Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Watson, Tom (2015)
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
This chapter analyses the antecedents, springboards and restraints that have shaped the development of public relations (PR) in more than 70 countries. Based on data from chapters in the preceding five books in the series, it proposes there are three common antecedents of PR activity – early corporate communication, governmental information and propaganda methods and cultural/religious influences. The springboards for PR’s growth have been professionalization and education, along with the opening of economies and political plurality. The restraints have been political and economic, such as one-party states and dictatorships and closed economies. PR’s historiography is also explored and identifies periodization as the primary method. Future research should move on from the current discovery stage into more analytical and critical processes.
  • No references.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok