Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Bath, Philip M.W.; Gray, Laura J. (2009)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Background Systematic reviews followed by ameta-analysis\ud are carried out in medical research to combine the results of two or more related studies. Stroke trials have struggled to show beneficial effects and meta-analysis should be used more widely throughout the research process to either speed up the development of useful interventions, or halt more quickly research with hazardous or ineffective interventions.\ud \ud Summary of review. This review summarises the clinical research process and illustrates how and when systematic\ud reviews may be used throughout the development programme.\ud Meta-analyses should be performed after observational\ud studies, preclinical studies in experimental stroke, and\ud after phase I, II, and III clinical trials and phase IV clinical surveillance studies. Although meta-analyses most commonly work with summary data, they may be performed to assess relationships between variables (meta-regression) and, ideally, should utilise individual patient data. Meta-analysis techniques may alsoworkwith ordered categorical outcome data (ordinal meta-analysis) and be used to perform indirect comparisons where original trial data do not exist.\ud \ud Conclusion Systematic review/meta-analyses are powerful\ud tools in medical research and should be used throughout\ud the development of all stroke and other interventions
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Wardlaw JM, Zoppo G, Yamaguchi T, Berge E. Thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2003(3).
    • 2. The ATLANTIS ECASS and NINDS rt-PA Study Group Investigators. Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. The Lancet 2004;363:768-813.
    • 3. Gubitz G, Sandercock P, Counsell C. Antiplatelet therapy for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003(2).
    • 4. Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration. Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002.
    • 5. Vahedi K, Hofimeijer J, Vacaut E, et al. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet Neurology 2007;6:215-22.
    • 6. Lees KR, Muir KW. Excitatory amino acid antagonists for acute stroke (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library. In press ed. Oxford: Update Software, 2002.
    • 7. Gubitz G, Counsell C, Sandercock P. Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004(3).
    • 8. Willmot M, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath PM. High blood pressure in acute stroke and subsequent outcome: a systematic review. Hypertension 2004;43(1):18-24.
    • 9. Sandercock P, Roberts I. Systematic reviews of animal experiments. The Lancet 2002;360:586.
    • 10. Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR). Recommendations for standards regarding preclinical neuroprotective and restorative drug development. Stroke 1999;30:2752- 2758.
    • 11. Horn J, deHaan R, Vermeulen M, Luiten PGM, Limburg M, 2045. Nimodipine in animal model experiments of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 2001;32:2433-2438.
    • 12. Horn J, Limburg L, Orgogozo JM. Calcium antagonists for acute ischemic stroke. The Cochrane Library. 1 ed. Oxford: Update Software, 2001.
    • 13. Willmot M, Gray L, Gibson C, Murphy S, Bath PMW. Systematic review of nitric oxide donors and L-arginine in experimental stroke; effects on infarct size and cerebral blood flow. Nitric Oxide 2005;12:141-9.
    • 14. The ENOS Trial Investigators. Glyceryl trinitrave vs. control, and continuing vs. stopping temporarily prior antihypertensive therapy, in acute stroke: rationale and design of the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial (ISRCTN99414122). International Journal of Stroke 2006;1:245-249.
    • 15. Macleod MR, O'Collins T, Howells DW, Donnan GA. Pooling of animal experimental data reveals influence of study design and publications bias. Stroke 2004;35:1203-08.
    • 16. Sacco RL, DeRosa JT, Haley EC, et al. Glycine antagonist in neuroprotection for patients with acute stroke. GAIN Americas: a randomized controlled trial. J.Am.Med.Assoc. 2001;285:1719- 1728.
    • 17. Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke (IMAGES) Study Investigators. Magnesium for acute stroke (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363:439.
    • 18. The Abciximab in Ischemic Stroke Investigators. Abciximab in acute Ischemic Stroke. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study. Stroke 2000;31:601-609.
    • 19. Abciximab Emergent Stroke Treatment Trial (AbESTT) Investigators. Emergency treatment of Abciximab for treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Results of a randomized phase 2 trial . Stroke 2005;36:880-890.
    • 20. Adams HP, Effron MB, Torner J, et al. Emergency administration of abciximab for the treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke: results of an international phase III trial. Abciximab in emergency treatment of stroke trial (AbESTT-II). Stroke 2007.
    • 21. Leonardi-Bee J, Bath PM, Bousser MG, et al. Dipyridamole for preventing recurrent ischemic stroke and other vascular events: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2005;36(1):162-8.
    • 22. Gandolfo C, Sandercock P, Conti M. Lubeluzole for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002(1).
    • 23. Davis SM, Lees KR, Albers GW, et al. Selfotel in acute ischemic stroke. Possible neurotoxic effects of an NMDA antagonist. Stroke 2000;31:347-354.
    • 24. Davalos A, Castillo J, Alvarez-Sabin J, et al. Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke. An individual patient data pooling analysis of clinical trials. Stroke 2002;33:2850-2857.
    • 25. Whiteley W, Lindley R, Wardlaw J, Sandercock P, on behalf othe IST-3 Collaborative Group. Third International Stroke Trial. International Journal of Stroke 2006;1:172-6.
    • 26. Bath PMW, Bath FJ. Pentoxifylline, propentofylline and pentifylline for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004(3).
    • 27. Bath PMW, Iddenden R, Bath FJ. Low-molecular-weight heparins and heparinoids in acute ischemic stroke - A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Stroke 2000;31(7):1770- 1778.
    • 28. Bath P, Lindenstrom E, Boysen G, et al. Tinzaparin in acute ischaemic stroke (TAIST): a randomised aspirin-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;358:702-710.
    • 29. The Tirilazad International Steering Committee. Tirilazad for acute ischaemic stroke. 2002.
    • 30. Graham GD. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice: a meta analysis of safety data. Stroke 2003;34:2847-2850.
    • 31. Stewart LA, Parmar MK. Meta-analysis of the literature or of individual patient data: is there a difference? Lancet 1993;341:418-422.
    • 32. Staessen JA, Li Y, Thijs L, Want J-G. Blood pressure reduction and cariovascular prevention: An update including the 2003-2004 secondary prevention trials. Hypertension Research 2005;28(5):385-407.
    • 33. Willmot M, Gibson C, Gray L, Murphy S, Bath PMW. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in experimental stroke and their effects on infarct size and cerebral blood flow; a systematic review. Free Rad.Biol.Med. 2005;39(3):412-425.
    • 34. Song F, Altman DG, Glenny A-M, Deeks JJ. Validity of indirect compariosn for estimating efficacy of competing interventions: empirical evidence from published meta-analyses. British Medical Journal 2003;326(ยง):472.
    • 35. Testa L, Zoccai GB, Porto I, et al. Adjusted indirect meta-analysis of aspirin plus warfarin at international normalized ratios 2 to 3 versus aspirin plus clopidogrel after acute coronary syndromes. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:1637-1642.
    • 36. The Optimising Analysis of Stroke Trials (OAST) Collaboration. Can we improve the statistical analysis of stroke trials? Statistical re-analysis of functional outcomes in stroke trials. Stroke 2007;38:1911-1915.
    • 37. Geeganage CM, Bath PMW, Gray LJ, Collier T, Pocock SJ. Optimising the analysis of stroke prevention trials (OAST-P): assessment using ordered rather than dichotomous outcomes? Journal of Human Hypertension 2006;20:S3.
    • 38. Whitehead A, Omar RZ, Higgins JPT, Savaluny E, Turner RM, Thompson SG. Meta-analysis of ordinal outcomes using individual patient data. Statistics in Medicine 2001;20:2243-2260.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article