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O'Connor, Lauren C.; Torrance, Hazel J.; Mckeown, Denise A. (2016)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Phenazepam and etizolam were the first uncontrolled benzodiazepines available for sale in the UK. Pyrazolam, flubromazepam and diclazepam are not used medicinally anywhere in the world; they are produced exclusively for the uncontrolled, recreational market. It is important to know whether potentially abused drugs like these can be detected in routine toxicological screening tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Immunalysis® Benzodiazepines ELISA kit could detect phenazepam, etizolam, pyrazolam, flubromazepam, diclazepam and its metabolite delorazepam. Their cross-reactivity was assessed by comparing the absorbance of the drug with that of oxazepam, the reference standard. This study found that these uncontrolled benzodiazepines cross-react sufficiently to produce a positive result with the Immunalysis® Benzodiazepine ELISA kit. Cross-reactivity ranged from 79 to 107% for phenazepam, etizolam, pyrazolam, flubromazepam, diclazepam and delorazepam fortified into blood. The results show that it is possible to detect these newer benzodiazepines with traditional forensic toxicology laboratory tools and it is important to include these benzodiazepines in the confirmation tests.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

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    • 2. Corkery, J.M., Schifano, F., Ghodse, A.H. (2012) Phenazepam abuse in the UK: an emerging problem causing serious adverse health prob-lems, including death. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 27, 254-261.
    • 3. A Change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: control of pipradrolrelated compounds and phenazepam, 2012.
    • 4. Zakusov, V. (1979) A new psychotropic phenazepam preparation. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 13, 1094-1097.
    • 5. European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction, European Database on New Drugs. http://ednd.emcdda.europa.eu (accessed February 2015).
    • 6. Nakamae, T., Shinozuka, T., Sasaki, C., Ogamo, A., MurakamiHashimoto, C., Irie, W. et al. (2008) Case report: etizolam and its major metabolites in two unnatural death cases. Forensic Science International, 182, 1-6.
    • 7. Moosmann, B., Hutter, M., Huppertz, L.M., Ferlaino, S., Redlingsho¨ fer, L., Auwa¨ rter, V. (2013) Characterization of the designer benzodiazepine pyrazolam and its detectability in human serum and urine. Forensic Toxicology, 31, 263-271.
    • 8. Moosmann, B., Huppertz, L.M., Hutter, M., Buchwald, A., Ferlaino, S., Auwa¨ rter, V. (2013) Detection and identification of the designer ben-zodiazepine flubromazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 48, 1150-1159.
    • 9. Moosmann, B., Bisel, P., Auwa¨ rter, V. (2014) Characterization of the designer benzodiazepine diclazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6, 757-763.
    • 10. Benzodiazepines direct ELISA kit (manual). Immunalysis Corporation, Pomona, CA, 2011.
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