Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
McGonigle, A.J.S. (2005)
Publisher: The Royal Society
Languages: English
Types: Article
The chemical compositions and emission rates of volcanic gases carry important information about underground magmatic and hydrothermal conditions, with application in eruption forecasting. Volcanic plumes are also studied because of their impacts upon the atmosphere, climate and human health. Remote sensing techniques are being increasingly used in this field because they provide real-time data and can be applied at safe distances from the target, even throughout violent eruptive episodes. However, notwithstanding the many scientific insights into volcanic behaviour already achieved with these approaches, technological limitations have placed firm restrictions upon the utility of the acquired data. For instance, volcanic SO2 emission rate measurements are typically inaccurate (errors can be greater than 100%) and have poor time resolution (ca once per week). Volcanic gas geochemistry is currently being revolutionized by the recent implementation of a new generation of remote sensing tools, which are overcoming the above limitations and are providing degassing data of unprecedented quality. In this article, I review this field at this exciting point of transition, covering the techniques used and the insights thereby obtained, and I speculate upon the breakthroughs that are now tantalizingly close.\ud \ud
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Allard, P., Burton, M. & Mur´e, P. 2005 Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas. Nature 433, 407-410. (doi:10.1038/nature03246.)
    • Bluth, G. J. S., Schnetzler, C. C., Kreuger, A. J. & Walter, L. S. 1993 The contribution of explosive volcanism to global atmospheric sulfur-dioxide concentrations. Nature 366, 327-329. (doi:10. 1038/366327a0.)
    • Bobrowski, N., Ho¨nninger, G., Galle, B. & Platt, U. 2003 Detection of bromine monoxide in a volcanic plume. Nature 423, 273-276. (doi:10.1038/nature01625.)
    • Burton, M. R., Oppenheimer, C., Horrocks, L. A. & Francis, P. W. 2000 Remote sensing of CO2 and H2O emission rates from Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Geology 28, 915-918. (doi:10.1130/ 0091-7613(2000)028!0915:RSOCAHO2.3.CO;2.)
    • Burton, M. R., Allard, P., Mur´e, P. & Oppenheimer, C. 2003 FTIR remote sensing of fractional magma degassing and Mount Etna, Sicily. In Volcanic degassing (ed. C. Oppenheimer, D. M. Pyle & J. Barclay), pp. 281-293. London: The Geological Society.
    • Caltabiano, T., Romano, R. & Budetta, G. 1994 SO2 flux measurements at Mount Etna (Sicily). J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12 809-12 819. (doi:10.1029/94JD00224.)
    • Carn, S. A. & Bluth, G. J. S. 2003 Prodigious sulfur dioxide emissions from Nyamuragira volcano, DR Congo. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2211. (doi:10.1029/2003GL018465.)
    • Carn, S. A., Strow, L. L., de Souza-Machado, S., Edmonds, Y. & Hannon, S. 2005 Quantifying tropospheric volcanic emissions with AIRS: the 2002 eruption of Mt Etna (Italy). Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L02301. (doi:10.1029/2004GL021034.)
    • Daag, A. S. et al. 1996 Monitoring sulfur dioxide emission at Mount Pinatubo. In Fire and mud: eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo Philippines (ed. C. G. Newhall & R. S. Punongbayan), pp. 409-414. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
    • Delmelle, P., Stix, J., Baxter, P. J., Garcia-Alvarez, J. & Barquero, J. 2002 Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. Bull. Volcanol. 64, 423-434. (doi:10.1007/s00445-002- 0221-6.)
    • Edmonds, M., Pyle, D. & Oppenheimer, C. 2001 A model for degassing at the Soufri`ere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies, based on geochemical data. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 186, 159-173. (doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00242-4.)
    • Edmonds, M., Herd, R. A., Galle, B. & Oppenheimer, C. M. 2003a Automated, high timeresolution measurements of SO2 flux at Soufri`ere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Bull. Volcanol. 65, 578-586. (doi:10.1007/s00445-003-0286-x.)
    • Edmonds, M., Oppenheimer, C., Pyle, D. M., Herd, R. A. & Thompson, G. 2003b SO2 emissions from Soufri`ere Hills volcano and their relationship to conduit permeability, hydrothermal interaction and degassing regime. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 124, 23-43. (doi:10.1016/S0377- 0273(03)00041-6.)
    • Fischer, T. P., Morrissey, M. M., Calvache, M. L., Gomez, D., Torres, R., Stix, J. & Williams, S. N. 1994 Correlations between SO2 flux and long-period seismicity at Galeras Volcano. Nature 368, 135-137. (doi:10.1038/368135a0.)
    • Francis, P., Burton, M. & Oppenheimer, C. 1998 Remote measurements of volcanic gas compositions by solar FTIR spectroscopy. Nature 396, 567-570. (doi:10.1038/25115.)
    • Galle, B., Oppenheimer, C., Geyer, A., McGonigle, A. J. S., Edmonds, M. & Horrocks, L. A. 2003 A miniaturised UV spectrometer for remote sensing of SO2 fluxes: a new tool for volcano surveillance. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 119, 241-254. (doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(02)00356-6.)
    • Graf, H. F., Feichter, J. & Langmann, B. 1997 Volcanic sulfur emissions: estimates of source strength and its contribution to the global sulphate distribution. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10 727-10 738. (doi:10.1029/96JD03265.)
    • Kazahaya, K., Shinohara, H., Uto, K., Odai, M., Nakahori, Y., Mori, H., Iino, H., Miyashita, M. & Hirabayashi, J. 2004 Gigantic SO2 emission from Miyakejima volcano, Japan, caused by caldera collapse. Geology 32, 425-428. (doi:10.1130/G20399.1.)
    • Krueger, A. J. 1983 Sighting of El-Chicho´n sulphur-dioxide clouds with the Nimbus-7 total ozone mapping spectrometer. Science 220, 1377-1379.
    • Love, S. P., Goff, F., Counce, D., Siebe, C. & Delgado, H. 1998 Passive infrared spectroscopy of the eruption plume at Popocat´epetl volcano, Mexico. Nature 396, 563-567. (doi:10.1038/25109.)
    • Mather, T. A., Pyle, D. M. & Allen, A. G. 2004 Volcanic source for fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geology 32, 905-908. (doi:10.1130/G20679.1.)
    • McCormick, M. P., Thomason, L. W. & Trepte, C. R. 1995 Atmospheric effects of the Mt Pinatubo eruption. Nature 373, 399-404. (doi:10.1038/373399a0.)
    • McGee, K. A. 1992 The structure, dynamics and chemical composition of non-eruptive plumes from Mt St. Helens, 1980-1988. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 51, 269-282. (doi:10.1016/0377- 0273(92)90127-Y.)
    • McGee, K. A. & Sutton, A. 1994 Eruptive activity at Mount-St-Helens, Washington, USA, 1984-1988-a gas geochemistry perspective. Bull. Volcanol. 56, 435-446. (doi:10.1007/ s004450050053.)
    • McGonigle, A. J. S., Oppenheimer, C., Galle, B., Mather, T. A. & Pyle, D. M. 2002 Walking traverse and scanning DOAS measurements of volcanic gas emission rates. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1985. (doi:10.1029/2002GL015827.)
    • McGonigle, A. J. S., Oppenheimer, C., Galle, B., Edmonds, M., Caltabiano, T., Salerno, G., Burton, M. & Mather, T. A. 2003 Volcanic sulphur dioxide flux measurements at Etna, Vulcano and Stromboli obtained using an automated scanning static ultraviolet spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2455. (doi:10.1029/2002JB002261.)
    • McGonigle, A. J. S., Inguaggiato, S., Aiuppa, A., Hayes, A. R. & Oppenheimer, C. 2005 Accurate measurement of volcanic SO2 flux: determination of plume transport speed and integrated SO2 concentration with a single device. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 6, Q02003.
    • Melnik, O. & Sparks, R. S. J. 1999 Nonlinear dynamics of lava dome extrusion. Nature 402, 37-41. (doi:10.1038/46950.)
    • Newhall, C. G., Power, J. A. & Punongbayan, R. S. 2002 Pinatubo eruption-'To make grow'. Science 295, 1241-1242. (doi:10.1126/science.1069838.)
    • Notsu, K., Mori, T., Igarashi, G., Tohjima, Y. & Wakita, H. 1993 Infrared spectral radiometer: a new tool for remote measurement of SO2 of volcanic gas. Geochem. J. 27, 361-366.
    • O'Dwyer, M., McGonigle, A. J. S., Padgett, M. J., Oppenheimer, C. & Inguaggiato, S. 2003 Real time measurements of volcanic H2S/SO2 ratios by UV spectroscopy. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1652. (doi:10.1029/2003GL017246.)
    • Robock, A. 2000 Volcanic eruptions and climate. Rev. Geophys. 38, 191-219. (doi:10.1029/ 1998RG000054.)
    • Sparks, R. S. J. 2003 Dynamics of magma degassing. In Volcanic degassing (ed. C. Oppenheimer, D. M. Pyle & J. Barclay), pp. 5-22. London: The Geological Society.
    • Stix, J. et al. 1993 A model of degassing at Galeras volcano, Colombia, 1988-1993. Geology 21, 963-967. (doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1993)021!0963:AMODAGO2.3.CO;2.)
    • Stoiber, R. E., Malinconico, L. L. & Williams, S. N. 1983 Use of the correlation spectrometer at volcanoes. In Forecasting volcanic events (ed. H. Tazieff & J. C. Sabroux), pp. 425-444. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    • Stoiber, R. E., Williams, S. N. & Huebert, B. 1987 Annual contribution of sulphur dioxide to the atmosphere by volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 33, 1-8. (doi:10.1016/0377-0273(87)90051-5.)
    • Symonds, R. B., Rose, W. I., Bluth, G. J. S. & Gerlach, T. M. 1994 Volcanic gas studies-methods, results, and applications. Rev. Mineral. 30, 1-66.
    • Symonds, R. B., Gerlach, T. M. & Reed, M. H. 2001 Magmatic gas scrubbing: implications for volcano monitoring. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 108, 303-341. (doi:10.1016/S0377- 0273(00)00292-4.)
    • Thordarson, T., Self, S., Oskarsson, N. & Hulsebosch, T. 1996 Sulfur, chlorine and fluorine degassing and atmospheric loading by the 1783-1784 AD Laki (Skaftar fires) eruption in Iceland. Bull. Volcanol. 58, 205-225. (doi:10.1007/s004450050136.)
    • Wallace, P. J. 2001 Volcanic SO2 emissions and the abundance and distribution of exsolved gas in magma bodies. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 108, 85-106. (doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(00)00279-1.)
    • Watson, I. M. et al. 2000 The relationship between degassing and deformation at Soufri`ere Hills volcano, Montserrat. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 98, 117-126. (doi:10.1016/S0377- 0273(99)00187-0.)
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article