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El Zoghbi, Mona B.
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: RA0421, GF
This doctoral study investigates the different forms, levels, and pathways of youth engagement with climate change and the implications for the well-being of youth in different contexts of vulnerability and adaptability. It aims to understand such engagement through the accounts and interactions of youth themselves and within their own environmental, socio-cultural, and political context, thereby contributing a holistic understanding of youth engagement in specific countries, an area under-researched in current literature.\ud cultural stereotypes, and socio-political worldviews and structures; b) the need for enhancing young people's skills and prospects for future employment and welfare within an increasingly interconnected, technologically-driven, and sustainability-oriented workplace, through incorporating more critical, futures-oriented, and inter-disciplinary pedagogies of education and learning for sustainability within the higher education curriculum; c) the importance of academic and socio-political spaces and opportunities that foster critical reflection, interpersonal interaction, and collective action in strengthening young people's influence for change and their subjective and social well-being; and d) the need for more critical and empowering platforms and pathways that promote meaningful youth engagement and conscious power-sharing amongst youth and other stakeholders in society. Key recommendations emphasize multi-stakeholder partnerships with youth across political, academic, medical, civic and corporate spectrums to empower young people, especially higher education youth, to meaningfully contribute to future educational, developmental, and health agendas and strategies.\ud The study aligns its conceptual and methodological rationale through applying a critical interpretivist research approach which ensures an analytical, contextual, and in-depth understanding of such engagement in different countries. It is conducted in the Netherlands and South Africa, which historically have had distinct vulnerabilities and approaches to climate change and diverse pathways for youth engagement. Particular emphasis is placed on higher education youth who constitute the future leaders, informed decision makers, and active and innovative agents of society.\ud Fieldwork was undertaken throughout 2011, coinciding with the International Year of Youth and the COP17 international climate change conference. In each country, focus groups were conducted with university and college students from diverse socio-demographic and academic backgrounds. These focus groups sought depth and meaning through critical reflection, futures thinking, and a profound and interactive dialogic process. Qualitative interviews investigated more in-depth the emerging themes; whereas participant-observation, meetings with key informants, and document review promoted a comprehensive and valid understanding of the context in which such engagement is taking place.\ud Key findings reveal: a) the contextual power differentials that strongly shape youth efficacy and agency, especially personal demographic and academic backgrounds,
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • OVERVIEW OF THE CHAPTER ...................................................................... 1
    • CHAPTER 2. CLIMATE CHANGE AND YOUTH WELL-BEING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................................... 30
    • UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE CHANGE...................................................... 32 Scientific and Political Development and Key Reports.................................. 34 Main Impacts of Climate Change ................................................................... 40
    • YOUTH EMPOWERMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE .............................. 92 Youth Empowerment: Key Principles and Influencing Factors ..................... 94 Importance of Meaningful Youth Engagement and Empowerment for a Sustainable Future........................................................................................... 98
    • 2.2.3 Vulnerability and Response Strategies: Importance of Youth
    • Participation................................................................................................................... 51
    • UNDERSTANDING WELL-BEING ................................................................. 55 Definitions and Dimensions of Well-Being.................................................... 56 Importance of Exploring the Implications of Climate Change on Youth Well-Being...................................................................................................... 62
    • NETHERLANDS CONTEXT .......................................................................... 125 Climate Change Vulnerability in the Netherlands........................................ 127 Dutch Youth in A Changing Climate ........................................................... 135
    • 5.3 SOUTH AFRICA CONTEXT .......................................................................... 141 5.3.1 Environmental Context: Climate Change Vulnerability & Response Strategies.......................................................................................................................143 5.3.2 South African Youth in A Changing Climate............................................... 148
    • CONCEPTUAL RATIONALE GUIDING THE RESEARCH DESIGN .... 182
    • THE PILOT STUDY IN ZAMBIA .................................................................. 189
    • LIFESTYLE AND GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS ............................................ 235 Perceived Control Through Financial Means: Visions of Future Political Conflicts, Socio-Cultural Inequalities, and Long-Term Health Consequences.......................................................................................................................236 Perceived Control Through Technology: Visions of Transformations in Future Lifestyle and Governance Systems ................................................... 240 Visions of Lifestyle Changes................................................................. 244 Visions of Transformation in Future Governance................................. 250
    • 8.3.1.3 Educational Experiences: Understandings of Climate Change and Beliefs in Importance of Action.............................................................. 260 Social and Educational Systems Promote Individualistic Values and Disconnected Thinking, and Influence Meaning Associated to Individual Contributions: Participants Discuss Importance of Reshaping Society and Reforming Education .................................................................................... 261
    • 8.3.2.1 Current Social and Educational Systems............................................... 261 8.3.2.1.1 Individualistic and Materialistic Values: Reluctance to Change Lifestyle.............................................................................................. 262 8.3.2.1.2 Business-powered Governance: Insignificance/Intangibility of Individual Actions .............................................................................. 263 8.3.2.1.3 Influencing Factors............................................................................. 264
    • 8.3.2.2 Importance of Reshaping Society.......................................................... 267 8.3.2.2.1 Role of Education: Fostering Holistic and Critical Worldviews........ 268 8.3.2.2.2 Role of Society ................................................................................... 269
    • 8.3.2.3 Negative or Ambiguous Communication Approach: Influence on Perceived Efficacy .................................................................................. 272
    • 8.3.2.4 Social and Political Frames of Climate Change and Sustainability Issues: Shape Willingness to Participate and Perceived Efficiency and Contribution ............................................................................................ 275
    • AND POLITICAL STRUCTURES.................................................................. 282 Empowerment Through the Job: Is Current Education Enhancing Skills and Competencies? ....................................................................................... 282 Participants' Sense of Empowerment Enhanced Through Perceptions of Power Gained Through Their Jobs ..................................................... 282 Participants' Sense of Empowerment for Managing Future Career Transformations: Influence of Their Education and Learning................ 286 Empowerment Through Interpersonal Influences: Are There Adequate Academic and Socio-Cultural Spaces for Fostering Social Learning? ......... 290 Importance of interpersonal relationships and interactions: Influencing change in society towards sustainable practices .................. 291 Youth initiatives and innovations to create spaces for interpersonal and community influence........................................................................ 294 Socio-Cultural Challenges: Youth Initiatives Need Guidance and
    • Impact?.......................................................................................................... 305 Impeding Academic Structure Enhanced Through StudentAdministration Collaborations ................................................................ 306 Absence of Enabling Political Systems and Physical Infrastructures ... 308 Enhancing Youth Empowerment Through Spaces for Collaboration... 314
    • CHAPTER 9. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS .......................................................... 319
    • VULNERABILITY ............................................................................................ 320 Vulnerability, Perceived Control, and Lifestyle Changes ............................ 320 Ethical Concerns, Guilt, and Responsibility................................................. 328
    • DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS ON PARTICIPANTS' EFFICACY ............. 330 Personal and Educational Experiences, and Forms of Engagement ............. 330 Social and Educational Systems and Reshaping Society.............................. 333 Influence of Communication Approach on Participants' Engagement......... 339 Social and Political Frames and Trust in Government Influence Participants' Engagement .............................................................................. 341
    • CHAPTER 10. FINAL DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND REFLECTIONS............................................................................... 358
    • 10.2 YOUTH ENGAGEMENT WITH CLIMATE CHANGE AND WELLBEING: KEY FINDINGS ................................................................................. 360 10.2.1 To reduce their vulnerability, Youth need skills to function in a transforming society and an increasingly green economy: The role of educational and socio-political institutions................................................... 360
    • 10.4 FINAL REFLECTIONS ON CONTRIBUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................ 382
    • Figure 1: Main Features of Research Design .................................................................................................19
    • Figure 2: Main Areas of Contribution of the Study........................................................................................27
    • Figure 3: Conceptualizing Well-Being in this Study .......................................................................................72
    • Figure 4: Spectrum of Youth Engagement (Adapted from Khosroshahi & Corriero, 2006) ...........................82
    • Figure 5: Typology of Youth Engagement (Adapted from Sullivan, 2011) ....................................................83
    • Figure 6: Cycle of Youth Engagement (Adapted from Fletcher & Vavrus, 2006)...........................................84
    • Figure 7: Types of Environmental Action-Direct and Indirect........................................................................87
    • Figure 8: Spectrum of Public Participation (Adapted from IAP, 2007) ..........................................................90
    • Figure 9: Assets Approach to Youth Participation (Adapted from DFID, 2010) .............................................91
    • Figure 10: Non-hierarchal Forms of Participation (Adapted from Simovska, 2005) .....................................92
    • Figure 11: Example of Whole-systems Educational Programme.................................................................114
    • Figure 12: Examples of Youth Empowerment Initiatives on Climate Change and Sustainability ................117
    • Figure 13: Examples of Youth-Initiated and Youth-Led Endeavours on Climate Change and
    • Sustainability ...............................................................................................................................................118
    • Figure 14: State of the Netherlands on Climate Change .............................................................................135
    • Figure 15: Conceptual Framework for this Study ........................................................................................172
    • Figure 16: Main Phases of the Study ...........................................................................................................187
    • Figure 17: Data Interpretation and Analysis ...............................................................................................214
    • Figure 18: Key Themes on Participants' Perceptions of Vulnerability and Control......................................257
    • Figure 19: Key Themes on Participants' Self-Efficacy ..................................................................................281
    • Figure 20: Key Themes on Participants' Agency ..........................................................................................319
    • Table 1: Definitions and Dimensions of Well-Being Across the Literature ....................................................61
    • Table 2: Factors Influencing Youth Engagement and Participation ..............................................................96
    • Table 3: Core Components of ESD (Adapted from Tilbury & Mula, 2009) ...................................................107
    • Table 4: Examples of Dutch Youth Organizations and Initiatives Working on Climate Change and
    • Sustainability Issues ....................................................................................................................................141
    • Table 5: Key National Actors in South Africa on Climate Change Adaptation.............................................146
    • Table 6: Examples of South African Youth Organizations and Initiatives Working on Climate Change
    • and Sustainability Issues .............................................................................................................................153
    • Table 7: Managing Criticism of Critical Interpretivism ................................................................................179
    • Table 8: Addressing Potential Concerns of Thematic Data Analysis ...........................................................217
    • Table 9: Addressing Concerns to Quality and Valdity..................................................................................227
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