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Wourm, Nathalie (2003)
Publisher: Philomel Productions Ltd
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: CAL
God has a smell. Or rather, our sense of smell can bring us to a deeper knowledge of God. This is one aspect of a theory which runs through much of European history from the Renaissance onwards, with fluctuating intensity and with fundamental variations. It has been referred to, principally, as the theory of signatures, the theory of universal analogy, and the theory of correspondences, and is originally derived from Plato's philosophy of Ideas. The most common thread of the doctrine is that there are correspondences between the material and the spiritual worlds and that the material world can therefore be read like a book, revealing the secrets of the spiritual world. Another common thread of the doctrine is that the senses, which diffusely allow us to experience the material world, can be united as one, enabling our complete grasp of spiritual harmony, of the ideal world. The senses have usually figured highly in the doctrine of correspondences in general, as enabling this leap from the material to the spiritual. But individual senses have enjoyed varying degrees of attention throughout time. Smell has not been the most popular of them, but it is markedly emphasised by two users of the doctrine, the eighteenth-century Swedish scientist, theologian and mystic, Emanuel Swedenborg, and the French Symbolist poet Charles Baudelaire. What Nathalie Wourm attempts here is a short history of the idea of a spiritual scent, from the Neoplatonist thinkers of the fifteenth century to the present day.
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    • 1. Ficino, Platonic Theology Volume I (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001). See in particular books I11 & IV.
    • 2. Ficino, Commentary on Phtoi Symposium on Love (tr. Sears Jane, Dallas: Spring Publications, 1985), pp.84-7.
    • 3. Walter Pagel, Paracelsus: An Introduction to Philosophical Medicine in the Era of the Renaissance (Basel: S. Karger, 1958), pp.2 13-27.
    • 4. See in particular his Astronomia Magna.
    • 5. John Joseph Stoudt, Sunrise to Eternity: A Study in &cob Boehmei Life and Thought (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957), pp.22, 100-101.
    • 6. Jacob Boehme, The Signature ofAll Things and Other Writings (Cambridge & London: James Clarke & Co. Ltd, 1969), p.88.
    • 7. ibid., p.82.
    • 8. ibid., p.213.
    • 9. O n Leibniz's influence on Swedenborg, see Inge Jonsson, Swedenborgs Korrespondensliira (Stockolm & Goteborg & Uppsala: Almqvist & Wirksell, 1969), p.403.
    • 10. ibid., p.394.
    • l l . G.W. Leibniz, Philosophical Texts (Oxford: OUE 1998), p.271.
    • 12. See Alain Corbin, The Foul and the Fragrant: Odour and the Social Imagination (Picador, 1994).
    • 13. Emanuel Swedenborg, Arcana celestia: or Heavenly mysteries contained in the sacred Scriptures, or Word of the Lord, manifested and h i d open (tr. J . Clowes, London, 1840-1866), 4624-4634.
    • 14. ibid., 4624-4627.
    • 15. ibid., 4626.
    • 16. ibid., 4628.
    • 17. ibid., 4629-4632.
    • 18. See Brian Juden, 'Que la thtorie des correspondances ne dtrive pas de Swedenborg' in Travaux de linguistique et de litte'rature 11, no.2 (1973), pp.33-46.
    • 19. Lynn R. Wilkinson, The Dream of an Absolute Language: Emanuel Swedenborg & French Literary Culture (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), pp.2 and 49 in particular.
    • 20. ibid., p.43. See also Nicolae Babuts, 'Baudelaire et les Anges de Swedenborg' in Romance Notes (21, n03, 1981), pp.309-12.
    • 2 1. Honork de Balzac, La Comkdie Humaine XI, Etudes philosophiques, Etudes analytiques (Paris: Gallimard, 1980), p.744.
    • 22. ibid., pp.755, 789, 796.
    • 23. ibid., pp.764, 789, 834.
    • 24. Skraphh, p.827.
    • 25. ibid., pp.779-80.
    • 26. ibid., pp.855-56.
    • 27. Charles Baudelaire, 'Rkflexions sur quelques-uns de mes contemporains' in Euvres Compl2tes (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1968), p.471, See Balzac, pp.778-79 in particular.
    • 28. The extent of their influence is largely the subject of Wilkinson's book.
    • 29. Juden, p.44
    • 30. Euvres Complt?tes,p.65.
    • 3 1. Jean-Paul Sartre, Baudelaire (Paris: Gallimard, 1947), p.202.
    • 32. ibid.
    • 33. Graham Robb, La Poksie de Baudelaire et la poksiefianyaise (Paris: Aubier, 1993), p.308.
    • 34. See how Sartre associates Baudelaire's sonnet and Swedenborg, for instance, pp.206-07.
    • 35. Euvres Complk.tes,p.46.
    • 36. ibid., p.232.
    • 37. ibid., p.513.
    • 38. Senancour, Obermann (Paris: E. Droz, 1931), p. 147.
    • 39. See Mercure de Frdnce (November 1725), pp.25 52-577.
    • 40. Attributed to Joseph de Laporte, Esprit, Saillies et Singularitks du P Castel (Amsterdam & Paris: Vincent, 1763), p.369.
    • 41. Polycarpe Poncelet, Chimie du gofit et de lbdorat, ou Principes pour composer facilement, & d peu dfrais, les liqueurs d boire, & les eaux de senteuw (Paris: PG. Le Mercier, 1755), pp.237-39.
    • 42. See Corbin, p.56: 'From about the middle of the eighteenth century, odors simply began to be more keenly smelled. It was as if thresholds of tolerance had been abruptly lowered.. . All the evidence suggests that scientific theory played a crucial role in this lowering of thresholds'. .,
    • 43. Emmanuel de Roux, 'Le Printemps des musCes f2te les cinq sens' in Le Monde (6 April 2002).
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