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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Shapiro, Laura R.; Carroll, Julia M.; Solity, Jonathan (2013)
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: P1, Developmental and Educational Psychology, BF, Experimental and Cognitive Psychology, LB1501
The essential first step for a beginning reader is to learn to match printed forms to phonological representations. For a new word, this is an effortful process where each grapheme must be translated individually (serial decoding). The role of phonological awareness in developing a decoding strategy is well known. We examined whether beginning readers recruit different skills depending on the nature of the words being read (familiar words vs. nonwords). Print knowledge, phoneme and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary, auditory skills, and visual attention were measured in 392 prereaders 4 and 5 years of age. Word and nonword reading were measured 9 months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine the skills–reading relationship and modeled correlations between our two reading outcomes and among all prereading skills. We found that a broad range of skills were associated with reading outcomes: early print knowledge, phonological STM, phoneme awareness and RAN. Whereas all of these skills were directly predictive of nonword reading, early print knowledge was the only direct predictor of word reading. Our findings suggest that beginning readers draw most heavily on their existing print knowledge to read familiar words.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Arbuckle, J. L. (2007). Amos 16.0 user's guide. Chicago: SPSS.
    • Banai, K., Hornickel, J., Skoe, E., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., & Kraus, N. (2009). Reading and subcortical auditory function. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2699-2707.
    • Bosse, M. J., & Valdois, S. (2009). Influence of the visual attention span on child reading performance: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Research in Reading, 32, 230-253.
    • Carroll, J. M., Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., & Stevenson, J. (2003). The development of phonological awareness in pre-school children. Developmental Psychology, 39, 913-923.
    • Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77-111.
    • Coltheart, M., & Prior, M. (2007). Learning to read in Australia (Occasional Paper 1/2007, Policy Paper No. 6). Canberra: Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. Retrieved from: .
    • Compton, D. L. (2003). Modeling the relationship between growth in rapid naming speed and decoding skill in first-grade children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 225-239.
    • Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., Whetton, C., & Burley, J. (1997). The British picture vocabulary scale-second edition (BPVSII). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Ehri, L. C. (2008). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 167-188.
    • Ehri, L. (1998). Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J. Metsala & L. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 3-40). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • Ehri, L., & Wilce, L. (1985). Movement into reading: Is the first stage of printed word learning visual or phonetic? Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 163-179.
    • Ellefson, M. R., Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2009). Learning to label letters by sounds or names: A comparison of England and the United States. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102, 323-341.
    • Elliott, C. D., Murray, D. J., & Pearson, L. S. (1983). British ability scales. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R. M. (1995). The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 460-493.
    • Frederickson, N., Frith, U., & Reason, R. (1997). Phonological assessment battery (PhAB). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Gerhardstein, P., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2002). The development of visual search in infants and very young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81, 194-215.
    • Grainger, J. L., Lété, B., Bertand, D., Dufau, S., & Ziegler, J. C. (2012). Evidence for multiple routes in learning to read. Cognition, 123, 280-292.
    • Hämäläinen, J., Salminen, H. K., & Leppänen, P. H. T. (in press). Basic auditory processing deficits in dyslexia: Systematic review of the behavioral and event-related potential/field evidence. Journal of Learning Disabilities. doi: .
    • Hoover, W. A., & Tunmer, W. E. (1993). The components of reading. In J. B. Thompson, W. E. Tunmer, & T. Nicholson (Eds.), Reading acquisition processes (pp. 1-19). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    • Hudson, R. F., Torgesen, J. K., Lane, H. B., & Turner, S. J. (2012). Relations among reading skills and sub-skills and text-level reading proficiency in developing readers. Reading and Writing, 25, 483-507.
    • Jelicˇic´ , H., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: The persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1195-1199.
    • Kail, R., Hall, L. K., & Caskey, B. J. (1999). Processing speed, exposure to print, and naming speed. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 303-314.
    • Kirby, J. R., Georgiou, G. K., Martinussen, R., Parrila, R., Bowers, P., & Landerl, K. (2010). Naming speed and reading: From prediction to instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 341-362.
    • Lervåg, A., Bråten, I., & Hulme, C. (2009). The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 45, 764-781.
    • Levy, B. A., Gong, Z., Hessels, S., Evans, M. A., & Jared, D. (2006). Understanding print: Early reading development and the contributions of home literacy experiences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 63-93.
    • Lonigan, C. J. (2006). Conceptualizing phonological processing skills in prereaders. In D. K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 2, pp. 77-89). New York: Guilford.
    • Manis, F. R., Seidenberg, M. S., & Doi, L. M. (1999). See Dick RAN: Rapid naming and the longitudinal prediction of reading subskills in first and second graders. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 129-157.
    • Martinez Perez, T., Majerus, S., & Poncelet, M. (2012). The contribution of short-term memory for serial order to early reading acquisition: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 708-723.
    • Masterson, J., Stuart, M., Dixon, M., & Lovejoy, S. (2010). Children's printed word database: Continuities and changes over time in children's early reading vocabulary. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 221-242.
    • Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 322-352.
    • Mol, S. E., & Bus, A. G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 267-296.
    • Moll, K., Fussenegger, B., Willburger, E., & Landerl, K. (2009). RAN is not a measure of orthographic processing: Evidence from the asymmetric German orthography. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 1-25.
    • Muter, V., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. (1997). The phonological abilities test. London: Psychological Corporation.
    • Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40, 665-681.
    • Nation, K. A., & Hulme, C. (2011). Learning to read changes children's phonological skills: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study of reading and nonword repetition. Developmental Science, 14, 649-659.
    • Nicolson, R., & Fawcett, A. (1996). Dyslexia early screening test (DEST). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
    • Nicolson, R., & Fawcett, A. (2004). Dyslexia early screening test-second edition (DEST-2). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
    • Parrila, R., Kirby, J. R., & McQuarrie, L. (2004). Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: Longitudinal predictors of early reading development? Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 3-26.
    • Plaza, M., & Cohen, H. (2007). The contribution of phonological awareness and visual attention in early reading and spelling. Dyslexia, 13, 67-73.
    • Raven, J., Raven, J. C., & Court, J. H. (1993). Manual for raven's progressive matrices and mill hill vocabulary scales. Oxford, UK: Oxford Psychologists Press.
    • Rochelle, K. S. H., & Talcott, J. (2006). Impaired balance in developmental dyslexia: A meta-analysis of the contending evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 77, 1159-1166.
    • Rose, J. (2006). Independent review of the teaching of early reading: Final report. London: Department for Education and Skills/TSO.
    • Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151-218.
    • Swanson, H. L., Trainin, G., Necoechea, D. M., & Hammill, D. D. (2003). Rapid naming, phonological awareness, and reading: A meta-analysis of the correlation evidence. Review of Educational Research, 73, 407-440.
    • Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., Hebb, G. S., Stoodley, C. J., Westwood, E. A., France, S. J., et al (2002). On the relationship between dynamic visual and auditory processing and literacy skills: Results from a large primary-school study. Dyslexia, 8, 204-225.
    • Tallal, P. (1980). Auditory temporal perception, phonics, and the reading disabilities in children. Brain and Language, 9, 182-198.
    • Tallal, P., Miller, S., & Fitch, R. H. (1993). Neurobiological basis of speech: A case for the preeminence of temporal processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 682, 27-47.
    • Vincent, D., & De la Mare, M. (1985). New macmillan reading analysis (macmillan assessment). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Vousden, J. I. (2008). Units of English spelling-to-sound mapping: A rational approach to reading instruction. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 247-272.
    • Vousden, J. I., Ellefson, M. R., Solity, J., & Chater, N. (2011). Simplifying reading: Applying the simplicity principle to reading. Cognitive Science, 35, 34-78.
    • Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192-212.
    • Arbuckle, J. L. (2007). Amos 16.0 user's guide. Chicago: SPSS.
    • Banai, K., Hornickel, J., Skoe, E., Nicol, T., Zecker, S., & Kraus, N. (2009). Reading and subcortical auditory function. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2699-2707.
    • Bosse, M. J., & Valdois, S. (2009). Influence of the visual attention span on child reading performance: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Research in Reading, 32, 230-253.
    • Carroll, J. M., Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., & Stevenson, J. (2003). The development of phonological awareness in pre-school children. Developmental Psychology, 39, 913-923.
    • Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77-111.
    • Coltheart, M., & Prior, M. (2007). Learning to read in Australia (Occasional Paper 1/2007, Policy Paper No. 6). Canberra: Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. Retrieved from: .
    • Compton, D. L. (2003). Modeling the relationship between growth in rapid naming speed and decoding skill in first-grade children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 225-239.
    • Dunn, L. M., Dunn, L. M., Whetton, C., & Burley, J. (1997). The British picture vocabulary scale-second edition (BPVSII). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Ehri, L. C. (2008). Learning to read words: Theory, findings, and issues. Scientific Studies of Reading, 9, 167-188.
    • Ehri, L. (1998). Grapheme-phoneme knowledge is essential for learning to read words in English. In J. Metsala & L. Ehri (Eds.), Word recognition in beginning literacy (pp. 3-40). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    • Ehri, L., & Wilce, L. (1985). Movement into reading: Is the first stage of printed word learning visual or phonetic? Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 163-179.
    • Ellefson, M. R., Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2009). Learning to label letters by sounds or names: A comparison of England and the United States. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102, 323-341.
    • Elliott, C. D., Murray, D. J., & Pearson, L. S. (1983). British ability scales. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R. M. (1995). The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2, 460-493.
    • Frederickson, N., Frith, U., & Reason, R. (1997). Phonological assessment battery (PhAB). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Gerhardstein, P., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2002). The development of visual search in infants and very young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81, 194-215.
    • Grainger, J. L., Lété, B., Bertand, D., Dufau, S., & Ziegler, J. C. (2012). Evidence for multiple routes in learning to read. Cognition, 123, 280-292.
    • Hämäläinen, J., Salminen, H. K., & Leppänen, P. H. T. (in press). Basic auditory processing deficits in dyslexia: Systematic review of the behavioral and event-related potential/field evidence. Journal of Learning Disabilities. doi: .
    • Hoover, W. A., & Tunmer, W. E. (1993). The components of reading. In J. B. Thompson, W. E. Tunmer, & T. Nicholson (Eds.), Reading acquisition processes (pp. 1-19). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    • Hudson, R. F., Torgesen, J. K., Lane, H. B., & Turner, S. J. (2012). Relations among reading skills and sub-skills and text-level reading proficiency in developing readers. Reading and Writing, 25, 483-507.
    • Jelicˇic´ , H., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. M. (2009). Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: The persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1195-1199.
    • Kail, R., Hall, L. K., & Caskey, B. J. (1999). Processing speed, exposure to print, and naming speed. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 303-314.
    • Kirby, J. R., Georgiou, G. K., Martinussen, R., Parrila, R., Bowers, P., & Landerl, K. (2010). Naming speed and reading: From prediction to instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 341-362.
    • Lervåg, A., Bråten, I., & Hulme, C. (2009). The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 45, 764-781.
    • Levy, B. A., Gong, Z., Hessels, S., Evans, M. A., & Jared, D. (2006). Understanding print: Early reading development and the contributions of home literacy experiences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 93, 63-93.
    • Lonigan, C. J. (2006). Conceptualizing phonological processing skills in prereaders. In D. K. Dickinson & S. B. Neuman (Eds.). Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 2, pp. 77-89). New York: Guilford.
    • Manis, F. R., Seidenberg, M. S., & Doi, L. M. (1999). See Dick RAN: Rapid naming and the longitudinal prediction of reading subskills in first and second graders. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 129-157.
    • Martinez Perez, T., Majerus, S., & Poncelet, M. (2012). The contribution of short-term memory for serial order to early reading acquisition: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 708-723.
    • Masterson, J., Stuart, M., Dixon, M., & Lovejoy, S. (2010). Children's printed word database: Continuities and changes over time in children's early reading vocabulary. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 221-242.
    • Melby-Lervåg, M., Lyster, S., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 322-352.
    • Mol, S. E., & Bus, A. G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 267-296.
    • Moll, K., Fussenegger, B., Willburger, E., & Landerl, K. (2009). RAN is not a measure of orthographic processing: Evidence from the asymmetric German orthography. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13, 1-25.
    • Muter, V., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. (1997). The phonological abilities test. London: Psychological Corporation.
    • Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40, 665-681.
    • Nation, K. A., & Hulme, C. (2011). Learning to read changes children's phonological skills: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study of reading and nonword repetition. Developmental Science, 14, 649-659.
    • Nicolson, R., & Fawcett, A. (1996). Dyslexia early screening test (DEST). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
    • Nicolson, R., & Fawcett, A. (2004). Dyslexia early screening test-second edition (DEST-2). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
    • Parrila, R., Kirby, J. R., & McQuarrie, L. (2004). Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: Longitudinal predictors of early reading development? Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 3-26.
    • Plaza, M., & Cohen, H. (2007). The contribution of phonological awareness and visual attention in early reading and spelling. Dyslexia, 13, 67-73.
    • Raven, J., Raven, J. C., & Court, J. H. (1993). Manual for raven's progressive matrices and mill hill vocabulary scales. Oxford, UK: Oxford Psychologists Press.
    • Rochelle, K. S. H., & Talcott, J. (2006). Impaired balance in developmental dyslexia: A meta-analysis of the contending evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 77, 1159-1166.
    • Rose, J. (2006). Independent review of the teaching of early reading: Final report. London: Department for Education and Skills/TSO.
    • Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: Sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151-218.
    • Swanson, H. L., Trainin, G., Necoechea, D. M., & Hammill, D. D. (2003). Rapid naming, phonological awareness, and reading: A meta-analysis of the correlation evidence. Review of Educational Research, 73, 407-440.
    • Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., Hebb, G. S., Stoodley, C. J., Westwood, E. A., France, S. J., et al (2002). On the relationship between dynamic visual and auditory processing and literacy skills: Results from a large primary-school study. Dyslexia, 8, 204-225.
    • Tallal, P. (1980). Auditory temporal perception, phonics, and the reading disabilities in children. Brain and Language, 9, 182-198.
    • Tallal, P., Miller, S., & Fitch, R. H. (1993). Neurobiological basis of speech: A case for the preeminence of temporal processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 682, 27-47.
    • Vincent, D., & De la Mare, M. (1985). New macmillan reading analysis (macmillan assessment). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
    • Vousden, J. I. (2008). Units of English spelling-to-sound mapping: A rational approach to reading instruction. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 247-272.
    • Vousden, J. I., Ellefson, M. R., Solity, J., & Chater, N. (2011). Simplifying reading: Applying the simplicity principle to reading. Cognitive Science, 35, 34-78.
    • Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192-212.
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