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Hall, Damien J. (2006)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: P
This paper reports the first set of results of an investigation into the phonetic\ud correlates of female altos’ singing (compared to the extensive research which\ud has been done on males’ singing). Based on the author’s previous research\ud (Hall 2003), predictions for this experiment were that when producing a\ud ‘singing’ sound:\ud - singers would increase the amplitude of H2 to a level above the\ud amplitude of H1\ud - at least the most experienced of the singers would produce a ‘singer’s\ud formant’\ud - some formant tuning of F1 and possibly F2 would be observed: that is,\ud singers would change the locations of F1 and F2 in order to amplify\ud their sound. The degree to which they needed to do this would depend\ud on f0 frequency.\ud (Two notes on terminology in this paper:\ud 1) H1 here means ‘f0, the leftmost peak in the spectrum’; H2 refers to the\ud peak above f0 in frequency.\ud 2) The terms 'f0' and 'pitch' are interchangeable.)\ud Data were collected from nine singers in this experiment. Analysis in this\ud paper concentrates on two of the nine: the singers who had the most and the\ud least singing experience.\ud \ud The major finding is that female altos seem to use two techniques to amplify\ud their singing sound:\ud - amplifying H2 so that the spectrum shows it to have a higher amplitude\ud than H1 (this technique is referred to in this paper simply as ‘amplifying\ud H2’)\ud - producing a singer’s formant.\ud Which of these strategies is used depends on the individual singer, her\ud amount of training / experience and the pitch-range in which she feels most\ud comfortable.
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    • Boersma, Paul, and Weenink, David. 1992-2005. Praat (version 4.2.34): software copyrighted by the authors. Downloaded from http://www.praat.org.
    • Gramming, Patricia. 1991. Vocal loudness and frequency capabilities of the voice. Journal of Voice 5(2):144-157.
    • Hall, Damien. 2003. Formant tuning by female altos. Ms., University of Cambridge.
    • Miller, DG, and Schutte, Harm K. 1990. Formant tuning in a professional baritone. Journal of Voice 4(3):231-237.
    • National Center for Voice and Speech. nd. Vocal Ring, or the Singer's Formant. Website accessed 6 November 2004: http://www.ncvs.org/ncvs/tutorials/voiceprod/tutorial/singer.html Sundberg, Johan. 1973. The source spectrum in professional singing. Folia Phoniatrica 25: 71-90.
    • ----- and Skoog, Jörgen. 1997. Dependence of jaw opening on pitch and vowel in singers. Journal of Voice 11(3):301-306.
    • Titze, Ingo R. 2004. A theoretical study of F0-F1 interaction with application to resonant speaking and singing voice. Journal of Voice 18(3):292-8.
    • -----, Mapes, S, and Story, B. 1994. Acoustics of the tenor high voice. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 95(2):1133-1142.
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