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Elaiab, Fatima M. (2014)
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
The main aim of this research is to investigate occupants’ thermal comfort and energy performance of multi-storey residential buildings in one of the major cities in Libya (Darnah). The work was implemented in stages as follows:\ud \ud 1. Gathering and analysing real weather data from a number of locations in Libya.\ud \ud 2. Gathering and analysing building data from residential multi-storey blocks in Darnah.\ud \ud 3. Conducting preliminary computer analyses using the above information to get a better idea about thermal conditions inside multi-storey block flats in Darnah.\ud \ud 4. Visiting Darnah and collecting real data using specifically designed survey or questionnaire forms to understand and assess how people feel while living inside their flats.\ud \ud 5. Analysing the computer results and field data and trying to come up with solutions to improve existing multi-storey blocks in terms of indoor climate and energy consumption and introducing guidelines for designers of new buildings in Libya.\ud \ud The subjective data was collected and tabulated by using a questionnaire, which has been widely used and shown to be effective, to determine people's responds through questions modified especially for the comfort purpose. Questionnaires were collected from households of 12 buildings: involving a total of 337 flats. The questionnaires compare the significance of the thermal sensation, the thermal comfort, and the building design. The results show that the thermal comfort is not satisfied, unless modified, and improving take place in these case study buildings. Thus a modification is proposed, the results from the present study show also that the insulation material is essential in this type of climate and can help to reduce up to 63% of heat gain and a reduction of 6 degrees of indoor temperature. Results also indicate that the construction of residential dwellings using existing materials is less conducive to the climatic conditions of hot dry climates and not suitable for the occupants’ requirements of comfort. Human thermal comfort was assessed using the adaptive model, to show that the climate and building’s envelope have a significant impact on human comfort perception and indoor environment. This research is mainly aimed at "explaining" the trends in the energy flows within buildings under the climatic conditions of Mediterranean zones and to establish a comfort zone for occupants within this type of climate. The results should help in the formulation of design guidelines for use in the process of building design by builders, architects and engineers. Also this research is in line with the Libyan’s government aim to make better use of renewable energy sources such as the sun for keeping buildings comfortable for their occupants.
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    • 1. ASHRAE = American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
    • 2. BRE = Building Regulation Environment
    • 3. CIBSE = Chartered Institution of Building Services Engine
    • 4. ISO = International Organization for Standardization.
    • 5. NAIMA = North American Insulation Manufactures Association
    • 6. ECM = Energy Conservation Management
    • 7. URSA = is an astronomical association in Finland that founded in 1921
    • 8. Quadrillion Btu = the amount of energy in 45 million tons of coal or 1 trillion feet of natural gas.
    • 9. SET = Standard Effective Temperature
    • 10. PPV = Predicted Mean Vote
    • 11. PPD = Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied
    • 12. IEQ = Indoor Environmental Quality
    • 13. SVF= Sky View Factor
    • 14. Met = Metabolic rate, [W/m2]
    • 15. Clo = Thermal resistance of clothing [1 Clo = 0.155 m². °C/W]
    • 16. Pa = Water vapour partial pressure
    • 17. Qc = Conduction heat gain or loss, [W]
    • 18. Qe = Evaporative heat loss, [W]
    • 19. Qi = Internal heat gain, [W]
    • 20. Qs = Solar heat gain, [W]
    • 21. Qv = Ventilation heat gain or loss, [W]
    • 22. Ar = Air temperature
    • 23. Tav = Average temperature
    • 24. tc = Comfort temperature
    • 25. TL = Lower limit temperature
    • 26. TU = Upper temperature
    • 27. Tn = Neutral temperature
    • 28. toe = Operative comfort temperature
    • 29. tin = Inside temperature
    • 30. tout = Outside temperature
    • 31. AC = Air Conditioning
    • 32. FR = Free running building
    • 33. RH = Relative humidity
    • 34. MRT = Mean radiant temperature
    • 35. RT= Resultant temperature
    • 36. NV = Natural Ventilation
    • 37. TAS = Thermal Analysis Software G T G T G T
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