Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Papdakis, G; Mania, K; Coxon, M; Koutrolis, E (2011)
Publisher: ACM
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: BF, QA75
This paper presents an experimental methodology exploring the effect of tracking latency on object recognition after exposure to an immersive VE, in terms of both scene context and associated awareness states. System latency (time delay) and its visible consequences are fundamental Virtual Environment (VE) deficiencies that can hamper spatial awareness and memory. The immersive simulation consisted of a radiosity-rendered space divided in three zones including a kitchen/dining area, an office area and a lounge area. The space was populated by objects consistent as well as inconsistent with each zone's context. The simulation was displayed on a stereo head-tracked Head Mounted Display. Participants across two conditions of varying latency (system minimum latency vs added latency condition) were exposed to the VE and completed an object-based memory recognition task. Participants also reported one of three states of awareness following each recognition response which reflected either the recollection of contextual detail, the sense of familiarity unaccompanied by contextual information or even informed guesses. Preliminary results from initial pilot studies reveal better memory performance of objects in the low latency condition. A disproportionately large proportion of guess responses for consistent objects viewed with high latency is also observed and correspondingly a disproportionately low proportion of remember responses for consistent objects in the same latency condition.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • BLISS, J.P., TIDWELL, P.D., GUEST, M.A. 1997. The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality for Administering Spatial Navigation Training to Firefighters. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(1), MIT Press, 73-86.
    • BRANDT, K.R., GARDINER, J.M., & MACRAE, C.N. 2006. The distinctiveness effect in forenames: The role of subjective experiences and recognition memory. British Journal of Psychology 269-280.
    • BREWER, W.F. & TREYENS, J. 1981. Role of Schemata in Memory for Places. Cognitive Psychology, 1981, 13, 207-230.
    • CONWAY, M.A., ET AL. 1997. Changes in Memory Awareness During Learning: The Acquisition of Knowledge by Psychology Undergraduates. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 126(4), 393 - 413.
    • CUNNINGHAM D.W., BILLOCK V.A., TSOU B.H. 2001. Sensorimotor adaptation to violations in temporal contiguity. Psychological Science, 12, 6, 532-535.
    • CUNNINGHAM D.W., CHATZIASTROS A., VON DER HEYDE M., BULTHOFF H.H. 2001. Driving in the future: Temporal visuomotor adaptation and generalization. Journal of Vision, 1, 88- 98.
    • DAVENPORT, J.L. & POTTER, M.C. 2004. Scene Consistency in Object and Background Perception. Psychological Science, 15(8), pp.559-564
    • ELLIS S.R., ADELSTEIN B.D., BAUMLER S., JENSE G.J., JACOBY R.H. 1999. Sensor spatial distortion, visual latency, and update rate effects on 3D tracking in virtual environments. Proceedings of VR '99, pp. 218-221.
    • ELLIS S.R., BRÉANT K., MENGES B.M., ADELSTEIN B.D. 1997. Operator interaction with virtual objects: effects of system latency. Proceedings HCI International, 973-976.
    • ELLIS S.R., MANIA K., ADELSTEIN B.D., HILL M. 2004. Generalizability of latency detection in a variety of virtual environments. 48th Annual Meeting Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, New Orleans.
    • ELLIS S.R., WOLFRAM A., ADELSTEIN B.D. 2002. Large amplitude three-dimensional tracking in augmented environments: a human performance trade-off between system latency and update rate. Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2149-2154.
    • FINK, W., FOO, P.S., WARREN, W. 2007. Obstacle avoidance during walking in real and virtual environments, ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 4(1).
    • GARDINER, J.M. AND RICHARDSON-KLAVENHN, A. 1992. Remembering and Knowing. In: Tulving, E. and Craik, F. I. M., eds. 1992. Handbook of Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • GARRET A., AGUILAR M., BARNIV Y. 2002. A recurrent neural network approach to virtual environment latency reduction. Proceedings, IJCNN, Honolulu, HI.
    • HELD R., EFSTATHIOU A., GREENE M. 1966. Adaptation to displaced and delayed visual feedback from the hand. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72, 6, 887-891.
    • HOLINGWORTH, A. & HENDERSON, J.M. 1998. Does consistent scene context facilitate object perception Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127(4), 398-415.
    • KENNEDY R.S., LANE N.E., LILIENTHAL M.G., BERBAUM K. S., HETTINGER L.J. 1992. Profile analysis of simulator sickness symptoms: application to virtual environment systems. Presence, 1 (3), 295-301.
    • KORIAT, A., GOLDSMITH, M. 1994. Memory in Naturalistic and Laboratory Contexts: Distinguishing the accuracy oriented and quantity oriented approaches to memory assessment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 297-315.
    • LEVINE, B., BLACK, S.E., CABEZA, R., SINDEN, M., MCINTOSCH, A.R., TOTH, J.P., ET AL (1998). Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia. Brain, 121, 1951-1973.
    • LIU A., THARP G., LAI S., FRENCH L., STARK L.W. 1993. Some of what one needs to know about using head-mounted displays to improve teleoperator performance. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 9, 5, 638-48.
    • MANIA K., ADELSTEIN B.D., ELLIS S.R., HILL M. 2004. Generalizability of latency detection in a variety of virtual environments. Submitted to First Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, ACM-SIGGRAPH, Los Angeles, August.
    • MANIA K., ADELSTEIN B.D., ELLIS S.R., HILL M. 2004. Perceptual sensitivity to head tracking latency in virtual environments with varying degrees of scene complexity. Proceedings of ACM Siggraph Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, 39-47, ACM Press.
    • MANIA K., BADARIAH S., COXON M. 2010. Cognitive transfer of training from immersive virtual environments to reality. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ACM Press, 7(2), 9:1- 9:14, ACM Press.
    • MANIA K., TROSCIANKO T., HAWKES R., A. CHALMERS 2003. Fidelity metrics for virtual environment simulations based on spatial memory awareness states. Presence, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 12(3), 296-310. MIT Press.
    • MANIA K., WOOLDRIDGE D., COXON M., ROBINSON A. 2006. The effect of visual and interaction fidelity on spatial cognition in immersive virtual environments. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics journal, 12(3): 396-404.
    • MANIA, K., ROBINSON, A., BRANDT. K. 2005. The Effect of Memory Schemas on Object Recognition in Virtual Environments. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(1), 73-86, MIT Press.
    • MCCABE, D.P., & GERACI, L.D. (2009). The influence of instructions and terminology on the accuracy of remember-know judgements. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 401-413.
    • MEEHAN M., RAZZAQUE S., WHITTON M.C., BROOKS JR F.P. 2003. Effect of latency on presence in stressful virtual environments. Proceedings, IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, Los Angeles, pp. 141-148.
    • MOURKOUSSIS, N., RIVERA, F., TROSCIANKO, T., DIXON, T., HAWKES, R., MANIA, K. 2010. Quantifying Fidelity for Virtual Environment simulations employing memory schema assumptions. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 8(1), 2:2-2:21, ACM Press.
    • MINSKY, M. 1975. A framework for representing knowledge. In P.H. Winston (Ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision. McGraw-Hill.
    • PAPADAKIS, G., MANIA, K., KOUTROULIS, E. To appear 2011. A System to Measure, Control and Minimize end-to-end Head Tracking Latency in Immersive Simulations. The 10th International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and Its Applications in Industry 2011, Hong Kong.
    • PICHERT, J.W., ANDERSON, R.C. 1966. Taking a different perspectives on a story. Journal of Educational Psychology 69, 309- 315. SCHANK, R.C. 1999. Dynamic memory revisited. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press.
    • STANNEY, K.M., MOURANT, R.R., KENNEDY, R.S. 1998. Human factors issues in virtual environments: A review of the literature. Presence, Vol. 7:4, pp. 327-351.
    • TULVING, E. 1992. Elements of Episodic Memory, Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.
    • UNO M., SLATER M. 1997. The sensitivity of presence to collision response. Proceedings of IEEE VRAIS, 95-101, 1997.
    • WALLER, D., HUNT, E., KNAPP. D. 1998. The Transfer of Spatial Knowledge in Virtual Environment Training. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(2), MIT Press.
    • WATSON B., WALKER N., WOYTIUK P., RIBARSKY W. 2003. Maintaining usability during 3D placement despite delay. Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2003, 133-140.
    • WELCH R.B., BLACKMON T.T., LIU A., MELLERS B.A., STARK L.W. 1996. The effects of pictorial realism, delay of visual feedback and observer interactivity on the subjective sense of presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 5, 3, 263-273.
    • WHEELER, M.A. & STUSS, D.T. (2003). Remembering and knowing in patients with frontal lobe injuries. Cortex, 39, 827-846.
    • XVR 2008. VR Media, http://www.vrmedia.it
    • ZOTOS, A., MANIA, K., MOURKOUSSIS, N. 2009. A Schema-based Selective Rendering Framework. ACM Siggraph Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, 85-92, Chania, Crete, Greece.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article