Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Williams, David M.; Bergström, Zara M; Grainger, Catherine (2016)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF
Among neurotypical adults, errors made with high confidence (i.e., errors a person strongly believed they would not make) are corrected more reliably than errors made with low confidence. This “hypercorrection effect” is thought to result from enhanced attention to information that reflects a “metacognitive mismatch” between one’s beliefs and reality. In Experiment 1, we employed a standard measure of this effect. Participants answered general knowledge questions and provided confidence judgements about how likely each answer was to be correct, after which feedback was given. Finally, participants were retested on all questions answered incorrectly during the initial phase. Mindreading ability and ASD-like traits were measured. We found that a representative sample of (n = 83) neurotypical participants made accurate confidence judgements (reflecting good metacognition) and showed the hypercorrection effect. Mindreading ability was associated with ASD-like traits and metacognition. However, the hypercorrection effect was non-significantly associated with mindreading or ASD-like traits. In Experiment 2, 11 children with ASD and 11 matched comparison participants completed the hypercorrection task. Although ASD children showed significantly diminished metacognitive ability, they showed an undiminished hypercorrection effect. The evidence in favour of an undiminished hypercorrection effect (null result) was moderate, according to Bayesian analysis (Bayes factor = 0.21).
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing
    • Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., & Plumb. I. (2001a). The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42(2):241-252
    • Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001b). The AutismSpectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5-17.
    • Bowler, D. M. (2007). Autism spectrum disorder. Psychological theory and research. Chichester: Wiley.
    • Brosnan, M., Johnson, H., Grawemeyer, B., Chapman, E., Antoniadou, K., & Hollinworth, M. (2016). Deficits in metacognitive monitoring in mathematics assessments in learners with autism spectrum disorder. Autism: International Journal of Research and Practice, 20(4) 463 472.
    • Brunsdon, V. E. A., & Happé, F. (2014). Exploring the 'fractionation' of autism at the cognitive level. Autism, 18(1), 17-30.
    • Butler, A. C., Fazio, L. K., & Marsh, E. J. (2011). The hypercorrection effect persists over a week, but high-confidence errors return. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18(6), 1238 1244.
    • Butterfield, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2001). Errors committed with high confidence are hypercorrected. Journal of 1491 1494.Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27,
    • Butterfield, B., & Mangels, J. A. (2003). Neural correlates of error detection and correction in a semantic retrieval task. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 793-817.
    • Butterfield, B., & Metcalfe, J. (2006). The correction of errors committed with high confidence. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 1556-1623.
    • Carruthers, P. (2009). How we know our own minds: The relationship between mindreading and metacognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(2), 121-138.
    • Carruthers, P. (2011). The Opacity of Mind. Oxford University Press.
    • Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    • Constantino, J.N, & Gruber, C.P (2012). Social Responsiveness Scale, Second Edition (SRS-2). Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.
    • Cooper, R., Plaisted-Grant, K., Baron-Cohen, S., & Simons, J. (2016). Reality Monitoring and Metamemory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46, 2186-2198.
    • Dienes, Z. (2008). Understanding Psychology as a Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Statistical Inference. Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Dienes, Z. (2014). Using Bayes to get the most out of non-significant results. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 781.
    • Eich, T. S., Stern, Y., & Metcalfe, J. (2013). The hypercorrection effect in younger and older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 20(5), 511-521.
    • Estes, A., Rivera, V., Bryan, M., Cali, P., & Dawson, G. (2011). Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(8), 1044-1052.
    • Fazio, L. K., & Marsh, E. J. (2009). Surprising feedback improves later memory.
    • Fazio, L. K., & Marsh, E. J. (2010). Correcting false memories. Psychological Science, 21, 801 803.
    • Frazier, T. W., Ratliff, K. R., Gruber, C., Zhang, Y., Law, P. A., & Constantino, J. N. (2014). Confirmatory factor analytic structure and measurement invariance of quantitative autistic traits measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2. Autism, 18(1), 31-44.
    • Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1999). Theory of mind and self-consciousness: What is it like to be autistic? Mind and Language, 14, 1 22.
    • Goldman, A. (2006). Simulating minds. Oxford University Press.
    • Goodman, L. A., & Kruskal, W. H. (1954). Measures of association for cross classifications. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49(268), 732-764.
    • Grainger, C., Williams, D.M. & Lind, S.E. (2016). Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy. Consciousness And Cognition, 42, 65-74.
    • Griffin, C., Lombardo, M., & Auyeung, B. (2015). Alexythimia in children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, doi: 10.1002/aur.1569.
    • Hartwig, M. K., & Dunlosky, J. (2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134.
    • Iwaki, N., Matsushima, H., & Kodaira, K. (2013). Hypercorrection of high confidence errors in lexical representations. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 117, 219 235.
    • Jones, C. R., Happé, F., Golden, H., Marsden, A. J., Tregay, J., Simonoff, E.,... & Charman, T. (2009). Reading and arithmetic in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: Peaks and dips in attainment. Neuropsychology, 23(6), 718-728.
    • McMahon, C., Henderson, H., Newell, L. , Jamie, M., & Mundy, P. (2016). Metacognitive awareness of facial affect in higher-functioning children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(3), 882-898. along? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 37, 437-448.
    • Metcalfe, J., & Finn, B. (2012). Hypercorrection of high confidence errors in children. Learning and Instruction, 22, 253 261.
    • Metcalfe, J., Butterfield, B., Habeck, C., & Stern, Y. (2012 hypercorrection of their false beliefs. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24(7), 1571-1583.
    • Metcalfe, J., & Miele, D. B. (2014). Hypercorrection of high confidence errors: Prior testing both enhances delayed performance and blocks the return of the errors. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3, 189 197
    • Goodman, L. A., & Kruskal, W. H. (1954). Measures of association for cross classifications. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49(268), 732-764.
    • Nelson, T. O., & Narens, L. (1980). Norms of 300 general-information questions: Accuracy of recall, latency of recall, and felling-ofknowing ratings. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 338 368.
    • Nichols, S., & Stich, S. P. (2003). Mindreading: An integrated account of pretence, self-awareness, and understanding other minds. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.
    • Peterson, C., Wellman, H., & Liu, D. (2005). Steps in theory of mind development for children with deafness or autism." Child Development 76(2), 502-517.
    • Ring, M., Gaigg, S. B. & Bowler, D. M. (2016). Relational Memory Processes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Research, 9(1), pp. 97-106.
    • Roebers, C. M., Cimeli, P., Roethlisberger, M., & Neuenschwander, R. (2012). Executive functioning, metacognition, and self-perceived competence in elementary school children: An explorative study on their interrelations and their role for school achievement. Metacognition and Learning, 7, 151 173.
    • Sawyer, A. C., Williamson, P., & Young, R. (2014). Metacognitive processes in emotion recognition: are they different in adults with Asperger's disorder? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44(6), 1373-1382.
    • Schurz, M. Radua, J., Aichhorn, M., Richlana, F., & Perner, J. (2014). Fractionating theory-of-mind: A meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 42, 9 34.
    • Sitzman, D. M., Rhodes, M. G., & Tauber, S. K. (2014). Prior knowledge is more predictive of error correction than subjective confidence. Memory & Cognition, 42, 84 96.
    • Sitzman, D. M., Rhodes, M. G., Tauber, S. K & Liceralde, R. T. (2015). The role of prior knowledge in error correction for younger and older adults, Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition: A Journal on Normal and Dysfunctional Development, DOI: 10.1080/13825585.2014.993302
    • Thiede, K. W. (1999). The importance of monitoring and self-regulation during multitrial learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6(4), 662-667.
    • Veenman, M. V., Kok, R., & Blöte, A. W. (2005). The relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills in early adolescence. Instructional Science, 33(3), 193-211.
    • Wechsler, D. (2011). Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition. New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation.
    • Wilkinson, D. A., Best, C. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2010). Memory Awareness for Faces in Individuals with Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(11), 1371- 1377.
    • Williams, D.M. (2010). Theory of own mind in autism Evidence of a specific deficit in selfawareness? Autism, 14(5), 474-494.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article