Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ling, Fiona C.M.; Maxwell, J.; Masters, R.S.W.; McManus, A.M.; Polman, Remco C.J. (2015)
Languages: English
Types: Article
The propensity for movement-specific reinvestment (conscious attention to and control of body movements) is associated with disrupted movement in a variety of circumstances. Movement- specific reinvestment has been shown in adults but not in children, as a validated psychometric instrument for children does not exist. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a movement-specific reinvestment scale adapted specifically for Chinese children (MSRS-CC). Five hundred and thirty-two Chinese pre-adolescents aged 7–12 yrs completed the MSRS-CC and a sub-sample completed the questionnaire again three weeks later. Another sub-sample also completed the Coordination and Health subscales of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (short form; PSDQ-S). All questionnaires were completed during normal school days. A random half of sub-sample two completed the MSRS-CC before the PSDQ-S and the other half completed the questionnaires in reverse order. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated sound internal validity for the Scale’s two-factor model. Acceptable internal reliability and satisfactory test–retest reliability were evident. Convergent and discriminant validity with the Coordination and Health subscales of the PSDQ-S was also tested, but the former was unexpectedly low. Future research using objective measures of motor proficiency was recommended. The MSRS-CC is potentially a valuable tool for understanding movement control by children in research as well as in clinical and educational settings.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411-423.
    • Arbuckle, J. (2003). Amos 5. Chicago: Smallwaters Corporation.
    • Barnett, L. M., van Beurden, E., Morgan, P. J., Brooks, L. O., & Beard, J. R. (2009). Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 252-259.
    • Booth, M., Okely, A. D., Denney-Wilson, E., Hardy, L., Yang, B., & Dobbins, T. (2006). NSW schools phsycial activity and nutrition survey (SPANS) 2004 full report (No. SHPN 060056). Sydney, New South Wales: New South Wales Department of Health.
    • Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    • Byrne, B. M. (1994). Testing for the factorial validity, replication, and invariance of a measuring instrument: A paradigmatic application baed on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 29, 289-311.
    • Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
    • Cairney, J., Hay, J., Veldhuizen, S., & Faught, B. E. (2011). Trajectories of cardiorespiratory fitness in children with and without developmental coordination disorder: A longitudinal analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45(15), 1196-1201. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.069880
    • Capio, C. M., Poolton, J. M., Sit, C. H. P., Eguia, K. F., & Masters, R. S. W. (2013). Reduction of errors during practice facilitates fundamental movement skill learning in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57, 295-305.
    • Capio, C. M., Poolton, J. M., Sit, C. H., Holmstrom, M., & Masters, R. S. (2013). Reducing errors benefits the field-based learning of a fundamental movement skill in children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(2), 181-188.
    • Chang, S. H., & Yu, N. Y. (2010). Characterization of motor control in handwriting difficulties in children with or without developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 52 (3), 244-250.
    • Chell, B. J., Graydon, J. K., Crowley, P. L., & Child, M. (2003). Manipulated stress and dispositional reinvestment in a well-volley task: An investigation into controlled processing. Perceptual Motor Skills, 97 (2), 435-448.
    • Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 98-104.
    • Cremeens, J., Eiser, C., & Blades, M. (2006). Characteristics of health-related self-report measures for children aged three to eight years: A review of the literature. Quality of Life Research, 15, 739-754.
    • Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105(3), 399-412. doi:10. 1111/bjop.12046
    • Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, C. (2006). Nonnormal and categorical data in structural equation models. In G. F. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), A second course in structural equation modeling (pp. 269-314). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
    • Hands, B. (2008). Changes in motor skill and fitness measures among children with high and low motor competence: A five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11, 155-162.
    • Hardy, L. L., Reinten-Reynolds, T., Espinel, P., Zask, A., & Okely, A. D. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children. Pediatrics, 130(2), e390-e398. doi:10.1542/ peds.2012-0345
    • Harrell, J. S., Pearce, P. F., Markland, E. T., Wilson, K., Bradley, C. B., & McMurray, R. G. (2003). Assessing physical activity in adolescents: Common activities of children in 6th-8th grades. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 15, 170-178.
    • Hau, K. T., Sung, R. Y. T., Yu, C. C. W., Marsh, H. W., & Lau, P. W. C. (2005). Factorial structure and comparison between obese and non-obese Chinese children's physical self-concept. In H. W. Marsh, R. G. Craven, & D. M. McInerney (Eds.), New frontiers for self-research: International advances in self research (Vol. 2, pp. 257-278). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
    • Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
    • Jackson, R. C., Ashford, K., & Norsworthy, G. (2006). Attentional focus, dispositional reinvestment, and skilled motor performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28(1), 49-68.
    • Kleynen, M., Braun, S. M., Beurskens, A. J., Verbunt, J. A., de Bie, R. A., & Masters, R. S. (2013). Investigating the Dutch movement-specific reinvestment scale in people with stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 27(2), 160-165.
    • Kline, P. (1999). Handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
    • Kline, R. B. (2012). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
    • Larson, J. C., Mostofsky, S. H., Goldberg, M. C., Cutting, L. E., Denckla, M. B., & Mahone, E. M. (2007). Effects of gender and age on motor exam in typically developing children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 32(1), 543-562.
    • Ling, F. C. M., McManus, A. M., Masters, R. S. W., & Polman, R. C. J. (2014). How useful is the Rehearsal Scale for Children - Chinese in measuring emotional rehearsal in pre-adolescents of different ages? Southeast Asia Psychology Journal, 2, 1-19.
    • Lingam, R., Jongmans, M. J., Ellis, M., Hunt, L. P., Golding, J., & Emond, A. (2012). Mental health difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics, 129(4), e882-891. doi:10. 1542/peds.2011-1556
    • Malhotra, N., Poolton, J. M., Wilson, M. R., Ngo, K., & Masters, R. S. W. (2012). Conscious monitoring and control (reinvestment) in surgical performance under pressure. Surgical Endoscopy, 26(9), 2423-2429.
    • Marsh, H. W., Marco, I. T., & Abçý, F. H. (2002). Cross-cultural validity of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Comparison of factor structures in Australia, Spain, and Turkey. Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport, 73(3), 257-270.
    • Marsh, H. W., Martin, A. J., & Jackson, S. (2010). Introducing a short version of the Physical Self Description Questionnaire: New strategies, short-form evaluative criteria, and applications of factor analyses. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 438-482.
    • Marsh, H. W., Richards, G. E., Johnson, S., Roche, L., & Tremayne, P. (1994). Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Psychometric properties and a multitrait-multimethod analysis of relations to existing instruments. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16, 270-305.
    • Masters, R. S. W., Eves, F. F., & Maxwell, J. (2005, August). Development of a movement specific reinvestment scale. Paper presented at the ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology Sydney, Australia.
    • Masters, R. S. W., Hall, H. S., MacMahon, K. M. A., & Eves, F. F. (2007). Duration of Parkinson disease is associated with an increased propensity for "reinvestment". Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21 (2), 123-126.
    • Masters, R. S. W., & Maxwell, J. (2008). The theory of reinvestment. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(2), 160-183.
    • Masters, R. S. W., Polman, R. C. J., & Hammond, N. V. (1993). 'Reinvestment': A dimension of personality implicated in skill breakdown under pressure. Personality and Individual Differences, 14(5), 655-666.
    • Maxwell, J. P., Masters, R. S. W., & Hammond, J. (2008, July). Interactions between implicit/ explicit learning and fundamental movement ability in children. Paper presented at the 13th European College of Sports Science Annual congress, Estoril, Portugal.
    • Maxwell, J. P., Masters, R. S. W., & Poolton, J. (2006). Performance breakdown in sport: The roles of reinvestment and verbal knowledge. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(2), 271-276.
    • Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    • Orrell, A. J., Masters, R. S., & Eves, F. F. (2009). Reinvestment and movement disruption following stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 23(2), 177-183. doi: 10.1177/1545968308317752
    • Pang, A. W., & Fong, D. T. (2009). Fundamental motorl skill proficiency of Hong Kong children aged 6-9 years. Research in Sports Medicine, 17(3), 125-144.
    • Peens, A., Pienaar, A. E., & Nienaber, A. W. (2008). The effect of different intervention programmes on the self-concept and motor proficiency of 7- to 9-year-old children with DCD. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34(3), 316-328. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2007.00803
    • Piek, J. P., Baynam, G. B., & Barrett, N. C. (2006). The relationship between fine and gross motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science, 25(1), 65-75.
    • Portney, L.G., & Watkins, M.P. (2000). Foundations of clinical research: Applications to practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Health.
    • Pratt, M. L., & Hill, E. L. (2011). Anxiety profiles in children with and without developmental coordination disorder. Research in Nursing and Health, 32, 1253-1259.
    • Rivilis, I., Hay, J., Cairney, J., Klentrou, P., Liu, J., & Faught, B. E. (2011). Physical activity and fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder: A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 894-910.
    • Stevens, J. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. New York, NY: Routledge.
    • Streiner, D. L., & Norman, G. R. (2008). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use (4th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    • Thomas, J. R., & French, K. E. (1985). Gender differences across age in motor performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 260-282.
    • Tice, D.M., Buder, J., & Baumeister, R.F. (1985). Development of self-consciousness: At what age does audience pressure disrupt performance? Adolescence, 20(78), 301-305.
    • Weng, L.-J. (2004). Impact of the number of response categories and anchor labels on coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(6), 956-962.
    • Wang, T. N., Tseng, M. H., Wilson, B. N., & Hu, F. C. (2009). Functional performance of children with developmental coordination disorder at home and at school. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 51(10), 817-825. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03271.x
    • Wong, W. L., Masters, R. S., Maxwell, J. P., & Abernethy, A. B. (2008). Reinvestment and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22(4), 410-414. doi:10.1177/ 1545968307313510
    • Wrotniak, B. H., Epstein, L. H., Dorn, J. M., Jones, K. E., & Kondilis, V. A. (2006). The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 118(6), e1758-1765.
    • Zhu, F., Poolton, J., Wilson, M., Maxwell, J., & Masters, R. (2011). Neural co-activation as a yardstick of implicit motor learning and the propensity for conscious control of movement. Biological Psychology, 87(1), 66-73.
    • 1. I remember the times when my movements have failed me.a 就算是很輕微的動作錯誤, 你會否記著呢?
    • 2. If I see my reflection in a shop window, I will examine my movements.b 如果你在店舖櫥窗看到自己的倒影, 你會否仔細觀察自己的動作?
    • 3. I reflect about my movement a lot.a 你會否反思自己曾做過的動作?
    • 4. I try to think about my movements when I carry them out.a 做動作時, 你會否想著將要做的動作?
    • 5. I am self-consciousabout the way I look when I am moving.b 你會否很在意自己在做動作時的樣子?
    • 6. I sometimes have the feeling that I am watching myself move.b 你會否覺得在自己的腦子裡看到自己做的動作?
    • 7. I am aware of the way my body works when I am carrying out a movement.a 當做動作時, 你會否會留意到你想做的動作與做出來的動作是否一致?
    • 8. I am concerned about my style of moving.b 你會否留意自己做動作時的姿態?
    • 9. I try to figure out why my actions failed.a 你會否嘗試去找尋動作上出錯的原因?
    • 10. I am concerned about what people think about me when I am moving.b 做動作時, 你會否在意別人怎樣想你?
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article