Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hendry, Emma; Conway, Barbara; Worthington, Tony (2012)
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: surface disinfection, Chemistry, healthcare associated infection, chlorhexidine digluconate, QD1-999, biofilm, RM, eucalyptus oil, green biocide, Biology (General), Article, QH301-705.5
Effective surface disinfection is a fundamental infection control strategy within healthcare. This study assessed the antimicrobial efficacy of novel biocide formulations comprising 5% and 2% eucalyptus oil (EO) combined with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) contained within a wipe. The efficacy of this novel antimicrobial formulation to remove and eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Candida albicans from steel surfaces was investigated. Adpression studies of pre-contaminated wipes were also utilised to assess their potential to induce cross-contamination between hard surfaces. Furthermore, the bactericidal nature of the EO-formulation was established in addition to time-kill. The EO-containing formulations demonstrated bactericidal antimicrobial efficacy against all microorganisms and did not induce surface cross-contamination. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between the 5% and 2% EO formulations in their ability to remove microorganisms from steel surfaces, however both significantly (p < 0.05) removed more than the control formulations. Microbial biofilms were eliminated within 10 min (p < 0.05) when exposed to the EO formulations. Our novel EO-formulation demonstrated rapid antimicrobial efficacy for potential disinfection and elimination of microbial biofilms from hard surfaces and may therefore be a useful adjunct to current infection control strategies currently employed within healthcare facilities.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • J. Hosp. Infect. 2009, 72, 360-361.
    • Webber, D.J.; Rutala, W.A.; Miller, M.B.; Huslage, K.; Sickbert-Bennett, E. Role of hospital surfaces in the transmission of emerging health care associated pathogens: Norovirus, Clostridium difficile and Acinetobacter species. Am. J. Infect. Control 2010, 38, S25-S33.
    • Dancer, S.J. Importance of the environment in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: The case for hospital cleaning. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2008, 8, 101-113.
    • Bergen, L.K.; Meyer, M.; Hog, M.; Rubenhagen, B.; Anderson, L.P. Spread of bacteria on surfaces when cleaning with microfibre cloths. J. Hosp. Infect. 2009, 71, 132-137.
    • Williams, G.J.; Denyer, S.P.; Hosein, I.K.; Hill, D.W.; Maillard, J.-Y. The development of a new three-step protocol to determine the efficacy of disinfectant wipes on surfaces contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus. J. Hosp. Infect. 2007, 67, 329-335.
    • Rutala, W.A.; Weber, D.J.; the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). Guideline for the disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities. 2008. Available online: http://www.premierinc.com/safety/topics/guidelines/cdc_guidelines.jsp#disin fection-2008 (accessed on 27 August 2010).
    • 7. Hope, C.K.; Wilson, M. Analysis of the effects of chlorhexidine on oral biofilm vitality and structure based on viability profiling and an indicator of membrane integrity. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2004, 48, 1461-1468.
    • 8. Hibbard, J.S.; Mulberry, G.K.; Brady, A.R. A clinical study comparing the skin antisepsis and safety of ChloraPrep┬«, 70% isopropyl alcohol and 2% aqueous chlorhexidine. J. Infus. Nurs. 2002, 25, 244-249.
    • 9. Karpanen, T.J.; Worthington, T.; Conway, B.R.; Hilton, A.C.; Elliott, T.S.J.; Lambert, P.A. Penetration of chlorhexidine into human skin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2008, 52, 3633-3636.
    • 10. Karpanen, T.J.; Conway, B.R.; Worthington, T.; Hilton, A.C.; Elliott, T.S.J.; Lambert, P.A. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil. BMC Infect. Dis. 2010, 10, 278-283.
    • 11. Karpanen, T.J.; Worthington, T.; Hendry, E.R.; Conway, B.R.; Lambert, P.A. Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate alone and in combination with eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and thymol against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2008, 62, 1031-1036.
    • 12. Hendry, E.R.; Worthington, T.; Conway, B.R.; Lambert, P.A. Antimicrobial efficacy of eucalyptus oil and 1,8-cineole alone and in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate against microorganisms grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2009, 64, 1219-1225.
    • 13. Bloss, R.; Meyer, S.; Kampf, G. Adsorption of active ingredients of surface disinfectants on the type of fabric used for surface treatment. J. Hosp. Infect. 2010, 75, 56-61.
    • 14. Boyce, J.M.; Bynoe, G.P.; Chenevert, C.; King, T. Environmental contamination due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Possible infection control implications. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1997, 18, 622-627.
    • 15. Bartz, S.; Ritter, A.C.; Tondo, E.C. Evaluation of bacterial multiplication in cleaning cloths containing different quantities of organic matter. J. Infect. Dev. Countries 2010, 4, 566-571.
    • 16. Moore, G.; Griffih, C. A laboratory evaluation of the decontamination properties of microfibre cloths. J. Hosp. Infect. 2006, 64, 379-385.
    • 17. Mehmi, M.; Marshall, L.J.; Lambert, P.A.; Smith, J.C. Evaluation of disinfecting procedures for aseptic transfer in hospital pharmacy departments. PDA J. Pharm. Sci. Technol. 2009, 63, 123-138.
    • 18. Diab-Elschahawi, M.; Assadian, O.; Blacky, A.; Stadler, M.; Pernicka, E.; Berger, J.; Resch, H.; Koller, W. Evaluation of the decontamination efficacy of new reprocessed microfiber cleaning cloth compared with other commonly used cleaning cloths in the hospital. Am. J. Infect. Control 2010, 38, 289-292.
    • 19. Wren, M.W.D.; Rollins, M.S.M.; Jeanes, A.; Hall, T.J.; Coen, P.G.; Gant, V.A. Removing bacteria from hospital surfaces: A laboratory comparison of ultramicrofibre and standard cloths. J. Hosp. Infect. 2008, 70, 265-271.
    • 20. Miles, A.A.; Misra, S.S. The estimation of the bactericidal power of the blood. J. Hyg. 1938, 38, 732-749.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.