Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Chambers, Eleni; Cook, Sarah; Thake, Anna; Foster, Alexis; Shaw, Sue; Hutten, Rebecca; Parry, Glenys; Ricketts, Tom (2015)
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal: BMC Psychiatry
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Research Article, Depression, Patients’ perspective, Qualitative research, Recovery, Self-help, Self-management, Psychiatry and Mental health
Background Depression is a common mental health condition now viewed as chronic or long-term. More than 50 % of people will have at least one further episode of depression after their first, and therefore it requires long-term management. However, little is known about the effectiveness of self-management in depression, in particular from the patients’ perspective. This study aimed to understand how people with longer-term depression manage the condition, how services can best support self-management and whether the principles and concepts of the recovery approach would be advantageous. Methods Semi-structured in depth interviews were carried out with 21 participants, recruited from a range of sources using maximum variation sampling. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used by a diverse team comprised of service users, practitioners and academics. Results Four super-ordinate themes were found: experience of depression, the self, the wider environment, self-management strategies. Within these, several prominent sub-themes emerged of importance to the participants. These included how aspects of themselves such as hope, confidence and motivation could be powerful agents; and how engaging in a wide range of chosen activities could contribute to their emotional, mental, physical, social, spiritual and creative wellbeing. Conclusions Services in general were not perceived to be useful in specifically facilitating self-management. Increased choice and control were needed and a greater emphasis on an individualised holistic model. Improved information was needed about how to develop strategies and locate resources, especially during the first episode of depression. These concepts echoed those of the recovery approach, which could therefore be seen as valuable in aiding the self-management of depression. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0550-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Marcus M, Yasamy MT, van Ommeren M, Chisholm D, Saxena S. Depression. A Global Public Health Concern. Edited by WHO. 2012.
    • 2. Kupfer DJ. Long-term treatment of depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1991;52(Suppl):28-34.
    • 3. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: Depression. The Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults. Updatedth ed. Leicester and London: British Psychological Society and Royal College of Psychiatrists; 2010.
    • 4. Richards D. Prevalence and clinical course of depression: a review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:1117-25.
    • 5. Barlow J, Wright C, Sheasby J, Turner A, Hainsworth J. Self-management approaches for people with chronic conditions: a review. Patient Educ Couns. 2002;48:177-87.
    • 6. Newman S, Steed L, Mulligan K. Self-management interventions for chronic illness. Lancet. 2004;364:1523-37.
    • 7. den Boer PC, Wiersma D, van den Bosch RJ. Why is self-help neglected in the treatment of emotional disorders? A meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2004;34:959-71.
    • 8. van Grieken RA, Kirkenier AC, Koeter MW. Nabitz UW. Schene AH: Patients' perspective on self-management in the recovery from depression. Health Expect; 2014 (online 2 Aug).
    • 9. Houle J, Gascon-Depatie M, Belanger-Dumontier G, Cardinal C. Depression selfmanagement support: A systematic review. Patient Educ Couns. 2013;91:271-9.
    • 10. Gillard S, Edwards C, White S, White R, Adams K, Davies L, et al. The barriers and facilitators of supporting self care in Mental Health NHS Trusts. Report for the NIHR SDO programme. London: HMSO; 2010.
    • 11. Davidson L. Recovery, self management and the expert patient - Changing the culture of mental health from a UK perspective. J Ment Health. 2005;14:25-35.
    • 12. Mental Health Foundation. Self-management of mental ill-health [http:// www.mentalhealth.org.uk/help-information/mental-health-a-z/S/selfmanagement/]
    • 13. Bower P, Richards D, Lovell K. The clinical and cost-effectiveness of self-help treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51:838.
    • 14. Gellatly J, Bower P, Hennessy S, Richards D, Gilbody S, Lovell K. What makes self-help interventions effective in the management of depressive symptoms? Meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychol Med. 2007;37:1217-28.
    • 15. DoH. Improving Access to Psychological Therapies [http://www.iapt.nhs.uk/]
    • 16. Depression UK [http://www.depressionuk.org]
    • 17. Bonney S, Stickley T. Recovery and mental health: a review of the British literature. J Psychiatr Mental Health Nurs. 2008;15:140-53.
    • 18. Deegan P. Recovery, Rehabilitation and the Conspiracy of Hope. In “There's a Person In Here”: The Sixth Annual Mental Health Services Conference of Australia and New Zealand. Brisbane, Australia: Pat Deegan, PhD & Associates, LLC; 1996.
    • 19. Jorm AF, Griffiths KM. Population promotion of informal self-help strategies for early intervention against depression and anxiety. Psychol Med. 2006;36:3-6.
    • 20. Lewis G, Anderson L, Araya R, Elgie R, Harrison G, Proudfoot J, et al. Self-help Interventions for Mental Health Problems. Expert Briefing. London: NIMHE; 2003.
    • 21. Faulkner A, Wallcraft J. Strategies for Living. A summary report of user-led research into people's strategies for living with mental distress. London: Mental Health Foundation; 1999.
    • 22. Holzinger A, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC. What to do about depression? Self-help recommendations of the public. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2012;58:343-9.
    • 23. Simco R, McCusker J, Sewitch M. Adherence to self-care interventions for depression or anxiety: A systematic review. Health Educ J. 2014, (online 21 Jan)
    • 24. Morgan AJ, Jorm AF. Self-help strategies that are helpful for sub-threshold depression: A Delphi consensus study. J Affect Disord. 2009;115:196-200.
    • 25. Harwood TM, L'Abate L. Self-Help in Mental Health: A Critical Review. New York: Springer; 2009.
    • 26. Aked J, Marks N, Cordon C, Thompson S. Five ways to well-being: The evidence. A report. London: Centre for Wellbeing, New Economics Foundation; 2008.
    • 27. Chew-Graham C, Kovandzic M, Gask L, Burroughs H, Clarke P, Sanderson H, et al. Why may older people with depression not present to primary care? Messages from secondary analysis of qualitative data. Health Soc Care Community. 2012;20:52-60.
    • 28. Marley E. Self-help strategies to reduce emotional distress: What do people do and why? A qualitative study. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 2011;11:317-24.
    • 29. Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for South Yorkshire (CLAHRC SY). Improving Quality and Effectiveness of Services Therapies and Self-management of longer term depression (IQuESTS) [http://clahrc-sy.nihr.ac.uk/theme-iquests-introduction.html]
    • 30. Giorgi A, Giorgi B. Phenomenology. In: Smith JA, editor. Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods. London: Sage Publications; 2003. p. 25-50.
    • 31. Smith JA, Flowers P, Larkin M. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research. London: Sage; 2009.
    • 32. Shaw R. Why use interpretative phenomenological analysis in Health Psychology? Health Psychology Update. 2001;10:48-52.
    • 33. Smith JA, Osborn M. Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Smith JA, editor. Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods. London: Sage Publications; 2003. p. 51-80.
    • 34. Hanley B, Bradburn J, Barnes M, Evans C, Goodare H, Kelson M, et al. Involving the public in NHS, public health, and social care research: Briefing notes for researchers. Edited by Steel R. 2004. Eastleigh, INVOLVE.
    • 35. Allam S, Blyth S, Fraser A, Hodgson S, Howes J, Repper J, et al. Our experience of collaborative research: Service users, carers and researchers work together to evaluate an assertive outreach service. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2004;11:368-73.
    • 36. Martindale S, Chambers E, Thompson A. Clinical psychology service users' experiences of confidentiality and informed consent: A qualitative analysis. Psychol Psychother-T. 2009;82:355-68.
    • 37. Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for South Yorkshire (CLAHRC SY). South Yorkshire Cohort [http://clahrc-sy.nihr.ac.uk/ south-yorkshire-cohort.html]
    • 38. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:22-33.
    • 39. Mays N, Pope C. Rigour and qualitative research. BMJ. 1995;311:109-12.
    • 40. Fossey E, Epstein M, Findlay R, Plant G, Harvey C. Creating a positive experience of research for people with psychiatric disabilities by sharing feedback. Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2002;25:369-78.
    • 41. Mays N, Pope C. Qualitative research in health care. Assessing quality in qualitative research. BMJ. 2000;320:50-2.
    • 42. Gibbs A. Focus Groups. Social Res Update. 1997;19 http://sru.soc.surrey.ac.uk/ SRU19.html.
    • 43. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3:77-101.
    • 44. Larkin M, Thompson A. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis in Mental Health and Psychotherapy Research. In: Harper D, Thompson A, editors. Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health and Psychotherapy. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. p. 101-16.
    • 45. Finlay L, Gough B. Reflexivity: A Practical Guide for Researchers in Health and Social Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2003.
    • 46. Pilling S, Anderson I, Goldberg D, Meader N, Taylor C. Depression in adults, including those with a chronic physical health problem: Summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2009;339:b4108.
    • 47. Johnson C, Gunn J, Kokanovic R. Depression recovery from the primary care patient's perspective: “Hear it in my voice and see it in my eyes”. Ment Health Fam Med. 2009;6:49-55.
    • 48. Pratt R, Halliday E, Maxwell M. Professional and service-user perceptions of self-help in primary care mental health services. Health Soc Care Community. 2009;17:209-15.
    • 49. Schrank B, Slade M. Recovery in psychiatry. Psychiatr Bull. 2007;31:321-5.
    • 50. Stickley T, Wright N. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part One: a review of the peer reviewed literature using a systematic approach. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2011;18:247-56.
    • 51. Stickley T, Wright N. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part Two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2011;18:297-307.
    • 52. Shepherd G, Boardman J, Slade M. Making Recovery a Reality. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health; 2008.
    • 53. Wallcraft J, Tew J, Griffiths R, Nicholls V. A common purpose: Recovery in future mental health services. London: Care Services Improvement Partnership (CSIP), Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych), Social Care Institure for Excellence (SCIE); 2012.
    • 54. Kalathil J. Recovery and resilience: African, African-Caribbean and South Asian women's narratives of recovering from mental distress. London: Mental Health Foundation; 2011.
    • 55. Barney LJ, Griffiths KM, Banfield MA. Explicit and implicit information needs of people with depression: a qualitative investigation of problems reported on an online depression support forum. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:88-98.
    • 56. Rodgers M, Asaria M, Walker S, McMillan D, Lucock M, Harden M, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of low-intensity psychological interventions for the secondary prevention of relapse after depression: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. 2012;16:1-130.
    • 57. Gili M, Vicens C, Roca M, Andersen P, McMillan D. Interventions for Preventing Relapse or Recurrence of Depression in Primary Health Care Settings: A Systematic Review. Prev Med. 2014, (online 3 Sep)
    • 58. Biesheuvel-Leliefeld KE, Kok GD, Bockting CL, Cuijpers P, Hollon SD, van Marwijk HW, et al. Effectiveness of psychological interventions in preventing recurrence of depressive disorder: Meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Affect Disord. 2015;174:400-10.
    • 59. Bellon JA, Moreno-Peral P, Motrico E, Rodriguez-Morejon A, Fernandez A, Serrano-Blanco A, et al. Effectiveness of psychological and/or educational interventions to prevent the onset of episodes of depression: a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Prev Med. 2014, (online 3 Nov)
    • 60. Lucock M, Gillard S, Adams K, Simons L, White R, Edwards C. Self care in mental health services: a narrative review. Health Soc Care Community. 2011;19:602-16.
    • 61. Coulter A, Roberts S, Dixon A. Delivering better services for people with long-term conditions. Building the house of care. London: The King's Fund; 2013. p. 1-28.
    • 62. McDonald C. Patients in control: Why people with long-term conditions must be empowered. London: Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR); 2014.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article