Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Szczepura, Ala (2011)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: TX, RA
The role of nutrition is especially important in certain ‘lifestyle’ diseases that impact disproportionately\ud on ethnic minority populations. The aim of this paper is to review the evidence\ud of risk, health outcomes and interventions for certain diseases that affect the UK’s largest\ud ethnic minority group (South Asians) in order to help professionals better address the needs of\ud this diverse population. Research evidence is presented on factors influencing access to services\ud by ethnic minority populations and the changing UK policy background for public health and\ud preventive care. The available research base on obesity, diabetes and CVD is discussed. Conditions\ud such as type 2 diabetes, which are more prevalent among the South Asian population,\ud are associated with poorer health outcomes and appear to exhibit links to diet and nutrition that\ud start in childhood or even before birth; all making preventive care important. Obesity is a\ud major risk factor and it appears that BMI thresholds may need to be lower for South Asians.\ud Targeted interventions to improve diet and outcomes in the South Asian population also appear\ud promising. Recent moves to promote access to evidence of ethnicity and health and to improve\ud the cultural competence of organisations are discussed. Health professionals will increasingly\ud need to promote lifestyle changes in a manner that meets the needs of a diverse population in\ud order to address future public health challenges. Nutritionists and other professionals will need\ud to ensure that interventions are culturally appropriate and involve engagement with extended\ud family members and communities.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. ONS. The Office of National Statistics. 2010; Available from: http://www.ons.gov.uk/about.
    • 2. Office for National Statistics. Key Statistics for Postcode Sectors in England and Wales. Census 2001. 2004 [cited 2010 23 August]; Available from: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/census2001/ks_postcode_sectors.pdf.
    • 3. Sievenpiper JL, McIntyre EA, Verrill M, Quinton R, Pearce SH. Unrecognised severe vitamin D deficiency. BMJ. 2008 Jun 14;336(7657):1371-4.
    • 4. Lowe NM, Mitra SR, Foster PC, Bhojani I, McCann JF. Vitamin D status and markers of bone turnover in Caucasian and South Asian postmenopausal women living in the UK. Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun;103(12):1706-10.
    • 5. Holick MF. Deficiency of sunlight and vitamin D. BMJ. 2008 Jun 14;336(7657):1318-9.
    • 6. Darzi A. High quality care for all: NHS Next Stage Review 2008.
    • 7. Shircore R. Guide for World Class Commissioners. Promoting Health and Well-Being: Reducing Inequalities2009.
    • 8. Marmot M. Fair Society, Healthy Lives: A Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England Post-2010 2010; Available from: http://www.marmotreview.org/.
    • 9. Salway SM, Nazroo J, Mir G, Craig G, Johnson M, Gerrish K. Fair Society, Healthy Lives: a missed opportunity to address ethnic inequalities in health. BMJ 340:doi:101136/bmjc684 2010.
    • 10. Department of Health. Equity and excellence: Liberating the NHS. Department of Health; 2010 [cited 2010 3 November]; Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/D H_117353.
    • 11. Government U. Equality Act 2010. 2010 [cited 2010 18 October]; Available from: http://www.equalities.gov.uk/equality_act_2010.aspx.
    • 12. May T. Equality strategy speech. 2010 [cited 2010 18 November]; Available from: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/media-centre/speeches/equality-vision.
    • 13. Government U. The Race Relations (Amendment) Act. 2000. 2000 [cited 2010 6 September]; Available from: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2000/ukpga_20000034_en_1.
    • 14. Care Quality Commission. The state of health care and adult social care in England. Key themes and quality of services in 2009.2010.
    • 15. Mead N, Roland M. Understanding why some ethnic minority patients evaluate medical care more negatively than white patients: a cross sectional analysis of a routine patient survey in English general practices. BMJ. 2009;339:b3450.
    • 16. Department of Health. Healthy lives, healthy people: our strategy for public health in England. Department of Health; 2010 [cited 2011 10 January]; Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/D H_121941.
    • 17. Szczepura A. Access to health care for ethnic minority populations. Postgrad Med J. 2005 Mar;81(953):141-7.
    • 18. Department of Health. Choosing Health White Paper. Department of Health; 2010 [cited 2010 30 November]; Available from:
    • 40. Wingard D, Barrett-Connor E. Heart disease and diabetes. Diabetes in America Bethseda, MD: National Institute of Health; 1995.
    • 41. Stevens RJ, Kothari V, Adler AI, Stratton IM. The UKPDS risk engine: a model for the risk of coronary heart disease in Type II diabetes (UKPDS 56). Clin Sci (Lond). 2001 Dec;101(6):671-9.
    • 42. McKeigue PM, Marmot MG. Mortality from coronary heart disease in Asian communities in London. BMJ. 1988 Oct 8;297(6653):903.
    • 43. Dodson PM. Hypertension and diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2002;18 Suppl 1:s48-57.
    • 44. Kumar S. Diabetes and Ethnicity. NHS Evidence; 2007 [cited 2010 19 November]; Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/ethnicity/viewResource.aspx?resID=269934&code=9affbc666f4c4f79237 0742ac30e8750.
    • 45. Zaninotto P, Mindell J, Hirani V. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among ethnic groups: results from the Health Surveys for England. Atherosclerosis. 2007 Nov;195(1):e48-57.
    • 46. Fischbacher CM, Bhopal R, Steiner M, Morris AD, Chalmers J. Is there equity of service delivery and intermediate outcomes in South Asians with type 2 diabetes? Analysis of DARTS database and summary of UK publications. J Public Health (Oxf). 2009 Jun;31(2):239-49.
    • 47. Hanif W. Type 2 diabetes and obesity in the south Asian population. NHS Evidence; 2008 [cited 2010 19 September]; Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/ethnicity/viewResource.aspx?resid=296344&code=a650e11a04575c7b1e 6a1bb48671f39d.
    • 48. Davis TM. Ethnic diversity in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2008 Aug;25 Suppl 2:52-6.
    • 49. Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Robson J, Sheikh A, Brindle P. Predicting risk of type 2 diabetes in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QDScore. BMJ. 2009;338:b880.
    • 50. Patel KCR. The Epidemic of Coronary Disease in South Asians. NHS Evidence; 2008 [cited 2010 19 September]; Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/ethnicity/viewResource.aspx?resid=296301&code=ccf9fd4b740d7bb19c6 31325a1427a9d.
    • 51. Patel JV, Lim HS, Gunarathne A, Tracey I, Durrington PN, Hughes EA, et al. Ethnic differences in myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension: effects of diabetes mellitus. QJM. 2008 Mar;101(3):231-6.
    • 52. Forouhi NG, Sattar N. CVD risk factors and ethnicity - a homogeneous relationship? Atheroscler Suppl. 2006 Apr;7(1):11-9.
    • 53. Millett C, Khunti K, Gray J, Saxena S, Netuveli G, Majeed A. Obesity and intermediate clinical outcomes in diabetes: evidence of a differential relationship across ethnic groups. Diabet Med. 2008 Jun;25(6):685-91.
    • 54. Whincup PH, Nightingale CM, Owen CG, Rudnicka AR, Gibb I, McKay CM, et al. Early emergence of ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes precursors in the UK: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE Study). PLos Med. 2010;7(4):e1000263.
    • 55. Yajnik CS, Lubree HG, Rege SS, Naik SS, Deshpande JA, Deshpande SS, et al. Adiposity and hyperinsulinemia in Indians are present at birth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Dec;87(12):5575-80.
    • 56. Harding S, Whitrow M, Lenguerrand E, Maynard M, Teyhan A, Cruickshank JK, et al. Emergence of ethnic differences in blood pressure in adolescence: the determinants of adolescent social well-being and health study. Hypertension. 2010 Apr;55(4):1063-9.
    • 57. Razak F, Anand SS, Shannon H, Vuksan V, Davis B, Jacobs R, et al. Defining obesity cut points in a multiethnic population. Circulation. 2007 Apr 24;115(16):2111-8.
    • 58. Lakhanpaul M, Bird D. Obesity and South Asian Children. NHS Evidence; 2009 [cited 2010 19 November]; Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/ETHNICITY/ViewResource.aspx?resID=327155&tabID=290.
    • 59. Diaz VA, Mainous AG, 3rd, Baker R, Carnemolla M, Majeed A. How does ethnicity affect the association between obesity and diabetes? Diabet Med. 2007 Nov;24(11):1199-204.
    • 80. Fischbacher CM, Hunt S, Alexander L. How physically active are South Asians in the United Kingdom? A literature review. J Public Health (Oxf). 2004 Sep;26(3):250-8.
    • 81. McKeigue PM, Marmot MG, Adelstein AM, Hunt SP, Shipley MJ, Butler SM, et al. Diet and risk factors for coronary heart disease in Asians in northwest London. Lancet. 1985 Nov 16;2(8464):1086-90.
    • 82. Landman J, Cruickshank JK. A review of ethnicity, health and nutrition-related diseases in relation to migration in the United Kingdom. Public Health Nutr. 2001 Apr;4(2B):647-57.
    • 83. Gilbert PA, Khokhar S. Changing dietary habits of ethnic groups in Europe and implications for health. Nutr Rev. 2008 Apr;66(4):203-15.
    • 84. Department of Health. Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives: Consumer Insight Summary. 2008.
    • 85. Donin AS, Nightingale CM, Owen CG, Rudnicka AR, McNamara MC, Prynne CJ, et al. Nutritional composition of the diets of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European children in the United Kingdom: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul;104(2):276-85.
    • 86. Wojcicki JM, Heyman MB. Let's Move--childhood obesity prevention from pregnancy and infancy onward. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 22;362(16):1457-9.
    • 87. Knip M, Virtanen SM, Seppa K, Ilonen J, Savilahti E, Vaarala O, et al. Dietary Intervention in Infancy and Later Signs of Beta-Cell Autoimmunity. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 11;363(20):1900-8.
    • 88. Harlan DM, Lee MM. Infant formula, autoimmune triggers, and type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 11;363(20):1961-3.
    • 89. Choudhury SM, Brophy S, Williams R. Understanding and beliefs of diabetes in the UK Bangladeshi population. Diabet Med. 2009 Jun;26(6):636-40.
    • 90. Netto G, McCloughan L, Bhatnagar A. Effective heart disease prevention: lessons from a qualitative study of user perspectives in Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani communities. Public Health. 2007 Mar;121(3):177-86.
    • 91. Sari R, Balci MK, Akbas SH, Avci B. The effects of diet, sulfonylurea, and Repaglinide therapy on clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan. Endocr Res. 2004 May;30(2):169-77.
    • 92. Hui E, Bravis V, Hassanein M, Hanif W, Malik R, Chowdhury TA, et al. Management of people with diabetes wanting to fast during Ramadan. BMJ. 2010;340:c3053.
    • 93. Connor H, Annan F, Bunn E, Frost G, McGough N, Sarwar T, et al. The implementation of nutritional advice for people with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2003 Oct;20(10):786-807.
    • 94. Karamat MA, Syed A, Hanif W. Review of diabetes management and guidelines during Ramadan. J R Soc Med. 2010 Apr;103(4):139-47.
    • 95. Acheson D. Inequalities in health. Report on inequalities in health did give priority for steps to be tackled. BMJ. 1998 Dec 12;317(7173):1659.
    • 96. Hussain-Gambles M, Atkin K, Leese B. Why ethnic minority groups are under-represented in clinical trials: a review of the literature. Health Soc Care Community. 2004 Sep;12(5):382-8.
    • 97. Tugwell P, Petticrew M, Kristjansson E, Welch V, Ueffing E, Waters E, et al. Assessing equity in systematic reviews: realising the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. BMJ. 2010;341:c4739.
    • 98. NHS Evidence. NHS Evidence: Specialist Collections. 2010 [cited 2010 29 November]; Available from: http://www.evidence.nhs.uk/aboutus/Pages/AboutSpecialistCollections.aspx.
    • 99. Specialist Collection for Ethnicity and Health. What Are Ethnic Groups? : NHS Evidence; 2010 [cited 2010 19 November]; Available from: http://www.library.nhs.uk/ethnicity/page.aspx?pagename=EH.
    • 100. Bhopal RS, Phillimore P, Kohli HS. Inappropriate use of the term 'Asian': an obstacle to ethnicity and health research. J Public Health Med. 1991 Nov;13(4):244-6.
    • 101. Aspinall PJ. Department of Health's requirement for mandatory collection of data on ethnic group of inpatients. BMJ. 1995 Oct 14;311(7011):1006-9.
    • 123. Bravis V, Hui E, Salih S, Mehar S, Hassanein M, Devendra D. Ramadan Education and Awareness in Diabetes (READ) programme for Muslims with Type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan. Diabet Med. 2010 Mar;27(3):327-31.
    • 124. Hawthorne K. Effect of culturally appropriate health education on glycaemic control and knowledge of diabetes in British Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Health Educ Res. 2001 Jun;16(3):373-81.
    • 125. Stender S, Burghen G, Mallare J. The role of health care providers in the prevention of overweight and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Diabetes Spectrum. 2005;18:240-8.
    • 126. Netto G BR, Lederle N, Khatoon J, Jackson A. How can health promotion interventions be adapted for minority ethnic communities? Five principles for guiding the development of behavioural interventions Health Promot Int. 2010.
    • 127. Snowdon W. Asian cookery clubs: a community health promotion intervention. . International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 1999;37(4):135-6.
    • 128. Williams J, Sultan M. Evaluation of an Asian women's healthy eating and exercise group. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics 1999;12(1):91-8.
    • 129. Apnee Sehat. Who we are - and why are we different. 2010 [cited 2010 13 November]; Available from: http://www.apneesehat.net/whoweare/index.html.
    • 130. Tozer R, Aubery L, Gill P, Jones C, Patel M, Zaid Q, et al. Developing cultural competence across communities: a coronary heart disease training programme for health advocates and trainers. Diversity in Health and Care 2010;7.
    • 131. Oude Luttikhuis H BL, Jansen H, Shrewsbury VA, O'Malley C. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009;2009(1):CD001872.
    • 132. Khunti K, Kumar S, Brodie J, (Eds). Diabetes UK and South Asian Health Foundation recommendations on diabetes research priorities for British South Asians.2009.
    • 133. Toolkit to Support the Running of Diabetes Awareness Events for the South Asian Communities. 2006 [cited 2010 20 September]; Available from: http://www.diabetes.org.uk/Professionals/Shared_Practice/Care_Topics/Black_and_Minority_Ethni c_Communities/Toolkit_to_Support_the_Running_of_Diabetes_Awareness_Events_for_the_South_ Asian_Communities/.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article