Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hewitt, Fiona; Rhebat, Diana Eid; Witkowski, Artur; Hull, T Richard (2016)
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: F200, F110, F162
Recent studies have identified acetone as an unexpected pyrolysis product of EVA containing aluminium or magnesium hydroxide fire retardants. It is thought that the freshly formed, open-pored, metal oxide, a thermal decomposition product of the metal hydroxide, traps acetic acid released from EVA and catalyses its conversion to acetone. Such a ketonisation reaction is well-established but the intermediate steps that result in acetic acid conversion to acetone in the presence of a metal oxide, trapped within the polymer matrix, have not been reported. This study used three model metal acetates: aluminium acetate, magnesium acetate and calcium acetate, to chemically represent the proposed metal acetate intermediate complexes. This provides crucial information on the kinetics of acetic acid trapping and subsequent acetone release during decomposition studied by TGA-FTIR, which has been used to generate kinetic models within a pyrolysis programme (ThermaKin), in order to quantitatively understand the processes occurring in fire retardant EVA. The benefit of using metal acetates is that they are simple enough to allow isolation of the chemical process of interest from the complications of acetic acid release from EVA and transport through the polymer matrix
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] Allen NS, Edge M, Rodriguez M, Liaux CM, Fontan E. Aspects of the thermal oxidation of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2000; 68: 363 - 371.
    • [2] Jin J, Chen S, Zhang J. UV aging behaviour of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) with different vinyl acetate contents. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2010; 95: 725 - 732.
    • [3] Fernández AI, Hairie L, Formosa J, Chimenos JM, Antunes M, Velasco JI. Characterization of poly(ethyleneco-vinyl acetate) (EVA) filled with low grade magnesium hydroxide. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2009; 94: 57 - 60.
    • [4] Hollingbery LA, Hull TR. The fire retardant behaviour of huntite and hydromagnesite - A review. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2010; 95: 2213 - 2225.
    • [5] Hull TR, Witkowski A, Hollingbery L. Fire retardant action of mineral fillers. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2011; 96: 1462 - 1469.
    • [6] Laoutid F, Lorgouilloux M, Lesueur D, Bonnaud L, Dubois P. Calcium-based hydrated minerals: Promising halogen-free flame retardant and fire resistant additives for polyethylene and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2013; 98: 1617 - 1625.
    • [7] Chang M, Hwang S, Liu S. Flame retardancy and thermal stability of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer nanocomposites with alumina trihydrate and montmorillonite. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2014; 20: 1596 - 1601.
    • [8] Witkowski A, Stec AA, Hull TR. The influence of metal hydroxide fire retardants and nanoclay on the thermal decomposition of EVA. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2010; 97: 2231 - 2240.
    • [9] Wang X, Rathore R, Songtipya P, Jimenez-Gasco M, Manias E, Wilke CA. EVA-layered double hydroxide (nano)composites: Mechanism of fire retardancy. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2011; 96: 301 - 313.
    • [18] Li J and Stoliarov SI. Measurement of kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal degradation for charring polymers. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2014; 106: 2 - 15.
    • [19] Haines, Peter, ed. RSC Paperbacks, Volume 29: Principles of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Cambridge, GBR: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002.
    • [20] Dudley Corporation, Calcium acetate monohydrate safety data sheet, Effective Date: January 1, 2015.
    • [21] Freudenheim ME. Acetone and lime. Journal of Physical Chemisty 1918; 22: 184 - 193.
    • [22] Linteris GT, Lyon RE, Stoliarov SI. Prediction of the gasification rate of thermoplastic polymers in fire-like environments. Fire Safety Journal 2013; 60: 14 - 24.
    • [23] Stoliarov SI, Safronava N, Lyon RE. The effect of variation in polymer properties on the rate of burning. Fire and Materials 2009; 33: 257 - 271.
    • [24] Witkowski A, Girardin B, Försth M, Hewitt F, Fontaine G, Duquesne S, Bourbigot S, Hull TR. Development of an anaerobic pyrolysis model for fire retardant cable sheathing materials. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2015; 113: 208 - 217.
    • [25] Witkowski A. The use of numerical methods to interpret polymer decomposition data [Ph.D. thesis]. University of Central Lancashire; 2012.
    • [26] Stoliarov SI, Leventon IT, Lyon RE. Two-dimension Model of Burning for Pyrolyzable Solids. Federal Aviation Administration; 2013. Technical note DOT/FAA/TC-TN12/59.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects


Cite this article