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Al-Sousi, Ghareeb N.
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects:
The thesis is divided into four chapters. They are: introduction, experimental, results and discussion about the free ligands and results and discussion about the complexes. The First Chapter, the introductory chapter, is a general introduction to the study of solid state reactions. The Second Chapter is devoted to the materials and experimental methods that have been used for carrying out tile experiments. TIle Third Chapter is concerned with the characterisations of free ligands (Picolinic acid, nicotinic acid, and isonicotinic acid) by using elemental analysis, IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectra. Additionally, the thermal behaviour of free ligands in air has been studied by means of thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The behaviour of thermal decomposition of the three free ligands was not identical Finally, a computer program has been used for kinetic evaluation of non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry data according to a composite and single heating rate methods in comparison with the methods due to Ozawa and Kissinger methods. The most probable reaction mechanism for the free ligands was the Avrami-Erofeev equation (A) that described the solid-state nucleation-growth mechanism. The activation parameters of the decomposition reaction for free ligands were calculated and the results of different methods of data analysis were compared and discussed. The Fourth Chapter, the final chapter, deals with the preparation of cobalt, nickel, and copper with mono-pyridine carboxylic acids in aqueous solution. The prepared complexes have been characterised by analyses, IR spectra, X-ray diffraction, magnetic moments, and electronic spectra. The stoichiometry of these compounds was ML2x(H20), (where M = metal ion, L = organic ligand and x = water molecule). The environments of cobalt, nickel, and copper nicotinates and the environments of cobalt and nickel picolinates were octahedral, whereas the environment of copper picolinate [Cu(PA)2] was tetragonal. However, the environments of cobalt, nickel, and copper isonicotinates were polymeric octahedral structures. The morphological changes that occurred throughout the decomposition were followed by SEM observation. TG, DTG, and DSC measurements have studied the thermal behaviour of the prepared complexes in air. During the degradation processes of the hydrated complexes, the crystallisation water molecules were lost in one or two steps. This was also followed by loss of organic ligands and the metal oxides remained. Comparison between the DTG temperatures of the first and second steps of the dehydration suggested that the water of crystallisation was more strongly bonded with anion in Ni(II) complexes than in the complexes of Co(II) and Cu(II). The intermediate products of decomposition were not identified. The most probable reaction mechanism for the prepared complexes was also Avrami-Erofeev equation (A) characteristic of solid-state nucleation-growth mechanism. The tempemture dependence of conductivity using direct current was determined for cobalt, nickel, Cl.nd copper isonicotinates. An activation energy (ΔΕ), the activation energy (ΔΕ ) were calculated.The ternperature and frequency dependence of conductivity, the frequency dependence of dielectric constant, and the dielectric loss for nickel isonicotinate were determined by using altemating current. The value of s paralneter and the value of'density of state [N(Ef)] were calculated. Keyword Thermal decomposition, kinetic, electrical conduclion, pyridine rnono~ carboxylic acid, cOlnplex, transition metal compJex.
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