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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Sweetinburgh, S. (2016)
Publisher: Kent Archaeological Society
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: CC
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    • 9 their published works include: p. king, 'the york plays in performance: Civitas versus Templum', Medieval English Theatre, 22 (2005), 84-97; eadem,The York Mystery Cycle and the Worship of the City (Cambridge, 2006); M. Twycross, 'Some approaches to dramatic festivity, especiaplrloycessions', Festive Drama, ed. eadem (Cambridge, 1996), pp. 1-33.
    • 10 J.m. gibson, ed., Kent: Diocese of Canterbury, records of early english drama, vol. 1 (toronto and London, 2002), pp. 98-99; Canterbury Cathedral Archives and Library [hereafter CCAL]: CC/FA 2, fols 411-11v.
    • 11 among those who have discussed such issues see: r. Lutton, Lollardy and Orthodox Religion in Pre-Reformation England, The Royal Historical Society (Woodbridge, 2006); E.H. Shagan, Popular Politics and the English Reformation, Cambridge studies in early modern british history (Cambridge, 2003). Although somewhat older Peter Clark's work remains a valuablensgtaprotiint for a study of these issues; p. Clark, English Provincial Society from the Reformation to the Revolution: Religion, Politics and Society in Kent, 1500-1640 (Hassocks, 1977).
    • 12 For speciic considerations of pilgrimage, see R.C. FinucaMnier,acles and Pilgrims: Popular Beliefs in Medieval England, 2nd ed. (Basingstoke, 1995), chapters 11, 12; D. WebPb,ilgrimage in Medieval England (London and New York, 2000), chapter 10; S. Sweetinburgh, 'Pilgrimage in 'an Age of Plague': seeking Canterbury's 'hooly blissful martir' in 1420 and 14T7h0e',Fifteenth Century, XII, ed. L. Clark and C. Rawcliffe (Woodbridge, 2013), pp. 57-77.
    • 13 as well as those offering board, lodging, horse hire or catering, were men such as the badge maker (and candle maker) robert Lambe who bequeathed all his pins and several moulds to William Bote in 1518; Kent History and Library Centre [hereafter KHLC]: PRC 17/13, fol. 328. He had inherited the business from William his father a year earlier, receiving all his father's moulds, pans, casting ladles, and a frame on which to hang tapers; KHLC: PRC 17/13, fol. 28.
    • 14 gibson, Kent, p. xxx, citing the plea that Canterbury 'ys now of late in grete ruyne & decaye', in Statutes of the Realm, vol. 3 (London, 1817), p. 134.
    • 15 For an account of the preceding Jubilee in 1470; M. Connor, select., trans. & intJro.h,n Stone's Chronicle: Christ Church Priory, Canterbury, 1417-1472 (Kalamazoo, 2010), pp. 127-8.
    • 16 For an assessment of the cult's value to the priory over time; C.e. Woodruff, 'Financial aspects of the cult of st thomas of Canterbury', Archaeologia Cantiana, 44 (1932), 13-32.
    • 17 J. Zeigler, 'the survival of the cult of st thomas of Canterbury in the later middle ages' (unpubl. m.a. dissertation, University of Kent, 1997), pp. 31-2, 38-9; B. Dobson, 'Canterbury in the later middle ages', A History of Canterbury Cathedral, ed. p. Collinson, n. ramsey and m. sparks (Oxford, 1995), pp. 140, 149-50.
    • 18 J. Kermode, 'The greater towns 1300-1540', The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, 600- 1540, ed. D.M. Palliser (Cambridge, 2000), p. 444.
    • 19 Ibid., using igures from A. Dyer, 'Appendix: ranking lists of English medieval towCanms'-, bridge Urban History, ed. Palliser, pp. 760, 763.
    • 20 the author would like to thank dr Jonathan mackman for the use of his transcription of Canterbury's 1524 lay subsidy returns; The National Archives: E179-124-188.DDecyleirn,e and Growth in English Towns, p. 73.
    • 21 see urry's map of the city's liberty, comprising six wards, which he belie ved had probably been laid out in 1166; W. urry, Canterbury under the Angevin Kings (London, 1967), map 1(a).
    • 22 J. Bower, 'Kent towns, 1540-1640', Early Modern Kent, 1540-1640, ed. m. Zell (Woodbridge, 2000), p. 144; Gibson,Kent, p. xxix.
    • 23 d. keene, 'the south-east of england', Cambridge Urban History, ed. Palliser, pp. 573, 581.
    • 24 M. Connor, 'John Stone, monk of Christ Church, Canterbury and his chronicle, 1417-1472' (unpubl. m.phil. thesis, Royal Holloway, University of London, 2001), pp. 146, 147, 153, 154, 169, 186, 213-16, 240, 247, 263-4, 267.
    • 25 J. Hatcher, 'Mortality in the ifteenth century: some new evidenceE',conomic History Review, 2nd series 39 (1986), 19-38 (p. 36). See also: J. Connor, Profession and Death at Christ Church Priory, Canterbury, 1207-1534',Archaeologia Cantiana, 131 (2011), 282, 288, 289; and for a recent more general assessment of monastic mortality and its implications; r. smith, 'measuring adult Mortality in an Age of Plague: England, 1349-15T4o0w'n, and Countryside in the Age of the Black Death. Essays in Honour of John Hatcher, ed. M. Bailey and S.H. Rigby (Turnhout, 2012), pp. 48- 85.
    • 26 J.m. Cowper, ed., Intrantes: A List of Persons Admitted to Live and Trade within the City of Canterbury, 1392-1592 (Canterbury, 1904).
    • 27 According to Mate the state of the economy varied across the county, but problesmin the 1520s may have been countywide; M. Mate, 'The economy of Kent, 1220-1540',Later Medieval Kent, 1220-1540, ed. S. Sweetinburgh (Woodbridge, 2010), p. 24.
    • 28 harman Johnson, shoemaker, may have been one of the former, James holman one of the latter; Cowper, Intrantes.
    • 29 Dyer, 'Appendix', pp. 765, 768-9.
    • 30 J.C.k. Cornwall, Wealth and Society in Early Sixteenth Century England (London, 1988), pp. 54-64, 259; Dyer, Decline and Growth in English Towns, pp. 34, 42-3, 44.
    • 31 Cornwall, Wealth and Society, p. 29.
    • 32 KHLC: PRC 17/2, fol. 227.
    • 33 khLC: prC 32/6, fol. 26.
    • 34 s. sweetinburgh, 'kentish towns: urban culture and the Church in the later middle ages', Later Medieval Kent, ed. eadem, p. 145.
    • 35 Craftsmen such as tailors and cappers were still present but the weavers had disappeared; m. mate, Trade and Economic Developments, 1450-1550: the Experience of Kent, Surrey and Sussex (Woodbridge, 2006), p. 12.
    • 36 a.F. butcher, 'the social structure of Canterbury at the end of the fourteenth century' (unpubl., CCaL: pamphlet m/22/34).
    • 37 Historical Manuscript Commission 9th Report & Appendix [hereafterHMC 9], p. 174. CCAL: CC/aC 1, fol. 34.
    • 38 Leach, 'Stability and change', pp. 19-20.
    • 39 HMC 9, p. 174. Among these were the smiths and armourers; CCAL: CC/Woodruffs/54/9. regulations were also made regarding limitations placed on merchant strangers who wished to sell in the city; CCaL: CC/aC 1, fol. 33.
    • 40 s. sweetinburgh, The Role of the Hospital in Medieval England: Gift-giving and the Spiritual Economy (Dublin, 2004), pp. 118-19.
    • 41 mate, Trade, p. 37.
    • 42 CCAL: CC/FA 2; CC/FA 9; CC/FA 10; CC/FA 11.
    • 43 a.F. butcher, 'rent and the urban economy: oxford and Canterbury in the later middle ages', Southern History, 1 (1979), 39-40.
    • 44 Ibid., p. 41.
    • 45 Ibid., p. 42.
    • 46 mate, Trade, p. 126.
    • 47 CCaL: CC/a/a/36.
    • 48 Ibid; HMC 9, p. 145; CCAL: CC/AC 1, fol. 14; CC/FA 7, fol. 13.
    • 49 the mayor aided the three friaries towards paying for paving outside their precincts; CCaL: CC/Supp MS6, p. 90. William Andele was indicted for the state of the guttierdeouhtiss property in turnagenlane and Christopher prowde was before the courts for setting up a hedge in the king's highway outside St Michael's gate; CCAL: CC/J/Q/286; CC/J/Q/300.
    • 50 even rafe preston, the inn keeper at the great Cheker of the Hope, was not immune from such dificulties; CCAL: DCc/RE 16.
    • 51 Among those indicted in 1502 were the sexton at Christ Church for the state of Thurlwla Lane, thomas at Wode for encroaching four feet in the town ditch, and thomas stark for harbouring 'pokke people to the nuisance of his neighbours'; CCAL: CC/J/Q/302.
    • 52 W. Urry, 'The Jubilee of St. Thomas, 1420: billetting and rationing problems initfhteenth century', Canterbury Cathedral Chronicle, 42 (1947), 24. Woodruff, 'Financial aspects', pp. 23-4.
    • 53 even on the eve of the dissolution st thomas' shrine still ranked second in terms of offerings at english monastic houses behind our Lady of Walsingham; dobson, 'Canterbury', p. 136. Webb, Pilgrimage, pp. 251-2.
    • 54 Like his predecessors, the mayor provided accommodation for the king in the hale in the blean; CCAL: CC/FA 7, fols 26, 28. Zeigler, 'Survival of the cult', p. 35. Dobson, 'Canterbury', p. 141.
    • 55 Zeigler, 'survival of a cult', pp. 34-5.
    • 56 CCAL: Lit. MS C11, fols, 40-5.
    • 57 CCaL: CC/a/a/33; HMC 9, p. 146.
    • 58 C. Richmond, 'Fauconberg's Kentish rising of May 1471E',nglish Historical Review, 337 (1970), 673-92 (p. 685).
    • 59 CCAL: CC/A/A/38; A/A/40; A/A/44.
    • 60 Sweetinburgh, 'Placing the hospital', pp. 110-13.
    • 61 R. Warren, ''With rewt and ryott': urban conlict between Church and state inthi-fctenetury Canterbury' (forthcoming).
    • 62 CCAL: CC/FA 9, fols 42, 42v, 44, 44v.
    • 63 See n. 10.
    • 64 King, 'York plays in performance', pp. 84-97.
    • 65 the grocers paid the churchwardens at st andrew's church for wax tapers used about their pageant; C. Cotton, 'Churchwardens' accounts of the parish of st andrew, Canterbury, from a.d. 1485 to A.D. 1685: Part I:1509-1523',Archaeologia Cantiana, 33 (1918), 41.
    • 66 CCaL: CC/ab 1, fol. 6; gibson, Kent, p. 139.
    • 67 CCAL: Lit. MS C13, fol. 10; GibsonK, ent, pp. 144-5.
    • 68 CCAL: CC/FA 9, fol. 43v; GibsonK,ent, p. 102.
    • 69 KHLC: Sa/Fat 9. Rosser, 'Myth, image and social process', 22-3.
    • 70 CCaL: CC/ab 1, fols 5v- 6; gibson, Kent, p. 139.
    • 71 king, York Mystery Cycle, p. 10.
    • 72 CCaL: CC/Fa 2, fols 411-11v; gibson, Kent, pp. 98-9.
    • 73 CCAL: CC/FA 10, fol. 378; GibsonK,ent, p. 118.
    • 74 CCAL: CC/FA 10, fol. 139v; GibsonK,ent, p. 111.
    • 75 CCAL: CC/FA 9, fol. 155, 133v; GibsonK,ent, p. 106, 107.
    • 76 First recorded in 1514/15; CCAL: CC/FA 10, fol. 139v; GibsoKn,ent, p. 111.
    • 77 CCAL: CC/FA 10, fol. 378; GibsonK,ent, p. 118.
    • 78 CCAL: CC/FA 10, fol. 378; GibsonK,ent, p. 117, 118.
    • 79 CCAL: CC/FA 11, fol. 28-8v; GibsonK,ent, p. 123.
    • 80 J. stokes, 'staging wonders: ritual and space in the drama and ceremony of Lincoln Cathedral and its environs', Ritual and Space, ed. Andrews, pp. 198-9.
    • 81 a. Walsham, 'afterword', Pieties in Transition: Religious Practices and Experiences, c.1400- 1640, ed. R. Lutton and E. Salter (Basingstoke, 2007), pp. 188-9.
    • 82 king, York Mystery Cycle, p. 5.
    • 83 For the st bartholomew's day procession; khLC: sa/LC 1, fol. 15v; W. boys, Collections for an History of Sandwich in Kent, with Notices of the other Cinque Ports and Members and of Richborough (Canterbury, 1792), p. 17. For the Dover candle; P. Rowe, 'The Customary of the shrine of st thomas becket, a translation of the Customary with notes' (unpubl. m.a. dissertation, University of London, 1990), pp. 21-2.
    • 84 s. sweetinburgh, 'Wax, stone and iron: dover's town defences in the late middle ages', Archaeologia Cantiana, 124 (2004), 187-8.
    • 85 Stokes, 'Staging wonders', p. 207.
    • 86 rowe, 'Customary', p. 31.
    • 87 the fair was held within the cathedral precincts and seems to have become more lucrative because it was leased for 66s. 8d. a year in the 1530s, an annual increase of s2.68d. over the sums achieved in the 1470s; MateT,rade, pp. 36-7. This fair had been granted by Richard II in 1383 and was under the control of the sacrist at Christ Church, C.e. Woodruff, 'the sacrist's rol ls of Christ Church, Canterbury', Archaeologia Cantiana, 48 (1936), 40.
    • 88 CCaL: CC/a/b/1, fol. 6; gibson, Kent, pp. 139-40.
    • 89 in terms of objects, seals have been viewed as important symbols of civic identity; J. steane, The Archaeology of Power (Stroud, 2001), pp. 230-6. However seals were not the only artefacts and, as Christian Liddy has discussed, pictorial representations such as tapestries could function similarly,
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