Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Sambo, C; Vallar, G; Fortis, P; Ronchi, R; Posteraro, L; Forster, B; Maravita, A (2012)
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Journal: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF, Neuroscience, Settore M-PSI/02 - Psicobiologia E Psicologia Fisiologica, tactile extinction, Original Research Article, attention, multisensory, space, attention, ERPs, hand crossing, multisensory, space, tactile extinction, ERPs, hand crossing
Crossing the hands over the midline reduces left tactile extinction to double simultaneous stimulation in right-brain-damaged patients, suggesting that spatial attentional biases toward the ipsilesional (right) side of space contribute to the patients' contralesional (left) deficit. We investigated (1) whether the position of the left hand, and its vision, affected processing speed of tactile stimuli, and (2) the electrophysiological underpinnings of the effect of hand position. (1) Four right-brain-damaged patients with spatial neglect and contralesional left tactile extinction or somatosensory deficits, and eight neurologically unimpaired participants, performed a speeded detection task on single taps delivered on their left index finger. In patients, placing the left hand in the right (heteronymous) hemi-space resulted in faster reaction times (RTs) to tactile stimuli, compared to placing that hand in the left (homonymous) hemi-space, particularly when the hand was visible. By contrast, in controls placing the left hand in the heteronymous hemi-space increased RTs. (2) Somatosensory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from one patient and two controls in response to the stimulation of the left hand, placed in the two spatial positions. In the patient, the somatosensory P70, N140, and N250 components were enhanced when the left hand was placed in the heteronymous hemi-space, whereas in controls these components were not modulated by hand position. The novel findings are that in patients placing the left hand in the right, ipsilesional hemi-space yields a temporal advantage in processing tactile stimuli, and this effect may rely on a modulation of stimulus processing taking place as early as in the primary somatosensory cortex, as indexed by evoked potentials. Furthermore, vision enhances tactile processing specifically when the left hand is placed in the hemi-space toward which the patients' attentional biases are pathologically directed, namely rightwards.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Adams, R. D., Victor, M., and Ropper, A. H. (2005). Principles of Neurology. New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill.
    • Aglioti, S., Smania, N., and Peru, A. (1999). Frames of reference for mapping tactile stimuli in brain-damaged patients. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 11, 67-79.
    • Albert, M. L. (1973). A simple test of visual neglect. Neurology 23, 658-664.
    • Allison, T., McCarthy, G., and Wood, C. C. (1992). The relationship between human long-latency somatosensory evoked potentials recorded from the cortical surface and from the scalp. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 84, 301-314.
    • Angelelli, P., De Luca, M., and Spinelli, D. (1996). Early visual processing in neglect patients: a study with steady-state VEPs. Neuropsychologia 34, 1151-1157.
    • Azañón, E., and Soto-Faraco, S. (2008). Changing reference frames during the encoding of tactile events. Curr. Biol. 18, 1044-1049.
    • Bartolomeo, P., Perri, R., and Gainotti, G. (2004). The influence of limb crossing on left tactile extinction. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 49-55.
    • Bisiach, E., and Faglioni, P. (1974). Recognition of random shapes by patients with unilateral lesions as a function of complexity, association value and delay. Cortex 10, 101-110.
    • Bisiach, E., Perani, D., Vallar, G., and Berti, A. (1986). Unilateral neglect: personal and extrapersonal. Neuropsychologia 24, 759-767.
    • Bisiach, E., and Vallar, G. (2000). “Unilateral neglect in humans,” in Handbook of Neuropsychology, eds F. Boller, J. Grafman, and G. Rizzolatti (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, B.V.), 459-502.
    • Bottini, G., Paulesu, E., Gandola, M., Loffredo, S., Scarpa, P., Sterzi, R., Santilli, I., Defanti, C. A., Scialfa, G., Fazio, F., and Vallar, G. (2005). Left caloric vestibular stimulation ameliorates right hemianesthesia. Neurology 65, 1278-1283.
    • Botvinick, M., and Cohen, J. (1998). Rubber hands “feel” touch that eyes see. Nature 391, 756.
    • Brozzoli, C., Demattè, M. L., Pavani, F., Frassinetti, F., and Farnè, A. (2006). Neglect and extinction: within and between sensory modalities. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 24, 217-232.
    • Cardini, F., Longo, M. R., Driver, J., and Haggard, P. (2012). Rapid enhancement of touch from non-informative vision of the hand. Neuropsychologia 50, 1954-1960.
    • Cocchini, G., Beschin, N., and Jehkonen, M. (2001). The Fluff test: a simple task to assess body representation neglect. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 11, 17-31.
    • Corbetta, M., Miezin, F. M., Shulman, G. L., and Petersen, S. E. (1993). A PET study of visuospatial attention. J. Neurosci. 13, 1202-1226.
    • Diller, L., Ben-Yishay, Y., Gerstman, L. J., Goodkin, R., Gordon, W., and Weinberg, J. (1974). Studies in Cognition and Rehabilitation in Hemiplegia. New York, NY: University Medical Centre.
    • Driver, J., Mattingley, J. B., Rorden, C., and Davis, G. (1997). “Extinction as a paradigm measure of attentional bias and restricted capacity following brain injury,” in Parietal Lobe Contributions to Orientation in 3D Space, eds P. Thier and H.-O. Karnath (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag), 401-429.
    • Driver, J., and Vuilleumier, P. (2001). Perceptual awareness and its loss in unilateral neglect and extinction. Cognition 79, 39-88.
    • Eimer, M. (2004). Multisensory integration: how visual experience shapes spatial perception. Curr. Biol. 14, R115-R117.
    • Eimer, M., Cockburn, D., Smedley, B., and Driver, J. (2001). Crossmodal links in endogenous spatial attention are mediated by common external locations: evidence from event-related brain potentials. Exp. Brain Res. 139, 398-411.
    • Eimer, M., and Forster, B. (2003a). Modulations of early somatosensory ERP components by transient and sustained spatial attention. Exp. Brain Res. 151, 24-31.
    • Eimer, M., and Forster, B. (2003b). The spatial distribution of attentional selectivity in touch: evidence from somatosensory ERP components. Clin. Neurophysiol. 114, 1298-1306.
    • Eimer, M., Maravita, A., van Velzen, J., Husain, M., and Driver, J. (2002). The electrophysiology of tactile extinction: ERP correlates of unconscious somatosensory processing. Neuropsychologia 40, 2438-2447.
    • Fiorio, M., and Haggard, P. (2005). Visual enhancement of touch in primary somatosensory cortex. Eur. J. Neurosci. 22, 773-777.
    • Forster, B., and Eimer, M. (2005). Covert attention in touch: behavioural and electrophysiological evidence for costs and benefits. Psychophysiology 42, 171-179.
    • Fortis, P., Maravita, A., Gallucci, M., Ronchi, R., Grassi, E., Senna, I., Olgiati, E., Perucca, L., Banco, E., Posteraro, L., Tesio, L., and Vallar, G. (2010). Rehabilitating patients with left spatial neglect by prism exposure during a visuomotor activity. Neuropsychology 24, 681-697.
    • Frot, M., and Mauguière, F. (1999). Timing and spatial distribution of somatosensory responses recorded in the upper bank of the sylvian fissure (SII area) in humans. Cereb. Cortex 8, 854-863.
    • Gainotti, G. (2010). The role of automatic orienting of attention towards ipsilesional stimuli in non-visual (tactile and auditory) neglect: a critical review. Cortex 46, 150-160.
    • Gainotti, G., Messerli, P., and Tissot, R. (1972). Qualitative analysis of unilateral spatial neglect in relation to laterality of cerebral lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 35, 545-550.
    • Gallace, A., and Spence, C. (2007). The cognitive and neural correlates of “tactile consciousness”: a multisensory perspective. Conscious. Cogn. 17, 370-407.
    • Gallace, A., Torta, D. M. E., Moseley, G. L., and Iannetti, G. D. (2011). The analgesic effect of crossing the arms. Pain 152, 1418-1423.
    • Gauthier, L., Dehaut, F., and Joanette, Y. (1989). The bells test: a quantitative and qualitative test for visual neglect. Int. J. Clin. Neuropsychol. 11, 49-54.
    • Gitelman, D. R., Nobre, A. C., Parrish, T. B., LaBar, K. S., Kim, Y. H., Meyer, J. R., and Mesulam, M. (1999). A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial attention: further anatomical delineation based on stringent behavioural and cognitive controls. Brain 122, 1093-1106.
    • Goff, W. R., Allison, T., and Vaughan, H. G. Jr. (1978). “The functional neuroanatomy of event-related potentials,” in Event-related Brain Potentials in Man, eds E. Callaway, P. Tueting, and S. H. Koslow (New York, NY: Academic Press), 1-92.
    • Graziano, M. S. (1999). Where is my arm? The relative role of vision and proprioception in the neuronal representation of limb position. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 10418-10421.
    • Halligan, P. W., Fink, G. R., Marshall, J. C., and Vallar, G. (2003). Spatial cognition: evidence from visual neglect. Trends Cogn. Sci. 7, 125-133.
    • Hari, R., Reinikainen, K., Kaukoranta, E., Hämäläinen, M., Ilmoniemi, R., Penttinen, A., Salminen, J., and Teszner, D. (1984). Somatosensory evoked cerebral magnetic fields from SI and SII in man. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 57, 254-263.
    • Heed, T., and Röder, B. (2010). Common anatomical and external coding for hands and feet in tactile attention: evidence from eventrelated potentials. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 22, 184-202.
    • Heilman, K. M., Watson, R. T., and Valenstein, E. (2003). “Neglect and related disorders,” in Clinical Neuropsychology, eds K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 296-346.
    • Hopfinger, J. B., Buonocore, M. H., and Mangun, G. R. (2000). The neural mechanisms of top-down attentional control. Nat. Neurosci. 3, 284-291.
    • Husain, M. (2008). “Hemispatial neglect,” in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, eds G. Goldenberg and B. L. Miller (Amsterdam: Elsevier, B. V.), 359-372.
    • Kennett, S., Taylor-Clarke, M., and Haggard, P. (2001). Noninformative vision improves the spatial resolution of touch in humans. Curr. Biol. 11, 1188-1191.
    • Kitazawa, S. (2002). Where conscious sensation takes place. Conscious. Cogn. 11, 475-477.
    • Lloyd, D. M., Shore, D. I., Spence, C., and Calvert, G. A. (2003). Multisensory representation of limb position in human premotor cortex. Nat. Neurosci. 6, 17-18.
    • Mancini, F., Bricolo, E., Mattioli, F. C., and Vallar, G. (2011). Visuohaptic interactions in unilateral spatial neglect: the cross modal Judd illusion. Front. Psychology 2:341. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00341 Maravita, A. (2008). “Spatial disorders,” in Cognitive Neurology: a Clinical Textbook, eds S. Cappa, J. Aboutelebi, J. F. Demonet, P. Fletcher, and P. Garrard (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 89-118.
    • Maravita, A., Spence, C., and Driver, J. (2003). Multisensory integration and the body schema: close to hand and within reach. Curr. Biol. 13, 531-539.
    • Kooistra, C. A., and Heilman, K. M. (1989). Hemispatial visual inattention masquerading as hemianopia. Neurology 39, 1125-1127.
    • Marzi, C. A., Girelli, M., Miniussi, C., Smania, N., and Maravita, A. (2000). Electrophysiological correlates of conscious vision: evidence from unilateral extinction. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 12, 869-877.
    • McLeod, P., Plunkett, K., and Rolls, E. T. (1998). Introduction to Connectionist Modelling of Cognitive Processes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Mesulam, M. M. (1981). A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect. Ann. Neurol. 10, 309-25.
    • Mesulam, M. M. (2002). “Functional anatomy of attention and neglect: from neurons to networks,” in The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect, eds H. O. Karnath, A. D. Milner, and G. Vallar (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 33-45.
    • Michael, G. A., Dupuy, M. A., Deleuze, A., Humblot, M., Simon, B., and Naveteur, J. (2012). Interacting effects of vision and attention in perceiving spontaneous sensations arising on the hands. Exp. Brain Res. 216, 21-34.
    • Michie, P. T., Bearpark, H. M., Crawford, J. M., and Glue, L. C. T. (1987). The effects of spatial selective attention on the somatosensory event-related potentials. Psychophysiology 24, 449-463.
    • Mima, T., Nagamine, T., Nakamura, K., and Shibasaki, H. (1998). Attention modulates both primary and second somatosensory cortical activities in humans: a magnetoencephalographic study. J. Neurophysiol. 80, 2215-2221.
    • Moro, V., Zampini, M., and Aglioti, S. (2004). Changes in spatial position of hands modify tactile extinction but not disownership of contralesional hand in two right braindamaged patients. Neurocase 10, 437-443.
    • Moscovitch, M., and Behrmann, M. (1994). Coding of spatial information in the somatosensory system: evidence from patients with neglect following parietal lobe damage. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 6, 151-155.
    • Press, C., Taylor-Clarke, M., Kennett, S., and Haggard, P. (2004). Visual enhancement of touch in spatial body representation. Exp. Brain Res. 154, 238-245.
    • Remy, P., Zilbovicius, M., Degos, J. D., Bachoud-Lévi, A. C., Rancurel, G., Cesaro, P., and Samson, Y. (1999). Somatosensory cortical activations are suppressed in patients with tactile extinction: a PET study. Neurology 52, 571-577.
    • Rock, I., and Victor, J. (1964). Vision and touch: an experimentally created conflict between the two senses. Science 143, 594-596.
    • Rode, G., Michel, C., Rossetti, Y., Boisson, D., and Vallar, G. (2006). Left size distortion (hyperschematia) after right brain damage. Neurology 67, 1801-1808.
    • Röder, B., Rösler, F., and Spence, C. (2004). Early vision impairs tactile perception in the blind. Curr. Biol. 14, 121-124.
    • Ropper, A. H., and Samuels, M. A. (2009). Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional.
    • Rorden, C., Heutink, J., Greenfield, E., and Robertson, I. H. (1999). When a rubber hand 'feels' what the real hand cannot. Neuroreport 10, 135-138.
    • Sambo, C. F., Gillmeister, H., and Forster, B. (2009). Viewing the body modulates sustained spatial attention in touch. Eur. J. Neurosci. 30, 143-150.
    • Schubert, R., Ritter, P., Wüstenberg, T., Preuschhof, C., Curio, G., Sommer, W., and Villringer, A. (2008). Spatial attention related SEP amplitude modulations covary with BOLD signal in S1, a simultaneous EEGfMRI study. Cereb. Cortex 18, 2686-2700.
    • Schwoebel, J., and Coslett, H. B. (2005). Evidence for multiple, distinct representations of the human body. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 543-553.
    • Serino, A., Farnè, A., and Rinaldesi, M. L., Haggard, P. and Làdavas, E. (2007). Can vision of the body ameliorate impaired somatosensory function? Neuropsychologia 45, 1101-1107.
    • Shore, D. I., Spry, E., and Spence, C. (2002). Confusing the mind by crossing the hands. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 14, 153-163.
    • Silver, M. A., and Kastner, S. (2009). Topographic maps in human frontal and parietal cortex. Trends Cogn. Sci. 13, 488-495.
    • Smania, N., and Aglioti, S. (1995). Sensory and spatial components of somaesthetic deficits following right brain damage. Neurology 45, 1725-1730.
    • Sterzi, R., Bottini, G., Celani, M. G., Righetti, E., Lamassa, M., Ricci, S., and Vallar, G. (1993). Hemianopia, hemianaesthesia, and hemiplegia after left and right hemisphere damage: a hemispheric difference. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 56, 308-310.
    • Taylor-Clarke, M., Kennett, S., and Haggard, P. (2002). Vision modulates somatosensory cortical processing. Curr. Biol. 12, 233-236.
    • Tipper, S. P., Lloyd, D., Shorland, B., Dancer, C., Howard, L. A., and McGlone, F. (1998). Vision influences tactile perception without proprioceptive orienting. Neuroreport 9, 1741-1744.
    • Tsakiris, M., Hesse, M. D., Boy, C., Haggard, P., and Fink, G. R. (2007). Neural signatures of body ownership: a sensory network for bodily self-consciousness. Cereb. Cortex 17, 2235-2244.
    • Vaishnavi, S., Calhoun, J., and Chatterjee, A. (2001). Binding personal and peripersonal space: evidence from tactile extinction. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 13, 181-189.
    • Vallar, G. (1997). Spatial frames of reference and somatosensory processing: a neuropsychological perspective. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 352, 1401-1409.
    • Vallar, G. (1998). Spatial hemineglect in humans. Trends Cogn. Sci. 2, 87-98.
    • Vallar, G. (1999). “Spatial frames of reference and somatosensory processing: A neuropsychological perspective,” in The Hippocampal and Parietal Foundations of Spatial Cognition, eds N. Burgess, K. J. Jeffery and J. O'Keefe (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 33-49.
    • Vallar, G. (2007). A hemispheric asymmetry in somatosensory processing. Behav. Brain Sci. 30, 223-224.
    • Vallar, G., and Maravita, A. (2009). “Personal and extra-personal spatial perception,” in Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Sciences, eds G. G. Berntson and J. T. Cacioppo (New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons), 322-336.
    • Vallar, G., Bottini, G., Sterzi, R., Passerini, D., and Rusconi, M. L. (1991a). Hemianesthesia, sensory neglect, and defective access to conscious experience. Neurology 41, 650-652.
    • Vallar, G., Sandroni, P., Rusconi, M. L., and Barbieri, S. (1991b). Hemianopia, hemianesthesia, and spatial neglect: a study with evoked potentials. Neurology 41, 1918-1922.
    • Vallar, G., Bottini, G., Rusconi, M. L., and Sterzi, R. (1993). Exploring somatosensory hemineglect by vestibular stimulation. Brain 116, 71-86.
    • Vallar, G., Guariglia, C., and Rusconi, M. L. (1997). “Modulation of the neglect syndrome by sensory stimulation,” in Parietal Lobe Contributions to Orientation in 3D Space, eds P. Their and H. O. Karnath. (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag), 555-578.
    • Vallar, G., Rusconi, M. L., Fontana, S., and Musicco, M. (1994). Tre test di esplorazione visuo-spaziale: taratura su 212 soggetti normali. Arch. Psicol. Neurol. Psichiatr. 55, 827-841.
    • Vallar, G., Sterzi, R., Bottini, G., Cappa, S., and Rusconi, M. L. (1990). Temporary remission of left hemianesthesia after vestibular stimulation. A sensory neglect phenomenon. Cortex 26, 123-131.
    • Valenza, N., Seghier, M. L., Schwartz, S., Lazeyras, F., and Vuilleumier, P. (2004). Tactile awareness and limb position in neglect: functional magnetic resonance imaging. Ann. Neurol. 55, 139-143.
    • Vossel, S., Eschenbeck, P., Weiss, P. H., Weidner, R., Saliger, J., Karbe, H., and Fink, G. R. (2011). Visual extinction in relation to visuospatial neglect after right-hemispheric stroke: quantitative assessment and statistical lesion-symptom mapping. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 82, 862-868.
    • van Beers, R. J., Sittig, A. C., and Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1996). How humans combine simultaneous proprioceptive and visual position information. Exp. Brain Res. 111, 253-261.
    • van Beers, R. J., Sittig, A. C., and Denier van der Gon, J. J. (1999). Integration of proprioceptive and visual position-information: an experimentally supported model. J. Neurophysiol. 81, 1355-1364.
    • Yamamoto, S., and Kitazawa, S. (2001). Reversal of subjective temporal order due to arm crossing. Nat. Neurosci. 4, 759-765.
  • No related research data.
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.