Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Jones, RL; Stellingwerff, T; Artioli, GG; Saunders, B; Cooper, S; Sale, C (2016)
Publisher: Human Kinetics
Languages: English
Types: Article
To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium 20 bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion is commonplace. The individualised dose-response relationship 21 between NaHCO3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the 22 bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23±2 23 years; 78.6±15.1 kg) attended three randomised order-balanced, non-blinded sessions, ingesting a single 24 dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g.kg-1BM of NaHCO3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was 25 obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 h, then every 15 min for a further 2 h. There was a significant 26 main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (P≤0.001). Blood analyte 27 responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g.kg-1BM compared with 0.2 g.kg-1BM; bicarbonate 28 concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g.kg-1BM (P≤0.01). Bicarbonate 29 concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the 30 greater the increase. Large inter-individual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in 31 bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L-1 for 0.1, 0.2 32 and 0.3 g.kg-1BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 33 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g.kg-1BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalisation 34 to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO3 supplementation and clearly 35 show the need for athletes to individualise their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages prior to 36 competition.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Afman, G., Garside, R.M., Dinan. N., Gant. N., Betts, J.A., & Williams, C. (2014). Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test. International Journal of Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism, 24, 6, 632-644.
    • Barbosa, L., Vera, H., Moran, S., Del Prado, M., & Lopez Alarcon, M. (2005). Reproducibility and reliability of the 13C-acetate breath test to measure gastric emptying of liquid meal in infants. Nutrition, 21, 289-294.
    • Forbes, S.C., Raymer, G.H., Kowalchuk, J.M., & Marsh, G.D. (2005). NaHCO3-induced alkalosis reduces the phosphocreatine slow component during heavy intensity forearm exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99, 1668-1675.
    • Gannon, M.C., Nuttall, F.Q., Westphal, S.A., Neil, B.J., & Seaquist, E.R. (1989). Effects of dose of ingested glucose on plasma metabolite and hormone responses in type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care, 12, 544-552.
    • Heigenhauser, G.J.F. (1991). Ergogenic enhancement of performance in exercise and sport: Bicarbonate loading. In: D. R. Lamb and M. H. Williams (Ed.), Prospective in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine (Vol. 4; pp. 183-212). Carmel, In: Cooper Publishing Group LLC.
    • Hill, A.V. & Lupton, H. (1923). Muscular exercise, lactic acid, and the supply and utilization of oxygen.
    • QJM, 16, 135-171.
    • Joyce, S., Minahan, C., Anderson, M., & Osborne, M. (2011). Acute and chronic loading of sodium bicarbonate in highly trained swimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, 1-9.
    • Kahle, L., Kelly, P., Eliot, K., & Weiss, E. (2013). Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress. Nutrition Research, 33, 479-86.
    • Maughan, R.J., King, D.S., & Lea, T. (2004). Dietary supplements. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 95- 113.
    • McNaughton, L.R. (1992). Bicarbonate ingestion: Effects of dosage on 60s cycle ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences, 10, 415-423.
    • McNaughton, L.R., Siegler, J.C., & Midgley, A. (2008). The ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate.
    • Current Sports Medicine Reports, 7, 230-236.
    • Paintaud, G., Thibault, P., Queneau, P.E., Magnette, J., Berard, M., Rumbach, L., Bechtel, P.R., & Carayon, P. (1998). Intraindividual variability of paracetamol absorption kinetics after a semisolid meal in healthy subjects. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 53, 355-359.
    • Peart, D., Siegler, J., & Vince, R. (2012). Practical recommendations for coaches and athletes: a metaanalysis of sodium bicarbonate use for athletic performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26, 1975-1983.
    • Pilegaard, H., Domino, K., Noland, T., Juel C., Hellsten Y. & Halestrap A.P. (1999). Effect of highintensity exercise training on lactate/H transport capacity in human skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 276, 2, 255-261.
    • Price, M.J., & Singh, M. (2008). Time course of blood bicarbonate and pH three hours after sodium bicarbonate ingestion. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3, 240-242.
    • Renfree, A. (2007). The time course for changes in plasma [H+] after sodium bicarbonate ingestion.
    • International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2, 323-326.
    • Robergs, R.A. (2002). Blood acid-base buffering: explanation of the effectiveness of bicarbonate and citrate ingestion. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 5, 3, 1-5.
    • Sale, C., Hill, C.A., Ponte, J., & Harris, R.C. (2012). β-alanine Supplementation Improves Isometric Endurance of the Knee Extensor Muscles. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 9, 1, 26.
    • Sale, C., Saunders, B., Hudson, S., Wise, J.A., Harris, R.C., & Sunderland, C.D. (2011). Effect of β- alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43 (10), 1972-1978.
    • Saunders, B., Sale, C., Harris, R.C., & Sunderland, C. (2014a). Effect of sodium bicarbonate and Betaalanine on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24, 196-205.
    • Saunders, B., Sale, C., Harris, R.C., & Sunderland, C. (2014b). Sodium Bicarbonate and High-IntensityCycling Capacity: Variability in Responses. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 9, 627-632.
    • Siegler, J.C., Marshall, P.W.M., Bray, J., & Towlson, C. (2012). Sodium bicarbonate supplementation and ingestion timing. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 1953-1958.
    • Siegler, J.C., Midgley, A.W., Polman, R.C., & Lever, R. (2010). Effects of various sodium bicarbonate loading protocols on the time-dependent extracellular buffering profile. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 2551-2557.
    • Stellingwerff, T., Boit, M.K., & Res, P.T. (2007). Nutritional strategies to optimize training and racing in middle distance athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, S1, S17-S28.
    • Thomas, C., Perrey, S., Lambert, K., Hugon, G., Mornet, D., & Mercier, J. (2005). Monocarboxylate transporters, blood lactate removal after supramaximal exercise, and fatigue indexes in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 98, 804-809.
    • Vanhatalo, A., McNaughton, L.R., Siegler, J., & Jones, A.M. (2010). Effect of induced alkalosis on the power-duration relationship for “All-out” Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,, 42, 563-570.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article