Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Valente, Christine (2011)
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Sheffield
Languages: English
Types: Book
This paper considers the impact of exposure to civil conflict on health inputs and outcomes from conception to age five, using the recent Maoist insurgency in Nepal as a case study. Conflict intensity is measured by the number of conflict deaths by district and month and merged with pregnancy histories from the 2001 and 2006 Demographic and Health Surveys. Within-mother estimates show that civil conflict increases the likelihood of miscarriage, so that exposure to conflict in utero has not only a scarring effect but also a selection effect on survivors, most likely due to a combination of maternal stress and malnutrition.\ud
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude. 2009. “Children of war: The long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children.” IZA Discussion Paper No. 4407.
    • Akresh, R., L. Lucchetti, and H. Thirumurthy. 2010. “Wars and Child Health: Evidence from the Eritrean-Ethiopian Conflict.” IZA Discussion Paper No. 5558.
    • Alderman, H., J. Hoddinott, and B. Kinsey. 2006. “Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition.” Oxford Economic Papers, 58(3): 450-474.
    • Almond, D., L. Edlund, and M. Palme. 2009. “Chernobyl's subclinical legacy: prenatal exposure to radioactive fallout and school outcomes in Sweden.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(4): 1729-1772.
    • Almond, Douglas. 2006. “Is the 1918 influenza pandemic over? Long-term effects of in utero influenza exposure in the post-1940 US population.” Journal of Political Economy, 114(4): 672-712.
    • Almond, Douglas, Lena Edlund, Hongbin Li, and Junsen Zhang. 2010. “Longterm effects of the 1959-1961 China famine: Mainland China and Hong Kong.” , ed. Takatoshi Ito and Andrew K. Rose The Economic Consequences of Demographic Change in East Asia, 321-345. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    • Austin, M.P., and L. Leader. 2000. “Maternal stress and obstetric and infant outcomes: epidemiological findings and neuroendocrine mechanisms.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 40(3): 331-337.
    • Black, S.E., P.J. Devereux, and K.G. Salvanes. 2005. “The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2): 669-700.
    • Blattman, Christopher, and Edward Miguel. 2010. “Civil war.” Journal of Economic Literature, 48(1): 3-57.
    • Bohara, A.K., N.J. Mitchell, and M. Nepal. 2006. “Opportunity, democracy, and the exchange of political violence.” Journal of conflict resolution, 50(1): 108-128.
    • Bohra-Mishra, P., and D.S. Massey. 2011. “Individual Decisions to Migrate During Civil Conflict.” Demography, 1-24.
    • Bozzoli, C., A. Deaton, and C. Quintana-Domeque. 2009. “Adult height and childhood disease.” Demography, 46(4): 647-669.
    • Bundervoet, T., Verwimp, P., & Akresh, R. 2009. “Health and civil war in rural Burundi.” Journal of Human Resources, 44(2): 536-63.
    • Cai, Y., and W. Feng. 2005. “Famine, social disruption, and involuntary fetal loss: evidence from Chinese survey data.” Demography, 42(2): 301-322.
    • Camacho, Adriana. 2008. “Stress and birth weight: evidence from terrorist attacks.” The American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 98(2): 511-515.
    • Cliver, S.P., R.L. Goldenberg, G.R. Cutter, H.J. Hoffman, R.L. Copper, S.J. Gotlieb, and R.O. Davis. 1992. “The relationships among psychosocial profile, maternal size, and smoking in predicting fetal growth retardation.” Obstetrics & Gynecology, 80(2): 262.
    • Cnattingius, S., B. Haglund, and M.S. Kramer. 1998. “Differences in late fetal death rates in association with determinants of small for gestational age fetuses: population based cohort study.” BMJ, 316(7143): 1483.
    • Collins, S. 2006. “Assessing the health implications of Nepal's ceasefire.” Lancet, 368: 907-908.
    • Dehejia, Rajeev, and Adriana Lleras-Muney. 2004. “Booms, Busts, and Babies' Health.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 119(3): 1091-1130.
    • Devkota, Madhu Dixit. 2005. “Nepal Health Sector Program.” Nepal: World Bank Health Nutrition and Population.
    • Do, Q.T., and L. Iyer. 2010. “Geography, Poverty and Conflict in Nepal.” Journal of Peace Research, 47(6): 735-748.
    • Fukuda, M., K. Fukuda, T. Shimizu, and H. Møller. 1998. “Decline in sex ratio at birth after Kobe earthquake.” Human reproduction, 13(8): 2321-2322.
    • Fukuda, M., K. Fukuda, T. Shimizu, M. Nobunaga, A. Grete Byskov, and C. Yding Andersen. 2011. “The sex ratio of offspring is associated with the mothers age at menarche.” Human Reproduction, 26(6): 1551-1554.
    • Garcia-Enguidanos, A., ME Calle, J. Valero, S. Luna, and V. DominguezRojas. 2002. “Risk factors in miscarriage: a review.” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 102(2): 111-119.
    • Glewwe, P., and E. Miguel. 2008. “The impact of child health and nutrition on education in less developed countries..” , ed. Theodor Schultz and John Strauss Vol. 4 of Handbook of Development Economics, Chapter 56, 3561-3606. Amsterdam: North Holland Press.
    • Glynn, L.M., P.D. Wadhwa, C. Dunkel-Schetter, A. Chicz-DeMet, and C.A. Sandman. 2001. “When stress happens matters: effects of earthquake timing on stress responsivity in pregnancy.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 184(4): 637-642.
    • Helgstrand, Stine, and Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen. 2005. “Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion.” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 84(12): 1197-1201.
    • Herrmann, Tracy S., Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Calvin J. Hobel, Chandra Aurora, and Christine Dunkel-Schetter. 2001. “Prolonged periods without food intake during pregnancy increase risk for elevated maternal corticotropin-releasing hormone concentrations.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 185(2): 403- 412.
    • Hobel, C.J., C. Dunkel-Schetter, S.C. Roesch, L.C. Castro, and C.P. Arora. 1999. “Maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone associated with stress at 20 weeks' gestation in pregnancies ending in preterm delivery.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180(1): S257-S263.
    • Human Rights Watch. 2004. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Civilians Struggle to Survive in Nepal's Civil War.” http: // www. hrw. org/ en/ reports/ 2004/ 10/ 06/ between-rock-and-hard-place? print . Accessed 10th Feb 2011.
    • Macours, K. 2011. “Increasing inequality and civil conflict in Nepal.” Oxford Economic Papers, 63(1): 1-26.
    • Mansour, Hani, and Daniel I. Rees. 2011. “The Effect of Prenatal Stress on Birth Weight: Evidence from the al-Aqsa Intifada.” IZA Discussion Paper No. 5535.
    • Martorell, R., and J.P. Habicht. 1986. “Growth in early childhood in developing countries.” Human growth: a comprehensive treatise, , ed. F. Faulkner and J. Tanner Vol. 3. 2nd ed., 241-262. New York:Plenum Press.
    • Meng, Xin, and Nancy Qian. 2009. “The Long Term Consequences of Famine on Survivors: Evidence from a Unique Natural Experiment using China's Great Famine.” NBER Working Paper No. w14917.
    • Menon, N., and Y. Rodgers. 2011. “War and Women's Work: Evidence from the conflict in Nepal.” Rutgers University. Mimeograph.
    • Miller, G., and B.P. Urdinola. 2010. “Cyclicality, Mortality, and the Value of Time: The Case of Coffee Price Fluctuations and Child Survival in Colombia.” Journal of Political Economy, 118(1).
    • MOHP, New Era and Macro International Inc. 2007. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2006. Kathmandu, Nepal:Ministry of Health and Population (Kathmandu, Nepal), New ERA, Macro International Inc.
    • MOHP, New Era and ORC Macro. 2002. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2001. Calverton, Maryland, USA:Family Health Division, Ministry of Health; New ERA; and ORC Macro.
    • Mulder, EJH, PG Robles de Medina, AC Huizink, BRH Van den Bergh, JK Buitelaar, and GHA Visser. 2002. “Prenatal maternal stress: effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child.” Early human development, 70(1-2): 3-14.
    • Murshed, S.M., and S. Gates. 2005. “Spatial-horizontal inequality and the Maoist insurgency in Nepal.” Review of Development Economics, 9(1): 121-134.
    • Nepomnaschy, P.A., K.B. Welch, D.S. McConnell, B.S. Low, B.I. Strassmann, and B.G. England. 2006. “Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(10): 3938.
    • Ojeda, G., M. Ordonez, L. H. Ochoa, B. Samper, and F. Sanchez. 2005. Salud Sexual y Reproductiva en Colombia - Resultados Encuesta Nacional de Demografia y Salud. Profamilia (Bogota, Colombia), Macro International Inc (Calverton, Maryland, USA).
    • Painter, R.C., T.J. Roseboom, and O.P. Bleker. 2005. “Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine and disease in later life: an overview.” Reproductive Toxicology, 20(3): 345-352.
    • Rajab, KE, AM Mohammad, and F. Mustafa. 2000. “Incidence of spontaneous abortion in Bahrain before and after the Gulf War of 1991.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 68(2): 139-144.
    • Roseboom, T.J., J.H.P. Van der Meulen, A.C.J. Ravelli, C. Osmond, D.J.P. Barker, and O.P. Bleker. 2001. “Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview.” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 185(1-2): 93-98.
    • Rosenfeld, C.S., and R.M. Roberts. 2004. “Maternal diet and other factors affecting offspring sex ratio: a review.” Biology of Reproduction, 71(4): 1063-1070.
    • Sandman, C.A., L. Glynn, C.D. Schetter, P. Wadhwa, T. Garite, A. ChiczDeMet, and C. Hobel. 2006. “Elevated maternal cortisol early in pregnancy predicts third trimester levels of placental corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH): priming the placental clock.” Peptides, 27(6): 1457-1463.
    • Siega-Riz, Anna Maria, Tracy S. Herrmann, David A. Savitz, and John M. Thorp. 2001. “Frequency of eating during pregnancy and its effect on preterm delivery.” American journal of epidemiology, 153(7): 647.
    • Stein, Z., and M. Susser. 1975. “The Dutch famine, 1944-1945, and the reproductive process. I. Effects on six indices at birth.” Pediatric Research, 9(2): 70-hyhen.
    • Strauss, John, and Duncan Thomas. 2008. “Health Over the Life Course..” , ed. Theodor Schultz and John Strauss Vol. 4 of Handbook of Development Economics, Chapter 54, 3375-3474. Amsterdam: North Holland Press.
    • Trivers, R.L., and D.E. Willard. 1973. “Natural selection of parental ability to vary the sex ratio of offspring.” Science, 179(4068): 90.
    • US Agency for International Development. 2007. “Nepal - Humanitarian Assistance Fact Sheet No. 1, June.” http: // pdf. usaid. gov/ pdf_ docs/ PNADJ147. pdf . Accessed 5th May 2010.
    • Wadhwa, P.D., T.J. Garite, M. Porto, L. Glynn, A. Chicz-DeMet, C. DunkelSchetter, and C.A. Sandman. 2004. “Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), spontaneous preterm birth, and fetal growth restriction: a prospective investigation.” American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 191(4): 1063-1069.
    • Wisborg, K., A. Barklin, M. Hedegaard, and T.B. Henriksen. 2008. “Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 115(7): 882-885.
    • Wooldridge, J.M. 2002. Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. Cambridge, MA, USA:MIT press.
    • World Bank. 2005. “Nepal - Resilience amidst conflict: an assessment of poverty in Nepal, 1995-96 and 2003-04.” World Bank Report No. 34834-NP.
    • n f . 0
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok