LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Nicolau-Solano, S. I.; Wittington, F. M.; Wood, J. D.; Doran (nee Udovikova), O.; University of Bristol (2007)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: endocrine system
Boar taint is a major meat-quality defect in pigs and is due to excessive accumulation of skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue. The present work investigated the relationship between carcass weight, levels of skatole and androstenone in adipose tissue, and expression of the hepatic androstenone-metabolising enzyme 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3b-HSD), in 22 entire male and 22 entire female crossbred pigs (Large White (40%)3Landrace (40%)3Duroc (20%)). Animals of each gender were divided into two subgroups (11 pigs in each subgroup): (i) conventional weight (carcass weight 59 to 77 kg) and (ii) heavy weight (carcass weight 84 to 95 kg). No relationship between carcass weight and adipose tissue skatole level was found for entire male pigs (r250.013, P> 0.05). There was a significant negative relationship between carcass weight and expression of the hepatic 3b-HSD protein (r250.502, P,0.001) and a significant negative relationship between 3b-HSD protein expression and androstenone level in adipose tissue (r250.24, P,0.05) in entire males. No relationship was found between carcass weight and 3b-HSD protein expression in female pigs (r250.001, P> 0.05). 3b-HSD expression was 59% higher in conventional-weight male pigs when compared with heavy-weight animals (P,0.05) and 36% higher in heavy-weight females when compared with heavy-weight males (P,0.05). It is concluded that an increase in slaughter weight of entire commercial crossbred Large White pigs is accompanied by inhibition of expression of the hepatic 3b-HSD protein, which might result in a reduced rate of hepatic androstenone clearance with its subsequent accumulation in adipose tissue. It is suggested that\ud regulation of pig hepatic 3b-HSD expression is under the control of sex hormones.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Andersson K, Schaub A, Andersson K, Lundstr o¨m K, Thomke S and Hansson I 1997. The effect of feeding system, lysine level and gilt contact on performance, skatole levels and economy of entire male pigs. Livestock Production Science 51, 131-140.
    • Babol J, Squires EJ and Lundstr o¨m K 1999. Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs. Journal of Animal Science 77, 84-92.
    • Babol J, Zamaratskaia G, Juneja K and Lundstr o¨m K 2004. The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc. Meat Science 67, 351-358.
    • Barton-Gade P 1987. Meat and fat quality in boars, castrates and gilts.
    • Livestock Production Science 16, 187-196.
    • Bonneau M 1987. Effects of age and live weight on fat 5a-androstenone levels in young boars fed two planes of nutrition. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 27, 413-422.
    • Bonneau M and Squires EJ 2001. Use of entire males for pig production.
    • Proceedings of the First International Virtual Conference on Pork Quality: Welfare, Transport, Slaughter and Consumer. Concordia, Brazil, 69, 178-202.
    • Bonneau M, LeDenmat M, Vaudelet JC, Jeloso Nunes JR, Mortensen AB and Mortensen HP 1992. Contributions of fat androstenone and skatole to boar taint: I. Sensory attributes of fat and pork meat. Livestock Production Science 32, 63-80.
    • Bonneau M, Walstra P, Claudi-Magnussen C, Kempster AJ, Tornberg E, Fischer K, Diestre A, Siret F, Chevillon P, Claus R, Dijksterhuis GB, Punter P, Matthews KR, Agerhem H, Beague MP, Oliver MA, Gispert M, Weiler von Seth G, Leask H, Font i Furnol M, Homer DB and Cook GL 2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: IV. Simulation studies on consumer dissatisfaction with entire male pork and the effect of sorting out carcasses on the slaughter line, main conclusions and recommendations. Meat Science 54, 285-295.
    • Bradford MM 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.
    • Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248-254.
    • Claus R, Weiler U and Herzog A 1994. Physiological aspects of androstenone and skatole formation in the boar. A review with experimental data. Meat Science 38, 289-305.
    • De Brabander HF and Verbeke R 1986. Quantitative determination of androstenone in pig adipose tissue. Journal of Chromatography 363, 293-302.
    • Dede TI 1983. Thermal adaptability of Large White pigs in the tropical environment. International Journal of Biometeorology 27, 249-258.
    • Desmoulin B, Bonneau M, Frouin A and Bidard JP 1982. Consumer testing of pork and processed meat from boar: the influence of fat androstenone level.
    • Livestock Production Science 9, 707-715.
    • Doran E, Whittington FM, Wood JD and McGivan JD 2002a. Cytochrome 450IIE1 (CYP2E1) is induced by skatole and this induction is blocked by androstenone in isolated pig hepatocytes. Chemico-Biological Interactions 140, 81-92.
    • Doran E, Whittington FW, Wood JD and McGivan JD 2002b. The relationship between adipose tissue skatole levels, rates of hepatic microsomal skatole metabolism and hepatic cytochrome P450IIE1 expression in two breeds of pig.
    • Animal Science 74, 461-468.
    • Doran E, Whittington FM, Wood JD and McGivan JD 2004. Characterisation of androstenone metabolism in pig liver microsomes. Chemico-Biological Interactions 147, 141-149.
    • Einarsson S, Holtman M, Larsson K, Settergren I and Bane A 1979. The effect of two different feed levels on the development of the reproductive organs in boars. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 20, 1-9.
    • Forland DM, Lunstrom K and Andresen O 1980. Relationship between androstenone content in fat, intensity of boar taint and size of accessory sex glands in boars. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin 32, 201-206.
    • Fowler VR, McWilliam T and Aitken R 1981. Voluntary feed intake of boars, castrates and gilts given diets of different nutrient density. Animal Production 32, 357(abstr.).
    • Gillberg M, Skaanild MT and Friis C 2006. Regulation of gender-dependent CYP2A expression in pigs: involvement of androgens and CAR. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology 98, 480-487.
    • Gower DB 1972. 16-unsaturated C19 steroids. A review of their chemistry, biochemistry and possible physiological role. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 3, 45-103.
    • Hennessy D, Salvatore L and Sali L 1995. Incidence and nature of boar taint in Australian pigs. Proceedings of the Meeting of the EAAP Working Group Production and Utilization of Meat from Entire Male Pigs. Session III, Milton Keynes, UK, p 5.
    • LeDenmat M, Hervo N, Vaudelet JC and Bonneau M 1993. The effect of slaughter weight on fat androstenone and skatole levels and on the assessment of boar taint in entire male pigsIn:Measurement and prevention of boar taint in entire male pigs (ed. M Bonneau), pp. 167-171. Les Colloques 60, INRA, Paris.
    • Lundstrom K and Bonneau M 1996. Off-flavour in meat with particular emphasis on boar taintIn:Meat quality and meat packaging (ed. S Tylor, A Raimundo, M Severini, FJM Smulders), pp. 137-154. ECCEAMST, Utrecht.
    • Matthews KR, Homer DB, Punter P, Be´ ague MP, Gispert M, Kempster AJ, Agerhem H, Claudi-Magnussen C, Fischer K, Siret F, Leask H, Font i Furnols M and Bonneau M 2000. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: III. Consumer survey in seven European countries. Meat Science 54, 271-283.
    • Mortensen AB, Bejerholm C and Pedersen JK 1986. Consumer test of meat from entire males, in relation to skatole in backfat. Proceedings of 32nd European Meeting of Meat Research Workers, Ghent, Belgium, p. 23.
    • Naville D, Keeney DS, Jenkin G, Murry BA, Head JR and Mason JI 1991.
    • Regulation of expression of male-specific rat liver microsomal 3 betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Molecular Endocrinology 5, 1090-1100.
    • Neupert B, Claus R, Herbert E and Weiler U 1995. Influence of sex, energy supply and light on fattening traits and carcass composition and their relation to androstenone and skatole concentrations in adipose tissue of pigs.
    • Z u¨chtungskunde 67, 317-331.
    • Nicolau-Solano SI, McGivan JD, Whittington FM, Nieuwhof GJ, Wood JD and Doran O 2006. Relationship between the expressions of hepatic but not testicular 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with androstenone deposition in pig adipose tissue. Journal of Animal Science 84, 2809-2817.
    • Oonk HB, Turkstra JA, Lankhof H, Schaaper WMM, Verheijden JHM and Meloen RH 1995. Testis size after immunocastration as parameter for the absence of boar taint. Livestock Production Science 42, 63-71.
    • Prunier A, Bonneau M and Etienne M 1987. Effects of age and live weight on the sexual development of gilts and boars fed two planes of nutrition.
    • Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 27, 689-700.
    • Schinckel AP, Johnson RK and Kittok RJ 1984. Testicular development and endocrine characteristics of boars selected for either high or low testis size.
    • Journal of Animal Science 58, 675-685.
    • Scientific Panel for Animal Health and Welfare 2004. Report on request from the Commission related to welfare aspects of the castration of piglets. Welfare aspect of castration of piglets. EFSA Journal 91, 11/100.
    • Sinclair PA, Squires EJ and Raeside JI 2001. Early postnatal plasma concentrations of testicular steroid hormones, pubertal development, and carcass leanness as potential indicators of boar taint in market weight intact male pigs. Journal of Animal Science 79, 1868-1876.
    • Sinclair PA, Hancock S, Gilmore WJ and Squires EJ 2005. Metabolism of the 16- androstene steroids in primary cultured porcine hepatocytes. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 96, 79-87.
    • Soma KK, Sinchak K, Lakhter A, Schilinger BA and Micevych PE 2005.
    • Neurosteroids and female reproduction: estrogen increases 3b-HSD mRNA and activity in rat hypothalamus. Endocrinology 146, 4386-4390.
    • Tambyrajah WS, Doran E, Wood JD and McGivan JD 2004. The pig CYP2E1 promoter is activated by COUP-TF1 and HNF-1 and is inhibited by androstenone. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 431, 252-260.
    • Walstra P 1974. Fattening of young boars: quantification of positive and negative aspects. Livestock Production Science 1, 187-196.
    • Walstra P, Claudi-Magnussen C, Chevillon P, von Seth G, Diestre A, Mathews KR, Homer DB and Bonneau M 1999. An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: levels of androstenone and skatole by country and season. Livestock Production Science 62, 15-28.
    • Warriss PD and Brown SN 1985. The physiological-responses to fighting in pigs and the consequences for meat quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 36, 87-92.
    • Whittington FM, Nute GR, Hughes SI, McGivan JD, Lean IJ, Wood JD and Doran E 2004. Relationships between skatole and androstenone accumulation, and cytochrome P4502E1 expression in Meishan and Large White pigs. Meat Science 67, 569-576.
    • Wood JD and Enser M 1982. Comparison of boars and castrates for bacon production. 2. Composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat, and changes in side weight during curing. Animal Production 35, 65-74.
    • Zamaratskaia G, Babol J, Madej A, Squires EJ and Lunstrom K 2004. Agerelated variation of plasma concentration of skatole, androstenone, testosterone, oestradiol-17b, oestrone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, triidothyronine and IGF-1 in six entire male pigs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 39, 168-172.
    • Zamaratskaia G, Gilmore WJ, Lundstrom K and Squires EJ 2007. Effect of testicular steroids on catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver microsomes. Food and Chemical Toxicology 45, 676-681.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article