivalence within the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 75-94.
    • Conner, M., & Sparks, P. (2002) Ambivalence and attitudes. European Review of Social Psychology, 12, 37-70.
    • Cooper, M. (1994) Motivations for alcohol use among adolescents: Development and validation of a four-factor model. Psychological Assessment, 6, 117-128.
    • Custers, R. & Aarts, H. (2005) Positive affect as implicit motivator: On the nonconscious operation of behavioural goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 129-142
    • Darkes, J. & Goldman, M. (1993) Expectancy challenge and drinking reduction: Experimental evidence for a mediational process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 344-353.
    • Department of Health (2003) Statistics on alcohol: England, 2003. London: Department of Health. Retrieved on 27 Jan 2005 from: www.publications.doh.gov.uk/public/sb0320.htm de Visser, R., Rissel, C., Smith, A. & Richters, J. (2006) Sociodemographic correlates of smoking, drinking, injecting drug use, and sexual risk behaviour in a representative sample of Australian young people. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 153-162.
    • Dijkstra, A., Sweeney, L. & Gebhardt, W. (2001) Social cognitive determinants of drinking in young adults: Beyond the alcohol expectancies paradigm. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 689- 706.
    • Edwards, W. (1954) The theory of decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 380-417.
    • Edwards, G., Anderson, P., Babor, T., Casswell, S., Ferrence, R., Giesbrecht, N., et al. (1994) Alcohol policy and the public good. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Farber, P., Khavari, K. & Douglass, F. (1980) A factor analytic study of reasons for drinking: Empirical validation of positive and negative reinforcement dimensions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 780-781.
    • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    • Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1972) Beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behaviour: an introduction to theory and research. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
    • French, M., Taylor, D. & Bluthenthal, R. (2006) Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: Findings from a US pilot study. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 2101-2111.
    • Graham, K. (2003) The yin and yang of alcohol intoxication: Implications for research on the social consequences of drinking. Addiction, 98, 1021-1023.
    • Greater London Authority. (2002) London Divided: Income inequality and poverty in the capital. London: Greater London Authority.
    • Grenard, J., Ames, S., Pentz, M-A. & Sussman, S. (2006). Motivational interviewing with adolescents and young adults for drug-related problems. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health, 18, 53-67.
    • Heeb, J-L., Gmel, G., Zurbrügg, C., Kuo, M. & Rehm, J. (2003) Changes in alcohol consumption following a reduction in the price of spirits: A natural experiment in Switzerland. Addiction, 98, 1433-1446.
    • Hittner, J. (1997) Alcohol-related outcome expectancies: Construct overview and implications for primary and secondary prevention. Journal of Primary Prevention, 17, 297-314.
    • Jonas, K., Diehl, M., & Brömer, P. (1997). Effects of attitudinal ambivalence on information processing and attitude-intention consistency. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 190-210.
    • Kuntsche, E., Rehm, J. & Gmel, G. (2004) Characteristics of binge drinkers in Europe. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 113-127.
    • Lee, N., Greely, J. & Oei, T. (1999) The relationship of positive and negative alcohol expectancies to patterns of consumption of alcohol in social drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 359-369.
    • Leigh, B. (1989) In search of the seven dwarves: Issues of measurement and meaning in alcohol expectancy research. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 361-373.
    • Leigh, B. & Stacy, A. (2004) Alcohol expectancies and drinking in different age groups. Addiction, 99, 215-227.
    • Maggs, J. & Schulenberg, J. (1998) Reasons to drink and not to drink: Altering trajectories of drinking through an alcohol misuse prevention program. Applied Developmental Science, 2, 48-60.
    • Matthews, S. & Richardson, A. (2005) Findings from the 2003 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey: alcohol-related crime and disorder. London: Home Office.
    • Merline, A., O'Malley, P., Schulenberg, J., Bachman, J. & Johnston, L. (2004) Substance use among adults 35 years of age: Prevalence, adulthood predictors, and impact of adolescent substance use. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 96-102.
    • Midanik, L., Tam, T., Greenfield, T. & Caetano, R. (1996) Risk functions for alcohol-related problems in a 1988 US national sample. Addiction, 91, 1427-1437.
    • Migneault, J., Pallonen, U. & Velicer, W. (1997) Decisional balance and stage of change for adolescent drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 339-351.
    • Newby-Clark, I, McGregor, I. & Zanna, M. (2002). Thinking and caring about cognitive inconsistency: When and for whom does attitudinal ambivalence feel uncomfortable? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 157-166.
    • Oei, T. & Morawska, A. (2004) A cognitive model of binge drinking: the influence of alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Addictive Behaviours, 29, 159-179.
    • Paglia, A. & Room, R. (1999) Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on the self and on others as determinants of alcohol policy attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 2632-2651.
    • Patton, M. (2002) Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd Edition) London: Sage.
    • Perry, C., Williams, C., Komro, K., Mortenson, S., Forster, J., Lachter, R., et al. (2000). Project Northland high school interventions: Community action to reduce adolescent alcohol use. Health Education & Behavior, 27, 29-49.
    • Perry, C., Williams, C., Mortenson, S., Toomey, T., Komro, K., Anstine, P., et al. (1996) Project Northland: Outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 86, 956-965.
    • Prime Minister's Strategy Unit (2004) Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England. London: Strategy Unit. Retrieved on 27 Jan 2005 from: www.strategy.gov.uk/su/alcohol/pdf/CabOffce%20AlcoholHar.pdf
    • Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C. & Norcross, J. (1992) In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist. 47, 1102-1114.
    • Read, J., Wood, M., Kahler, C., Maddock, J. & Palfai, T. (2003) Examining the role of drinking motives in college student alcohol use and problems. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 13-23.
    • Rehm, N., Room, R. & Edwards, G. (2001) Alcohol in the European region: consumption, harm and policies. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
    • Miller, W. & Rollnick, S. (1991). Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behavior. London: Guilford.
    • Rosenstock, I. (1974) The health belief model and preventive health behaviour. Health Education Monographs, 2, 354-386.
    • Schafer, J., & Leigh, B. (1996) A comparison of factor structures of adolescent and adult alcohol effect expectancies. Addictive Behaviors, 21, 403-408.
    • Schulenberg, J., Wadsworth, K., O'Malley, P., Bachman, J. & Johnston, L. (1996) Adolescent risk factors for binge drinking during the transition to young adulthood: Variable- and pattern-centered approaches to change. Developmental Psychology, 32, 659-674.
    • Schwartz, N. (2000) Social judgment and attitudes: warmer, more social, and less conscious. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 149-176.
    • Sheeran, P., Aarts, H., Custers, R., Rivis, A., Webb, T. & Cooke, R. (2005) The goaldependent automaticity of drinking habits. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 47- 63.
    • Sher, K., Wood, M., Wood, P. & Raskin, G. (1996) Alcohol outcome expectancies and alcohol use: a latent variable cross-lagged panel study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 561-574.
    • Simons-Morton, B., Donohew, L. & Crump, A. (1997) Health communication in the prevention of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Health Education and Behavior, 24, 544- 554.
    • Skara, S. & Sussman, S. (2003) A review of 25 long-term adolescent tobacco and other drug use prevention program evaluations. Preventive Medicine, 37, 451-474.
    • Smith, J. (1996) Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology. Psychology & Health, 11, 261-271.
    • Stockley, C. (2001) The effectiveness of strategies such as health warning labels to reduce alcohol-related harms. International Journal of Drug Policy, 12, 153-166.
    • Stritzke, W. & Butt, J. (2001) Motives for drinking alcohol among Australian adolescents: Development and initial validation of a five-factor scale. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 633- 649.
    • Sudman, S. & Bradburn, N. (1974) Response Effects in Surveys. Chicago: Aldine.
    • Thompson, M., Zanna, M., & Griffin, D. (1995). Let's not be indifferent about (attitudinal) ambivalence. In R. Petty & J. Krosnick (Eds.) Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 361-386.
    • Werch, C., Ross, C., Anzalone, D. & Meers, B. (1994) Stage of alcohol and drug use among young adults. Health Values, 18, 41-49.
    • Williams, A. & Clark, D. (1998) Alcohol consumption in university students: The role of reasons for drinking, coping strategies, expectancies, and personality traits. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 371-378.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article